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Anil Bhat, S. P. Singh
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Agricultural marketing covers the goods and services involved in moving an agricultural product from the producer to the consumer. Number of interrelated and interconnected activities are involved in doing this, such as production, growing and harvesting, grading, sorting, packing, transport, storage, agro-processing, distribution, advertising and sale. Marketing systems are dynamic; they are competitive and involved in continuous change and improvement. Businesses that have lower costs, are more efficient, and can deliver quality products, are those that prosper. Those that have high costs, fail to adapt to changes in market demand and provide poorer quality are often forced out of business. Marketing has to be customer-oriented and has to provide the farmer, transporter, trader, processor, etc. with a profit. This requires those involved in marketing chains to understand buyer requirements, both in terms of product and business conditions.

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Agricultural marketing covers the goods and services involved in moving an agricultural product from the producer to the consumer. Number of interrelated and interconnected activities are involved in doing this, such as production, growing and harvesting, grading, sorting, packing, transport, storage, agro-processing, distribution, advertising and sale. Marketing systems are dynamic; they are competitive and involved in continuous change and improvement. Businesses that have lower costs, are more efficient, and can deliver quality products, are those that prosper. Those that have high costs, fail to adapt to changes in market demand and provide poorer quality are often forced out of business. Marketing has to be customer-oriented and has to provide the farmer, transporter, trader, processor, etc. with a profit. This requires those involved in marketing chains to understand buyer requirements, both in terms of product and business conditions. In planned economic development programme, exchange of goods play a very important role in maintaining equilibrium between production and consumption. The marketing of agricultural products is becoming more important as created by the new world trade order under the WTO agreements. The small and resource poor cultivators have to face big world players for marketing their produce. The prosperity of the cultivators thus depends not only on the increased rate of production, but also upon the method and efficiency with which they dispose of their produce to the great advantage. It assumes special significance in the marketing of perishable commodities because very small portion of it is consumed by the farm families, therefore, farmers have more marketable surplus. Agricultural marketing policy in India has been characterized by State participation in production activities; State intervention in procurement and distribution of foodgrains; directing agricultural economy through regulatory mechanism such as licensing and control on movement, storage; creation of facilitating centres in the form of regulated markets; encouraging co-operative marketing; creation of supporting infrastructure like storage and warehousing; and construction of link roads, market information, marketing extension, etc. Current Agricultural marketing system in India is the outcome of several years of Government intervention. The system has undergone several changes over the last 60 years owing to the increased marketed surplus; increase in urbanization and income levels and consequent changes in the pattern of demand for marketing services; increase in linkages with distant and overseas markets; and changes in the form and degree of Government intervention. Actual buying and selling of commodities mainly takes place in market yards, sub-yards and Rural Periodic Markets spread throughout the country. There are in all 7,246 Regulated Markets in the country (as on 30.6 2011) and 21,238 Rural Periodic Markets, about 20 per cent of which, function under the ambit of regulation. In specialized farming the producers who are in a position to adjust their production to the demand, reap the maximum benefit of the market. If cultivators are unable to adjust their production to the demand of the market, there can be no appreciable improvement in their condition even if the output is better in quality and larger in quantity. Inspite of the partial failure to adjust the production on the farm to the demand of the market, the progressive farmers realize the importance of the study of the market. The element of time is an important factor in marketing of agricultural produce in general and fruits in particular. The marketing possibility of the perishable commodities like fruits depends very largely on the rapidity with which they can be transported to the market. An efficient system of marketing, however, would require many aspects like less number of intermediaries, nominal commission, loading/ unloading charges, minimum marketing cost besides the development of means of transport. Efficient marketing should be such that the produce should reach the consumer in good state without damage, with less cost and within a short time after the produce is harvested.

1 Trends and Pattern of Production and Export of Fruit Crops and Apple in India with Special Reference to Jammu and Kashmir
Naresh Singla, Fayaz Ahmad Beag and Mumtaz Ahmed

Introduction India possesses wide range of climatic and physio-geographical conditions, which are favourable for the production of various kinds of horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables, flowers, nuts, spices, plantation crops (coco nut, cashew nut and cocoa) etc. The production of fruits and vegetables (F&Vs) in India is 81.2 million tonnes and 162.2 million tonnes from an area of 6.9 million hectares and 9.2 million hectares respectively during 2012-13 (NHB, 2013).  India is the second largest producer of F&Vs in the world after China. India’s share in the world production of F&Vs is 11.84 per cent and 13.36 per cent respectively (Lagzi, 2013). The importance of horticultural sector can be gauged from the fact that the contribution of horticulture sector in agricultural gross domestic product (agri-GDP) stands at around 30 per cent (Economic Survey, 2013-14).

1 - 18 (18 Pages)
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2 Agricultural Marketing in Himachal Pradesh: Issues and Perspectives
R.S. Prasher, Seema Chandel and Subhash Sharma

Agricultural sector need efficient functioning of its markets to stimulate economic growth and incomes of the large rural population dependent on agriculture. More than three-fifths of India’s population draws their livelihood from agriculture that adds just one-fifth to its GDP. There should be obvious serious concerns about efficient functioning of this sector both in terms of its output / productivity and its marketing. While output and productivity are supply side factors, markets provide an intermediate link between producers and final demand by consumers. An efficient marketing system is pertinent for optimization of the resource use, output management, improving farm incomes, growth of agro -based industry and enhancing value addition. The efficient markets are also important for the stable consumer prices, higher returns to the farmers and reducing post harvest losses. Efficiently functioning markets add to welfare of producers as well as consumers. For markets to work efficiently it is pertinent to link the farm gate with retail outlets so as to reduce losses and marketing costs. However, it requires an institutional framework and infrastructure to prepare the produce in the form demanded by the consumers.

19 - 50 (32 Pages)
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3 Efficient Marketing of Annual Moringa in Tamil Nadu: An Economic Analysis
T. Rajendran

Abstract India is the prevalent prime producer of moringa [drumstick] with an annual production of 2.2 million tonnes of tender fruits from an area of 38,000 ha. Among the states, Andhra Pradesh leads in both area and production [15,665 ha] followed by Karnataka [10,280 ha] and Tamil Nadu [7,408 ha]. In other states, it occupies an area of 4,613 ha. Tamil Nadu is the pioneering state in so much as it has varied genotypes from diversified geographical areas, as well as introductions from Sir Lanka. Farmers found that growing moringa crops during summer season was remunerative. Thus, moringa gained a foothold as a summer vegetable. Its unique flavour and aroma became very popular. For South Indian any meal without moringa and pulses is considered incomplete. The demand for the moringa pod also increased due to increased urban settlements and migration of people to urban colonies. Based on the significance of moringa in the human diet this study might more viable with the specific objectives of to assessing the marketing strategies for promotion Periyakulam annual moringa seeds in Tamil Nadu.

51 - 58 (8 Pages)
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4 Production and Marketing of Marigold Flowers in Uttar Pradesh
A.K. Singh, H.L. Singh and D.V. Singh

Abstract In this paper we studied the economics of marigold flower in Eastern Uttar Pradish Floriculture has assumed a definite commercial status. Its potential as a viable agribusiness has also been recognized. Diverse agro-climatic conditions permit perennial production in one part of the country. This sector provides employment to millions. Floriculture was practiced only on small farms but now a few large ones have been set up. The collected information were analyzed and presented in tabular form. Making small size mala on small and large farms were higher than the large size mala. There return per Rupee of investment were estimated that the  1.66, 2.08 and  1.84, in the account of small size, large size farms and overall, respectively. The percentage of total marigold produce sale indifferent marketing channels indicated that 90 per cent produce sold in II marketing channel where as next 10 per cent marigold flowers sold directly to the consumer i.e. channel I. The retailer’s level the marigold flowers were sold to the consumers in different forms such as flower basket, bouquet and in other farms as demanded by the buyers. The marketing cost and marketing margin (Price spread) may differ from the channel to channel. The marketing cost and margins also depend upon the form in which the product reaches the ultimate consumers.

59 - 70 (12 Pages)
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5 Litchi Marketing Practices in Bihar
Ranvir Kumar & Suman Kalyani

In the recent years it has been increasingly realized that only increase in physical production of crops no longer guarantees the smooth development of agriculture at both the farm and the national economy levels unless and until it is linked with efficient system of marketing. As such, now a day in planning for agricultural development specially in developing economies marketing system had drawn much more attention than customarily assigned to it. Efficient marketing of agricultural commodities in general and fruits crops in particular plays an important role in safeguarding the interest of producer as well as consumer.

71 - 76 (6 Pages)
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6 Production and Marketing of Vegetable: Micro Level Evidence from Chhattisgarh, India
Hulas Pathak, Lokesh Satankar and Anil Bhat

Introduction India is the largest producer of vegetables in the world after China, contributes over 13% to world vegetable production and occupies first position in the production of cauliflower, second in onion and third in cabbage. Amongst vegetables, India is the largest producer of Ginger and Okra and ranks second in Potatoes production (10%), Onions, Cauliflowers, Brinjal, and Cabbages, etc. During 2012-13, India exported vegetables worth  1516.33 crores. The average productivity of vegetables in the country is 17.61 t/ha.

77 - 112 (36 Pages)
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7 Agro-Biodiversity: Issues, Analysis and Imperatives
Hulas Pathak, Manish Markanday and Anil Bhat

Introduction Our national food security depends on our ability to conserve all our biological wealth. Dr. M.S. Swaminathan (Biodiversity, Principle and Conservation, 2002) Variation is the law of the nature. It occurs everywhere and every moment. The variety and variability of organisms and ecosystem is referred to as biological diversity. Biodiversity is the most significant asset and constitutes enduring resources for supporting the continued existence of human societies. The agricultural biological diversity more commonly referred to as agro-biodiversity, has been fast emerging as a strong, evolutionary divergent line from the biodiversity, which deals with life form at large (Kumar and Asija , 2002). Agro-biodiversity is basic to the farming system.

113 - 138 (26 Pages)
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8 Production and Marketing of Marigold Flowers in  Bhaderwah Area of Doda District of Jammu Region
Arti Sharma

Abstract India, ranks first in marigold production among the loose flowers followed by chrysanthemum, jasmine and tuberose. Today, there is huge demand for natural colours of marigold, calendula, hibiscus, Petunia the international market.   A study on primary data was done to examine the production and marketing cost and profitability of marigold flowers. Data were collected through multistage sampling technique from farmers of Bhaderwah tehsil of Doda district in Jammu And Kashmir State.

139 - 150 (12 Pages)
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9 Aspects in Marketing of Mushrooms: Focus on Small Scale Growers
S.P. Singh, Manish Sharma, Pawan Kumar Sharma and Nimit Kumar

Introduction Mushrooms are very nutritious products that can be generated from lignocellulosic waste materials; and are in rich in crude fibrend protein. In fact, mushrooms also contain low fat, low calories and good vitamins. In addition, many mushrooms possess multi-functional medicinal properties. Edible mushrooms once called the “food of the gods” and still treated as a garnish or delicacy can be taken regularly as part of the human diet or be treated as healthy food or as functional food. The extractable products from medicinal mushrooms, designed to supplement the human diet not as regular food, but as the enhancement of health and fitness, can be classified into the category of dietary supplements/mushroom nutriceuticals (Chang and Buswell, 1996).

151 - 158 (8 Pages)
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10 Short Term Price Forecasting of Potato at Pre Harvest Stage in Uttar Pradesh
Rakesh Singh, Arpita Gangwar, Susheel Kumar Singh and P.K.Singh

Introduction Potato is the fourth most important food crop in India after rice, wheat and maize. India is second largest producer of the world after China having a production of more than 45 million tones. The major producers of potato  are Uttar Pradesh (14.43 million tones) followed by West Bengal (11.6 million tones) and Bihar (6.6 million tones) during 2012-13. In Uttar Pradesh during rabi 2013-14 the total production of potato is expected to be 46.2 million tones. The major potato producing districts in Uttar Pradesh are Agra, Farrukhabad, Firozabad, Hathras, Kannauj and Barabanki. Potato arrival is maximum in Farrukhabad, Kanpur and Varanasi  APMC Mandi and the highest arrival is in the month of march and lowest is in the month of October.

159 - 188 (30 Pages)
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11 Analysis of Structure and Price Fluctuations in Vegetable Marketing in Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India
Subhash Chand, Sharwn Singh and D. R. Singh

Introduction In recent past vegetable cultivation took enormous turn over because of increased population, inflow of tourists and increased per capita income in the Bay Islands as well as India. Population in these islands is increasing due to immigration of people from main land and the land area is limited.

189 - 200 (12 Pages)
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12 Agricultural Economics in Agribusiness and Marketing
A. K. Singh, H.L. Singh and S. P. Singh

Abstract This paper illustrates the summary of work by different groups on the potential for agribusiness and marketing research by agricultural economists over the past decade. Methodology to establish research priorities in agribusiness and marketing are reviewed. This review leads to a consideration of the agribusiness research issues including the funding sources, identifying users of agribusiness research, data needs, and limitations of agribusiness research programs. This paper also presents a potpourri of  suggested research initiatives in agribusiness research for agricultural economists. Research in these areas may be difficult for a number of reasons including, decreased reliance on economic theory as the soleparadigm, providing competitive advantage to a single agribusiness firm while balancing public and private needs, funding sources, and data confidentiality. Recommendations for outlets for academic research are presented.

201 - 208 (8 Pages)
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13 Diversification Through Floriculture in Kashmir Valley
Muneeb A. Wani, I.T. Nazki, Sheikh Mehraj, Neelofar, Ambreena Din, Shaziya Hassan and Quadri Javeed Ahmad Peer

Introduction Floriculture is the branch of horticulture concerning cultivation of flowering and ornamental plants for gardens and floristry. It includes cut flowers, cut greens, bedding plant, houseplants, flowering garden and pot plants etc. It is a fast growing industry. Urbanization and rising living standards of the people has lead to steady increase in demand of flowers and flower products making floriculture as one of the most important commercial trades in Agriculture. It has been found that commercial floriculture has higher potential per unit area than most of the field crops and is therefore a lucrative business.

209 - 234 (26 Pages)
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14 Fruit Production and Marketing in Jammu Region: A Potential Area of Citrus for Sustainable Livelihood
Anil Bhat, Jyoti Kachroo, Manish Kr. Sharma and Devinder Singh Jamwal

Introduction Marketing as we know plays an important role in the proper utilization of any crop irrespective of its type and variety. Unless and until producer is not able to market his crop efficiently, he will not get the remunerative price for his produce. For the past few years marketing part is getting more attention than production as giving 100 per cent to the production side only will not pay much to the farmers. Proper distribution of the product to its proper place where demand is more and that too in time is also important. Government is also encouraging the farmers for marketing of their produce in a right and effective manner. No doubt every crop is in need of efficient marketing but fruits because of more perishable in nature require advanced marketing facilities.

235 - 246 (12 Pages)
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15 Quality and Safety Issues in Agriculture
Nafees Ahmad, Nishi Sharma and S. P. Singh

In India farming was traditionally subsistence in nature but with the passage of time, the nature of farming has changed to commercialized system faming. With the commercialization of farming, price of the product along with its quality has become an important factor in marketing. Quality and safety issues have also gradually gained importance as people in general have become conscious and aware of the hygiene, health and safety issues related food and food products. Perishability of food items requires more emphasis on its quality and safety. The formal system of regulations in quality and safety standard has been mainly the contribution of the developed world. The International market has set a high standard of quality and safety of agriculture products. In the country the standardization of quality and safety of agricultural products has gained momentum in the last 10-15 years.

247 - 256 (10 Pages)
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16 Market Led Extension–Issues & Challenges for Extension Personnels
D.D. Sharma and Subhash Sharma

Indian agriculture – the back bone of our economy accounts for about 65 per cent of the country’s employment and 20 per cent the total export earnings. Despite a drastic increase in the food grains production during the last five decades, the profit margins of farmers particularly small and medium farmers has declined due to certain serious problems like declining water table, deterioration in soil health, outbreaks of new pests diseases and weeds, and environmental pollution etc. With the globalization of market, the farmers will have to change themselves from mere producers’ in the domestic markets to producer cum seller in a wider market sense in order to best realize the returns for his investments, risks and efforts. Now the focus should be on high quality produce, low cost of production and high productivity.

257 - 264 (8 Pages)
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17 Role of Advertising in Agricultural Marketing
Jasbir Singh Manhas and Rakesh Nanda

Meaning of Advertising According to Concise Oxford Dictionary, the word to advertise means to make generally or publicly with a view to increasing sales. The word ‘advertising’ is derived from the Latin word ‘advertese’ which means ‘to turn (the mind) to’. Advertising means providing adequate knowledge about some special product/service/idea to potential consumers so that they are stimulated to buy it. Adequate knowledge about a product means to let people know the name of the product, its function, size, price and place of its availability. The organizations providing service or idea give information regarding where, how and on what conditions their service or idea can be made available and how the same can be helpful to the people. Today is the age of competition. Consumers buy commodities after careful consideration. Under the circumstances, manufacturers are faced with the problem of how to motivate the consumers to buy their product. To find a solution to this problem, manufacturers make use of advertising.

265 - 280 (16 Pages)
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18 Marketing: Ensures the Customer Satisfaction for Sustainable Livelihood
Jasbir Singh Manhas and S. P. Singh

Meaning of Marketing Marketing is an important function of management. Marketing makes the economy strong. Production is meaningless unless the goods and services are exchanged for money. Marketing is related with movement of good from producer to consumer. Various people have defined marketing differently. A majority of people consider it as selling while some people prefer to call it shopping. Similarly, some people call it merchandising. All these meanings of marketing are partially correct. Marketing is the sum total of all those activities which move goods and services from the producers to the consumers.

281 - 292 (12 Pages)
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19 Agricultural Marketing and ICT : A Case Study of Jammu District
Tarunvir Singh

Introduction Agriculture, in most developing countries is the major industry. More than 50 percent of the labour is working in this sector and its industrial and commercial branches. In these countries, also more than 50 percent of the households‘ incomes are spent for low quality and value foods. Inefficiency of the agricultural products marketing system is the starting place of these problems.

293 - 304 (12 Pages)
₹147.00 ₹133.00 + Tax
20 Model APMC Act and Agricultural Marketing System in India
Pawan Kumar Sharma, Sudhakar Dwivedi and Magdeshwar Sharma

Introduction Agriculture is an important sector for countries like India, who have majority of its population, directly or indirectly depend upon agriculture. The sector which feeds the majority of population of any country needs special attention for its all round development. Marketing is such a crucial aspect related to agriculture that is probably not developed in any of such countries which largely depends upon agriculture. Underdeveloped and lack of resources are the main reasons behind the underdeveloped nature of agricultural marketing. In simple terms, agricultural marketing means the buying and selling of agricultural produce. The Indian council of Agricultural Research defined involvement of three important functions, namely assembling, preparation for consumption and distribution.

305 - 314 (10 Pages)
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21 Reforms in Agricultural Marketing System in Jammu & Kashmir State: An Overview
Sudhakar Dwivedi & Pawan Kumar Sharma

Introduction The National Commission on Agriculture defined agricultural marketing as a process which starts with a decision to produce a saleable farm commodity and it involves all aspects of market structure of system, both functional and institutional, based on technical and economic considerations and includes pre and post- harvest operations, assembling, grading, storage, transportation and distribution. The Indian council of Agricultural Research defined involvement of three important functions, namely (a) assembling (concentration) (b) preparation for consumption (processing) and (c) distribution.

315 - 320 (6 Pages)
₹147.00 ₹133.00 + Tax
22 Rural Marketing and its Future Prospects
H.L. Singh, A.K. Singh and Mayuri Shukla

In the recent years, rural markets have acquired significance in developing countries like India and China, as well as the overall growth of the economy has resulted into substantial increase in the purchasing power of the rural communities. On account of technological change during 1966-67, rural areas are consuming a large quantity of industrial and urban manufactured products. In this context, a special marketing strategy i.e. rural marketing has taken place. Sometimes, rural marketing is mystified with agricultural marketing the later denotes marketing of agricultural commodities of the rural areas to the urban consumers or industrial consumers, whereas rural marketing involves delivering manufactured or processed inputs or services to rural producers or consumers or rural marketing determines the carrying out of business activities bringing in the flow of goods from urban sectors to the rural regions of the country as well as the marketing of various products manufactured by the non-agricultural workers from rural to urban areas. Also, when we consider the situation of developing countries, there is a picture that comes out, huge market for the development products as well as the labour support.

321 - 332 (12 Pages)
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23 Employment and Unemployment Scenario in Labour Market in India
Anil Kumar Singh, S. P. Singh and Harminder Singh

Introduction Labour markets, poverty and inequality in the growth process   The theoretical discussion on the changes in the incidence of poverty and inequality in the growth process of agrarian economies from low levels of income has been a major topic in development economics. The impact of growth is delineated through the labour market, and any predictions about the impact on poverty and inequality must be based on some implicit or explicit view of the structure of labour markets and their functioning.

333 - 360 (28 Pages)
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24 Agricultural Value Chain
Sanjiv Kumar, Subodh Agarwal and Rakesh Sharma

Introduction The term value chain was first used and popularized by Michael Porter in his book “Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance” in 1985. The value chain concept separates useful activities which allow the company as a whole to gain competitive advantage from the wasteful activities (which hinder the company from getting a lead in the market). Focusing on the value-creating activities could give the company many advantages. For example, the ability to charge higher prices; lower cost of manufacture; better brand image, faster response to threats or opportunities.

361 - 368 (8 Pages)
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25 Prospects and Scope of Underutilized Fruit Crops in Kashmir Valley
Quadri Javeed Ahmad Peer, Shaziya Hassan, Sheikh Mehraj and Qurtulane

Introduction Agriculture is the backbone of Indian economy and helps the system as a whole for socio-economy development of the country. Despite 51 per cent of arable land of total geographical area and about 100 million hectares of potential irrigated area, the highest for any country in the world, unfortunately the contribution of agriculture to the grass domestic product is as low as 22 per cent. India is endowed with a wide spectrum of agro climatic conditions and a large variety of fruit crops ranging from tropical, sub­tropical and temperate are grown. In India, the area under fruit crops is 3.5 Mha with a production 45MT which accounts 9.6 % of total worlds production and ranks 2nd in fruit production (Anon., 2005). The country has become self-sufficient in food grains production, second largest producer of fruits and vegetables, but still the per capita consumption per day is hardly of the order of 70 g for fruits and 140 g for vegetables.

369 - 394 (26 Pages)
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26 Corporate Social Responsibility and Agribusiness Management
Shelleka Gupta

Organizations Indebtedness Towards Society The organizations in the present world operate as an open system by having ongoing interactions with the society for their existence and effective functioning. There is an interdependence between corporations and societies and as such, company’s activities have a direct impact on the communities with which they work.  As a part of such interactions, the organizations use valuable resources of the society, for producing goods and services, which are exchanged with the customers for a profit margin. Due to these exchanges, the business organizations take away the profits reflecting the debt they owe to the society and the world.

395 - 402 (8 Pages)
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27 Survey Sampling for Assessing Externalities in Agriculture and Policy Planning
Manish Sharma, Pawan Kumar Sharma, Banti Kumar and M. Iqbal Jeelani Bhat

Introduction Survey sampling is a method of drawing inference about the characteristics of a population by securing a sample. Sample survey techniques are extensively used by government bodies throughout the world and researchers for assessing, for planning and for projection future economy.In a sample survey, the final step of the analysis and drawing inferences from a sample to a population is a very vital and fascinating issue. Since the results of the survey are the basis for policy making, it is the most essential part of the sample survey and should be handled carefully.The object of designing a sample survey is to minimize the error in the final estimates. Any survey involving data collection and analysis of the data is subject to a variety of errors. The errors may be classified into two groups viz., (i) non-sampling errors (ii) sampling errors.

403 - 420 (18 Pages)
₹147.00 ₹133.00 + Tax
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