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MECHANIZATION OF CULTIVATED CROPS

Surendra Singh, Gursahib Singh Manes, Anoop Kumar Dixit
  • Country of Origin:

  • Imprint:

    NIPA

  • eISBN:

    9788194281535

  • Binding:

    EBook

  • Number Of Pages:

    308

  • Language:

    English

Individual Price: ₹ 2,650.00 ₹ 2,385.00 + Tax

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The application of machines and better power sources to enhance agricultural production has been one of the most significant developments in agriculture. Mechanization of agriculture is needed for development and optimal utilization of natural resources leading to higher productivity and reduced cost of production for greater profitability, economic competitiveness and sustainability. Mechanization also imparts capacity to the farmers to carry out farm operations with dignity, comfort and freedom from drudgery, making the farming agreeable vocation for educated youth as well. It helps the farmers to achieve timeliness in farm operations and apply costly input with reduced quantity for better efficacy and efficiency. Small and marginal farmers can now make use of high capacity agricultural machines on custom hire basis. The results of this development can be seen in many aspects such as increase in productivity and production per worker, precision in application of crop inputs, increase in cropping intensity due to timeliness of operations, increase in the quality of produce, reduction in grain losses and increase in farm employment. Mechanization is particularly advantageous when it can minimize a high peak labour demand that occurs over a relatively short period of time each year. Mechanization also encourages better management of farm inputs, improvement in working conditions and performance of jobs that would otherwise be difficult by hand. It also helps in reducing the cost of production. This book ‘Mechanization of Cultivated Crops’ covers the farm tools and equipment used in different operations such as land development, tillage, seeding/planting, interculture, fertilizer application, plant protection, harvesting and threshing and residue management. The book can be referred as a textbook for the under graduate students of agriculture and under graduate and post graduate students of agricultural engineering.

0 Start Pages

Preface   The first requirement of a farm machine is that it should be able to perform its intended function satisfactorily. The application of machines and better power sources to enhance agricultural production has been one of the most significant developments in world agriculture during the twentieth century. The results of this development can be seen in many aspects such as reduction in burden and drudgery of farm work and worker, increase in productivity and production per worker, precision in application of crop inputs, increase in cropping intensity due to timeliness of operations, increase in the quality of produce, reduction in grain losses and increase in farm employment. Mechanization is particularly advantageous when it can minimize a high peak labour demand that occurs over a relatively short period of time each year. Mechanization also encourages better management of farm inputs, improvement in working conditions and performance of jobs that would otherwise be difficult by hand. It also helps in reducing the cost of production. This book ‘ Mechanization of Cultivated Crops’ covers the farm tools and equipment used in different operations such as land development, tillage, seeding/planting, interculture, fertilizer application, plant protection, harvesting and threshing and residue management. List of literature cited has been given at the end of the each chapter for the easy reference of the readers. This book has been designed as a textbook for the students of Farm Machinery at graduate and under Graduate levels. This book will also be helpful to the under graduate students of agriculture.

 
1 Introduction

The Indian agriculture is characterized by agro-ecological diversities in soil, rainfall, temperature and cropping system. Besides favorable solar energy, the country receives about three trillion cubic meter of water from rainfall. Of the total geographical area of 329 million hectares the net sown area has remained at about 140-142 million hectares during the last 40 years. The gross cropped area however has increased to about 200 million hectare in 2011-2012 (Anonymous, 2013). The total operational holding is estimated at 105 million with average size of the holdings of 1.6 ha. The Indian agriculture is not only characterized by small fragmented land, but also hill farming and shifting cultivation are also practiced. Out of an estimated 142 m ha net cultivated area around 40% is irrigated and rest is rain fed. About 65% of the population depend upon agriculture for their livelihood.

1 - 8 (8 Pages)
₹295.00 ₹266.00 + Tax
 
2 Land Leveling Equipment

Introduction The work on field drains and farm ditches are essential for providing proper irrigation to the crop. Leveling of field is equally important for smooth operation of various field activities including irrigation. Land grading in irrigated agriculture helps in uniform application of water, better water regulation and saving in irrigation time. Land grading helps in conservation of soil and moisture under rainfed conditions. It provides desired surface drainage under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Land leveling helps in the smooth operation of sowing/planting and harvesting equipment.

9 - 20 (12 Pages)
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3 Tillage Equipment

Tillage operations are the basic operation, which need to be performed at proper moisture and temperature condition (climatic factor) to attain high degree of germination and better plant growth. Tillage may be defined as mechanical manipulation of soil for the purpose of germination and plant growth but it also does the followings:

21 - 52 (32 Pages)
₹295.00 ₹266.00 + Tax
 
4 Seeding, Planting and Transplanting Machinery

The seed drills and planters developed and manufactured in advanced countries are designed to meet the requirements of farmers for the different crops and agro-climatic conditions. These machines are capable of operating at high working speed, cover the large area per unit time and provide the desired plant emergence and stand in the fields. The machines are available to handle the seeds of cereals, pulses, oil seeds and other crops widely grown in the developed countries. In developing countries even though these machines can be made available but they are beyond the reach of small farmers. The level of mechanization of sowing and planting is at a very low level.

53 - 126 (74 Pages)
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5 Interculture and Weeding Equipment

Weeds are a serious menace and these reduce the quality and yield of crops substantially. Chemical as well as mechanical methods are being used to control the weeds. The weeding was traditionally done by “khurpa” up to mid 60s. This tool requires its operation in a sitting posture, which reduces the work rate. The use of long handled tools like “kasola” became popular because these allowed their operation in a standing posture, which increases the mobility and thus the work rate. Weeder is a mechanical device to remove the weeds (unwanted plants) from the cultivated crop. A wide variety of weeders are used in the countries, which may be categorized in three groups viz. manual weeder, animal or tractor drawn weeder and power weeder or self-propelled rotary weeder (Singh, 2007; Pandey et al., 1997; Pandey and Ganesan, 2005).

127 - 142 (16 Pages)
₹295.00 ₹266.00 + Tax
 
6 Fertilizer Application Equipment

Fertilizers are required where soils are deficient in plant food elements. When land is planted to crops over a long period of time, the plant food elements slowly get reduced and productivity of crop goes down. Sandy soil looses plant food elements rapidly because heavy rainfall or application of irrigation water leaches these elements out from the soil. Adding chemical fertilizer increases fertility of soil. Principally nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium are added to the soil to promote greater yields. Uniform distribution and proper placement of fertilizer in the soil have become increasingly important factor in providing maximum crop response at minimum cost. Placing the fertilizer near the seeds at the time of sowing results in more effective utilization of nutrients. In the row crops side dressing of fertilizer is done which has immediate benefit when placed in the moist soil within the root zone.

143 - 160 (18 Pages)
₹295.00 ₹266.00 + Tax
 
7 Plant Protection Equipment

The application of agricultural chemicals for control of insects, pests, fungi, weeds and plant diseases plays an important role in crop production. Before 1980 few chemicals were known for control of plant pests.  The chemical pesticides have played an important role in the rapid advancement of agricultural production. Chemical pesticides are getting popular due to non availability of labours especially for weeding operation during kharif season. The chemical pesticides and herbicides are applied with the help of different types of sprayers and dusters.

161 - 184 (24 Pages)
₹295.00 ₹266.00 + Tax
 
8 Harvesting and Threshing Equipment

Harvesting and threshing are the key most important operations in the entire range of field operations required in any crop production system. Both of these operations remain still the most important operations as fruit of labour depends upon them. Crops are harvested after normal maturity with the objective to take out grain, straw, tubers etc without much loss.  It involves cutting / digging/ picking, laying, gathering, curing, transport and stacking of the crop.  Harvesting of major cereals, pulse and oilseed crops are done by using sickle whereas tuber crops are harvested by country plough or spade (Fig. 8.1).

185 - 284 (100 Pages)
₹295.00 ₹266.00 + Tax
 
9 Straw Management Equipment

Management of paddy straw is one of the important problems being faced by the farmers. Burning of rice straw in the field is the traditional method being practiced by most of the farmers, which causes atmospheric pollution and nutrient loss. There are three options available to manage the straw viz. i) burning the straw in the field, ii) collecting/baling the straw from the field, and incorporation of straw in the field. If rice straw is not burnt then baling may provide an attractive economic environmentally safe option. Manual collection of paddy straw is a laborious job and also storing the large volume of straw is another problem. As for as paddy straw is concerned, it has higher silica content so animals do not prefer it.

285 - 300 (16 Pages)
₹295.00 ₹266.00 + Tax
 
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