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P.C. Tripathi
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The information compiled in the form of this book will serve as a source of valuable information on the wild edible fruits of India along with their nutritional, medicinal and other uses. Considering the importance of these fruits and their declining genetic resources, necessary protection and conservation measures can be adopted to protect them from extinction and retain the ecosystem for their survival.

0 Start Pages

Preface Wild edible fruits have played a significantly vital part in supplementing the diet of people since ancient times. Many people in tribal areas still use them as a supplement of their basic needs of food. The dependence on these fruits has gradually decline as more exotic fruits have been introduced. These wild fruits are rich in terms of protein, carbohydrate, fat, and minerals and energy and highly useful in treating deficiency diseases. These are potential source of various compounds and used in folk medicines. Wild fruits are mostly eaten raw and few are consumed in processed or cooked forms by the local inhabitants. These are rich source nutrients but they have not yet been considered as a source of alternative food products. Many of these wild fruits have phytochemicals of unique medicinal importance that demands requisite attention and investigation for their conservation and popularization. A few species are commercially utilised, however, a vast reservoir of wild edible fruit species remain relatively unexplored and exist in wild form. Indian region is an important centre of origin and diversity of edible plants. It is floristically extremely rich with over 15,000 species of higher plants. There are about 141 endemic genera distributed over 47 families. There are about 4,900 endemic species localised in the Himalayas (about 2,532 species) the peninsular tract (1,788 species), and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (185 species). There are more than 300 species of wild fruits are reported from different plant diversity areas of the country. These are used by the the local population either as fresh fruits or cooked or processed. These local fruits not only serve as sources of food and nutrition but also serve as source of livelihood for local and tribal people. The little and scattered knowledge of these wild fruits species is available. Thus an effort was made to compile the information on some of the wild fruits. The information compiled in the form of this book will serve as a source of valuable information on the wild edible fruits of India along with their nutritional, medicinal and other uses. Considering the importance of these fruits and their declining genetic resources, necessary protection and conservation measures can be adopted to protect them from extinction and retain the ecosystem for their survival. Moreover, cautious exploration of these species would also offer new and lucrative income sources for rural and forest dwellers.

1 Introduction

India has a total geographical area of about 329 million hectares which represents about 2.4% of the world’s total landmass but it harbours a total of 47,513 plant species. Out of about 0.4 million species known in the world, it represent as much as 11.4% of world flora. About 28% of plants that occur in India are endemic to the country. The ecological or ecosystem diversity of the country is enormous, ranging from sea level to the highest mountainous ranges in the world, hot and arid conditions in the northwest to cold arid conditions in the trans-Himalayan region, tropical wet evergreen forests in Northeast India and the Western Ghats and mangroves of Sundarbans.

1 - 2 (2 Pages)
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2 Aesculus Indica

1. Botanical Name : Aesculus indica Colebr 2. Family : Sapindaceae 3. Common Name : Himalayan horse chestnut 4. Name in Indian languages: Khanor, Bankhor, Tatwakhar (Himachali), Bankhor, Kanor, (Hindi), Kakra, Hanudun (Kashmir), Kanur, Gun, Khanor (Punjabi). Pangar (Kumoani), Ghode Pangro(Nepali). 5. Description Aesculus indica or Himalayan horse chestnut, is a spectacular tree with pinkish white blossoms. It is found growing in the Himalayan forests between 2,000 and 3,000 metres msl. It is an attractive tree, bearing beautiful, multi coloured blossoms during May and June. The leaves are also ornamental and form a beautiful canopy. The tree, therefore, is becoming popular as an avenue tree. The tree yield s which are eaten by the people.

3 - 6 (4 Pages)
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3 Alangium Salvifolium

1. Botanical Name : Alangium salviifolium(L.F.) Wangerin 2. Family : Cornaceae 3. Common Name : Sage-leaved alangium 4. Name in Indian languages: Akola or Ankol (Hindi), Gandhapushpa (Sanskrit), Ankol (Marathi), Ankol (Gujarati), Ankod (Bengali), Ankolam (Malayalam), Ankola (Kannada), Alanji (Tamil). 5. Description Sage-leaved alangium (Alangium salvifolium) is a small, bushy tree with a medium dense canopy. It has several medicinal properties. The roots, bark, fruit seeds and oils are used for treatments. The useful in stomach related disorders. The plants are short to medium in height. The trunks are short with sparse thorns.

7 - 10 (4 Pages)
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4 Allophylus serratus

1. Botanical Name : Allophylus serratus (Roxb.)Kurz 2. Family : Sapindaceae 3. Common Name : Tippani 4. Name in Indian languages: Lavate pan (Kodwa), Tippani (Hindi), Sidisale (Kannada), Mukkanamperu (Malayalam), Memdri (Marathi), Amalai (Tamil), Eravalu (telugu), Trputah (Sanskrit). 5. Description It is an evergreen, low branching small tree or a large shrub about 3-6m tall. Trunk is straight with open canopy. The outer pulp and some time seeds are consumed in fresh state. It is frequently notice in degraded forest areas in Western Ghats. It is known to possess various therapeutic properties.

11 - 12 (2 Pages)
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5 Antidesma acidum

1. Botanical name : Antidesma acidum Ritz. 2. Family : Phyllanthaceae 3. Common Name : Antidesma 4. Name in Indian languages : Amati (Marathi), Himalcherry (Hindi), Kareekome (Kannada), Airyoporiyan (Malayalam), Aanepooi (Telugu), Nolaidali (Tamil). 5. Description Antidesma acidum is a shrub or a tree growing up to 10 metres tall. The bole, which usually branches from near the base, can be 10cm in diameter. It is found in dry deciduous, deciduous and evergreen forest at forest edges or in open spaces and bamboo thickets; or half-shady habitats associated with dipterocarps, pine, oak. It is often disturbed, much degraded or frequently burnt vegetation.

13 - 16 (4 Pages)
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6 Aporosa lindleyana

1. Botanical Name : Aporosa lindleyana (Wt) Baill. 2. Family : Euphorbiaceae 3. Common Name : Lindley’s Aporosa 4. Name in Indian languages: Yechi pan (Kodwa), Salle mara, Sali, Sarali, Sulla (Kannada), Kodali, Kotili, Ponvetti, Vetti, Vittil (Malayalam), Kodali, Vettikan, Vettil, Vittil, Vitti (Tamil),Valaka (Sanskrit). 5. Description It is tree, belongs to Euphorbiaceae family which grow up to 15 m height. Tree bark is smooth to shallowly fissured, brownish; blaze pink. Leaves are simple, alternate, oblong-lanceolate, acute, 7.5-17 cm long. Flowers unisexual, dioecious; male flowers in axillary catkins; female flowers in condensed cymes.

17 - 18 (2 Pages)
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7 Ardisia solanacea

1. Botanical name : Ardisia solanacea Roxb. 2. Family : Myrsinaceae 3. Common Name : Shoebutton Ardisia, duck’s eye 4. Name in Indian languages Bisi (Hindi), Kadna, Katapenga, Bugadi, Dikna, nilbedsi (Marathi), Manipudbam, Kozhikkottai, Narikandam (Tamil), Kaka-njara(Malayalam), Bodhina gida, Shuli, Bode, Sore(Kannada), Banjam(Bengali), Damaai Phal (Nepali), Tinkoli (Oriya).

19 - 20 (2 Pages)
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8 Artocarpus hirsutus

1. Botanical Name : Artocarpus hirsutus L. 2. Family : Moraceae 3. Common Name: Wild jackfruit 4. Name in Indian languages : Hebbalasu (Kannada), Anjili (Malayalam), Aiyinipila (Tamil). 5. Description Artocarpus hirsutus is a tropical evergreen tree species. It prefers moist, deciduous to partially evergreen woodlands. It grows in altitudes ranging from sea level to an elevation of 1000 m. The height of tree can reach up to 35 m and about 4.5 m in girth. The main stem is straight and cylindrical. It is used as shade tree in coffee plantations. The seeds (with 17% oil) are eaten or used medicinally. It grows best in areas where annual daytime temperatures are within the range 22 - 32°C. It prefers a mean annual rainfall in the range 2,500 - 3,500 mm. Older plants succeed in full sun or moderate shade, but younger trees require reasonable levels of shade. It is fast growing species with deep tap root.

21 - 24 (4 Pages)
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9 Artocarpus lacucha

1. Botanical Name: Artocarpus lacucha Buch- Ham. 2. Family: Moraceae 3. Common Name: Monkey Jack, Lakoocha 4. Name in Indian languages Lakuch, Lakooch, Lakoochi, Barhal, Dahu, Dahua (Hindi), Badhar, Kshudraphanas (Marathi), Ilagusam, Irappala, Solaippakku, Tinippalavu (Tamil), Chimpa, Lakucham, Pulinjakka (Malayalam), Esuluhuli, Lakucha, Otehuli, Vatehuli (Kannada), Dephal, Dahu (Bengali), Lakoocha (Oriya), Dridhavalkala, Granthimatphala (Sanskrit), Badhar (Nepali).

25 - 28 (4 Pages)
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10 Baccaurea ramiflora

1. Botanical Name : Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. 2. Family : Phyllanthaceae 3. Common Name : Burmese Grape 4. Name in Indian languages Sohramdieng (Khasi) and Sohmyndong (Pnar), Khatta phal (Hindi), Moktok (Manipuri), Bhubi, Iphek (Tripura)

29 - 32 (4 Pages)
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11 Baccaurea courtalensis

1. Botanical name : Baccaurea courtalensis (Wt.) Muell. 2. Family : Euphorbiaceae 3. Common Name : Burmese grape, Mootapalam 4. Name in Indian languages : Mootilpazham, Mootilthoori, Mootippuli (Malayalam), Kolikuki (Kannada). 5. Description Baccaurea courtalensis is a trees of tropical evergreen forests of the southern Western Ghats. It is an endangered tree. The tree bears tiny crimson flowers on long stalks growing on the trunk of the tree (cauliflory). These stalks are arranged in clusters on the trunk. When in bloom the whole trunk appears red and is a beautiful sight. Fruits hang in clusters from the trunk of the tree. A tall tree produces cauliflory inflorescence. The flowers are unisexual, dioecious, male inflorescence in clustered racemes on short tubercles all over the trunk, red, female inflorescence in clustered racemes, mostly confined to base of the trunk, hence its named Mootapalam.

33 - 36 (4 Pages)
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12 Balanites aegyptiaca

1. Botanical Name : Balanites aegyptiaca (Linn.) 2. Family : Zygophyllaceae 3. Common Name : Desert Date, soap berry tree 4. Name in Indian languages Hingot (Hindi), Ingala, Ingalarade, Ingalare (Kannada), Namunta, Nanchunta (Malayalam), Hingalbet, Hingam (Marathi), Tapasadruma, Angaravrksa (Sanskrit), Nanchundan, Nancuntan (Tamil), Gara, Gara-Chettu(Telugu).

37 - 40 (4 Pages)
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13 Berberis aristata

1. Botanical name : Berberis aristata DC 2. Family : Berberidaceae 3. Common Name : Indian barberry 4. Name in Indian languages Darhaldi (Bengali), Kilmora (Kumaoni), Daru-haldi (Hindi), Maradarisina, Maramanjal (Malyalam), Daruhald (Marathi), Chitra, Chutro (Nepali), Mullukala, Usikkala (Tamil), Daruharidra (Sanskrit).

41 - 44 (4 Pages)
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14 Borassus flabellifer

1. Botanical Name : Borassus flabellifer L 2. Family : Palmae (araeceae) 3. Common Name : Mukkana, Palmyra Palm, toddy palm 4. Name in Indian languages Taad, Tal, Trinaraaj (Hindi), Taad (Marathi), Talam (Tamil), Karimpana (Malayalam), Tatichettu (Telugu), Olegari, Taalegari, Taatinimgu (Kannada), Taala (Bengali), Sanskrit: Taalah

45 - 48 (4 Pages)
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15 Buchanania lanzan

1. Botanical name: Buchanania lanzan spreng. 2. Family: Anacardiaceae 3. Common Name: Cuddapah almond , Chironji 4. Name in Indian languages: Chironji (Hindi), Piyal (Assami), Chironji (Bengali), Kole Maavu (Kannada), Charam (Tamil), Mungapera (Malayalam). 5. Description It is an excellent fruit tree for agro forestry and social forestry. This species is found in dry deciduous forest throughout the country excluding eastern Himalayan forests . The flesh of ripe fruit is very palatable and is largely eaten raw or roasted and the oily kernels are the most important part and are used in preparation of puddings. Mesocarp of fruit is edible and cherished by children. Very good juice may be prepared from the pulp of chironji fruits.

49 - 52 (4 Pages)
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16 Calligonum polygonoides

1. Botanical name : Calligonum polygonoides L. 2. Family : Polygonaceae 3. Common Name : Phog 4. Name in Indian languages: Phog (Hindi), Phog(Punjabi), Balanja, Berwaja (Afghanistan). 5. Description Phog (Calligonum polygonoides L.) is a under-utilized shrub, dominantly found in arid and semi-arid region of Thar Desert. It is a typical sand dune plant, found in whole of arid zone. It is a slow growing, branching shrub. It has a massive network of underground root which works as effective ‘sand binder’ and thus preventing erosion and stabilizing sand dunes. It grows well in absence of any type of vegetation and dominant biomass producer of the sandy areas of the desert. It is very hardy and being capable of growing under adverse conditions of soil and moisture. It is frost hardy. It is becoming increasingly rare due to the demand for its roots, overgrazing and sand mining.

53 - 56 (4 Pages)
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17 Canthium dicoccum var. umbellatum syn. pelectronia parviflora

1. Botanical Name : Canthium dicoccum var. umbellatum syn. Pelectronia parviflora Gaertn.) Merr 2. Family : Rubiaceae 3. Common Name : Ceylon Boxwood, Malakafe 4. Name in Indian languages Amme pannu (Kodwa), Hanage (Kannada), Nanyul (Malayalam), Arsul, Tupa (Marathi), Nanjul, Nallamandharam (Tamil), Nalla balasu, Balasu naikinna (Telugu).

57 - 58 (2 Pages)
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18 Canthium parviflora Lamk syn. Plectronia parviflora (Lam.) Bedd.

1. Botanical name : Canthium parviflora Lamk syn 2. Family : Rubiaceae 3. Common Name : Wild jessamine, Carray cheddie 4. Name in Indian languages Kare pan (Kodwa), Karemull (Kannada), Kayil (Konkani), Madhakara, (Malayalam), Kirma (Marathi), Tutidi (Oriya), Sinnabalusu, (Telugu), Mullukaara (Tamil), Nagabala (Sanskrit).

59 - 62 (4 Pages)
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19 Capparis decidua

1. Botanical Name :Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew. 2. Family : Capparaceae 3. Common Name : Caper berry, Bare Caper, Kair 4. Name in Indian languages Dela (Delhi and Punjab), Karir, Karil (Uttar Pradesh), Kair (Hindi), Nepati (Marathi), Sirakkali (Tamil), Karimullu (Malayalam), Kariramu (Telugu), Chippuri (Kannada), Khirar(Urdu), Kera (Gujarati).

63 - 66 (4 Pages)
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20 Careya arborea

1. Botanical Name : Careya arborea Roxb. 2. Family : Lecythidaceae 3. Common Name : Wild Guava, Ceylon Oak 4. Name in Indian languages Kumbhi (Hindi), Kumbha (Marathi), Aima (Tamil), Peelam, Pela (Malayalam), Araya, Buddaburija (Telugu), Alagavvele, Daddal (Kannada), Kumbhi (Bengali), Kumbh(Oriya), Godhajam, Kumbhi (Assamese), Girikarrnika (Sanskrit).

67 - 70 (4 Pages)
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21 Carissa spinarum

1. Botanical name : Carissa spinarum L. 2. Family : Apocynaceae 3. Common Name : Wild Karonda 4. Name in Indian languages Jungli Karonda, Karunda (Hindi), Karamacha (Bengali), Karmarda (Gujarati), Karmanji, Kavali (Karnataka), Karavada, Karanda, Karwant (Marathi), Vaka, Kalivi, Kavali Kalli (Telugu), Chirukila, Karvand, Kalakkay, Kalachedi (Tamilnadu), Karamdika (Oriya), Karamarda, Avighna (Sanskrit).

71 - 74 (4 Pages)
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22 Choerospondia saxillaris

1. Botanical name : Choerospondias axillaris Roxb. 2. Family: Anacardiaceae 3. Common Name : Nepalese Hog plum 4. Name in Indian languages : Lupsi (Sikkim), Lapsi (Nepali) 5. Description Nepalese Hog plum is a evergreen tree that can grow up to 10 metres tall, though is usually smaller. The bole is buttressed and about 30 - 40cm in diameter. The plant is especially valued for its edible fruit and is being increasingly cultivated for this purpose, the fruit being used locally and traded internationally. It is also used as a pioneer fruit tree in reforestation projects. Currently products of Lapsi fruit are mostly consumed locally. Lapsi fruit tree possess immense potential for income generation for hill farming communities. In Nepal, the tree is known for its delicious fruit. The Lapsi fruit tree which produces pistillate flowers are locally called as “pothi lapsi” which is a female tree and the other which produces staminate flowers is known as bhale lapsi which is a male tree. In Vietnam it is known for medicinal importance and in China for timber usage.

75 - 78 (4 Pages)
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23 Chrysophyllum roxburghii

1. Botanical Name : Chrysophyllum roxburghii G.Don 2. Family: Sapotaceae 3. Common Name : Indian star apple 4. Name in Indian languages Pale pan (Kodwa), Bon-pitha (Assamese), Pulichakka, Noolambazham, Athappala, Mannanchakka, Aatha, Kappalam, Athapala (Malayalam). 5. Description Chrysophyllum roxburghii is an evergreen tree with a dense crown. It can grow 10 - 20 metres tall, occasionally reaching 30 metres. The trunk diameter may be up to 40 cm. The tree is harvested from the wild for local use as of its edible fruit, for medicinal purposes and for timber. It is occasionally cultivated for its fruit and the wood is sometimes traded.

79 - 82 (4 Pages)
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24 Cordia myxa

1. Botanical Name : Cordia myxa Roxb. 2. Family : Boranginaceae 3. Common Name : Indian cherry, Lasoda , Goonda 4. Name in Indian languages Lasoda (Hindi ), Chalhanu (Kannada), Bahubara, Bohari(Bengali), Gundomoto (Gujrati ), Aruvili (Tamil), Cheruviri (Malyalam), Bhokar (Marathi), Bahuvaraka (Sanskrit), Gondi (odiya), Chinnabotuku(Telugu). 5. Description Cordia myxa is a medium size tree with a dense crown, that can grow up to 12 metres. The stem is stout. It is a multi-purpose tree and use as a food, medicine and source of wood, fibre etc. It is originated in Indian subcontinent but cultivated in western African countries for it’s edible and medicinal fruits.

83 - 86 (4 Pages)
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25 Corylus jacquemontii

1. Botanical name : Corylus jacquemontii Decne 2. Family : Betulaceae 3. Common Name : Indian Hazelnut 4. Name in Indian languages Bhotiya badam, Kabasi (Hindi), Thangi, Thankoli, Shalodi, Urmuni, Sharoli and Sharod (Himachali). 5. Description Indian Hazelnut is a wild plant of the mid and high hills of the Himalayas. The tree is small or medium-sized and deciduous. Leaves are ovate or obovate, irregularly lobed or toothed, silky pubescent on nerves beneath. Flowers emerge before the leaves. Male flowers are arranged in drooping spikes while female flowers are cone-like, small, ovoid produced in pairs.

87 - 88 (2 Pages)
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26 Crataegus oxyacantha L.

1. Botanical name : Crataegus oxyacantha L. 2. Family : Rosaceae 3. Common Name : English Hawthorn 4. Name in Indian languages Bansangli (Hindi), Ghingharoo (Kumaoni). 5. Description Hawthorn is a thorny shrub commonly found in abundance in forests and open places in Himalayan regions at an altitude of 1500- 2500 m above msl. It is an aggressive settler and difficult to remove. The stem is grayish to purple brown in colour and hard. Hawthorn has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, gall bladder disease, insomnia, and as an antispasmodic agent in the treatment of asthma.

89 - 92 (4 Pages)
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27 Debregeasia velutina

1. Botanical Name : Debregeasia velutina Gaud 2. Family : Urticaceae 3. Common Name : Wild Rhea 4. Name in Indian languages Syaru (Kumoani), Poonoolmaram, Neeranji, Narambili, (Malayalam), Kaattu, Nochchi, Katunochchi, (Tamil), Sansaru (Hindi), Garuga (Kannada), Tussare (Nepali), Khargul(Marathi), Syaru (Garhwali).

93 - 94 (2 Pages)
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28 Dillenia indica

1. Botanical name : Dillenia indica L. 2. Family : Dilleniaceae 3. Common Name : Elephant Apple, Indian catmon 4. Name in Indian languages Chalta, Karambel (Hindi), Paanca phal, Panca kule, Ram phal, Thulo tatri (Nepali), Avartaki (Sanskrit).

95 - 98 (4 Pages)
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29 Diospyros melanoxylon

1. Botanical Name: Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb. 2. Family: Ebenaceae 3. Common Name: East Indian ebony, Tendu 4. Name in Indian languages Tendu, Timburni (Hindi), Kend, Kendu (Bengali), Abanasi, Balai (Kannada), Kari (Malayalam), Tendu, Temru, Timburni (Marathi), Dirghapatraka (Sanskrit), Karai, Karundumbi, Tumbi (Tamil), Tuniki, Beedi, Aaku (Telugu).

99 - 102 (4 Pages)
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30 Diploknema butyracea Syn. Aesandra butyracea

1. Botanical name : Diploknema butyracea H J Larn 2. Family : Sapotaceae 3. Common Name : Indian Butter Tree 4. Name in Indian languages : Chiura, Phuwara, Chura (Hindi, Kumaoni), Chyuri (Nepali).

103 - 106 (4 Pages)
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31 Docynia indica

1. Botanical Name : Docynia indica Syn. Docynia hookeriana, Syn. Docynia rufifolia, Syn. Malus docynioides, Syn. Pyrus indica, Syn. Pyrus rufifolia 2. Family : Rosaceae (Pomeae) 3. Common Name : Mehal 4. Name in Indian languages Sohphoh (Khasi), Mel, Mehal (Nepali), Tong, Thung kakpa (Bhutan). 5. Description Docynia indica is deciduous tree found in India and South East Asia. The trees are medium to tall in height. It requires a well-drained soil in a sunny position. This species can tolerate temperatures down to about -5 to -10°C. Fruits are acidic and greenish with red tinged. Fruits are eaten as fresh or pickles as well used in jelly preparation. It is also used as rootstock for imparting semi-dwarf in apple.

107 - 108 (2 Pages)
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32 Elaegnus parviflora

1. Botanical Name: Elaegnus parviflora Wall. Ex. Royle 2. Family: Elaeagnaceae 3. Common Name: Autumn Olive 4. Name in Indian languages Giwain, Kankal (Hindi, Kumoani), Heiyai (Manipuri), Guenlee (Nepali). 5. Description Autumn olive is a small tree or shrub, often spiny. The small white (fading to yellow) flowers have a sickly-sweet aroma. 6. Origin and distribution Autumn olive is found in the Himalayas, from Kashmir to Bhutan, Assam and western China, at altitudes of 1300-3000 m.

109 - 110 (2 Pages)
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33 Elaeocarpus munronii

1. Botanical Name : Elaeocarpus munronii (Wt.) mast) 2. Family : Elaeocarpaceae 3. Common Name : Kalarudraksha 4. Name in Indian languages Idanji pan (Koodwa), Nari Bikki, Kal Bikki (Kannada), Rudraksham (Tamil), Kalarudraksham, Shirukodala (Malayalam). 5. Description Elaeocarpus munronii is plant in the Elaeocarpaceae family. It is found only in India. It is threatened by habitat loss. Trees grows up to 15 m tall.Trunk is greyish, smooth and blaze cream. Leaves are simple, alternate, 4-9 cm long , ovate Flowers axillary in racemes, white. Fruit is Drupe, elliptic and 2 cm long, smooth with single seed

111 - 112 (2 Pages)
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34 Elaeocarpus serratus

1. Botanical name : Elaeocarpus serratus 2. Family : Elaeocarpaceae 3. Common Name : Ceylon olive and Wild olive 4. Name in Indian languages: Veralu (Sinhala) and Karai or Ulankarai (Tamil). 5. Description Elaeocarpus serratus, also called, Ceylon olive is a tropical fruit . The tree is a medium size tree with leaves similar to avocado. The tree usually measures from 8 to 15 metres in height. The fruits are almost similar to the large green olives. This is a sun loving tree grows on Loam soil and requires low maintenance. The delicate, lacy, white flowers usually attract a myriad of insect pollinators, notably flies, wasps and flower beetles.

113 - 116 (4 Pages)
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35 Elaeocarpus tuberculatus

1. Botanical Name : Elaeocarpus tuberculatus Roxb. 2. Family : Elaeocarpaceae 3. Common Name : Warty Marble Tree 4. Name in Indian languages Kooge pan (Kodwa), Dandale Mara, Kadambola, Kunge Mara (Kannada), Badraksham, Rudraksham, Pahumban, Kara, Ammakorum, Adraksham, Mukkanni, Vellathaanni, Thodayam (Malayalam), Malampinnai, Pathrachi, Ruthraksham (Tamil).

117 - 118 (2 Pages)
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36 Feronia elephantum

1. Botanical Name : Feronia elephantum Correa syn. Limonia acidissima 2. Family : Rutaceae 3. Common Name : Elephant apple, Wood apple, monkey fruit, curd fruit 4. Name in Indian languages Kathabel, Kainth (Hindi), Kapittha (Bengali), Kotha (Gujarati), Kavat (Marathi), Belda hanuu (Kannada), Velam, Velan, Vila, Vilanga (Tamil), Vilarmaram (Malayalam), Velaga (Telugu).

119 - 122 (4 Pages)
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37 Ficus auriculata

1. Botanical Name: Ficus auriculata Lour. 2. Family : Moraceae 3. Common Name : Elephant Ear Fig, Roxburgh fig 4. Name in Indian languages Fagoora, Phagoora, (Hindi), Timla, Tirmal (Kumaoni), Heiba (Manipuri), Theibal (Mizo), Chanadumari (Nepali).

123 - 126 (4 Pages)
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38 Ficus palmata

1. Botanical Name : Ficus palmata Forsk. 2. Family: Moraceae 3. Common Name: Wild Himalayan fig 4. Name in Indian languages Anjiri, Bedu, Khemri, Jangli-Anjir (Hindi), Pheru (Gardwali), Bedu (Kumauni), Phegra, Fagura, Khasra, Daghla, Anjir (Himachali), Phegwara, Phagoru, Fagu, Anjir (Punjabi), Heibam (Manipuri), Manjimedi (Telugu), Pepri (Gujarati).

127 - 130 (4 Pages)
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39 Flacourtia indica

1. Botanical Name : Flacourtia indica 2. Family : Flacourtiaceae 3. Common Name : Governor’s plum 4. Name in Indian languages: Bilangra (Hindi), Benchi (Bengali), Mulanninchil (Tamil), Athruna (Marathi), Karimulli (Malyalam), shruvavrikksha (Sanskrit), Nakka-neredu (Telugu). 5. Description This is a bushy shrub or tree with a spiny trunk and branches. It may grow upto 10 metero. The drooping branches bear oval leaves. Governor’s plum is a common in tropical dry deciduous and thorn forests, though more abundant in the former. It also occurs in seasonally dry forest, woodland, bushland, thickets, wooded grassland, and often in riparian vegetation. The species is drought resistant though somewhat frost tender.

131 - 134 (4 Pages)
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40 Flacourtia montana

1. Botanical Name : Flacourtia montana J. Graham 2. Family : Flacourtiaceae 3. Common Name : Mountain Sweet Thorn 4. Name in Indian languages Raan-tambut (Marathi), Caralvvazham (Malayalam), Attak, Hennu Sampige (Kannada), Atak, Chamfar(Konkani), Attak (Gujarati), Male Kakkade (Kodwa).

135 - 136 (2 Pages)
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41 Fragaria indica

1. Botanical name : Fragaria indica Andr. 2. Family : Rosaceae 3. Common Name : Wild strawberry, Indian Strawberry, Mock strawberry 4. Name in Indian languages Kiphaliya (Hindi), Kaphai (Kumaoni), Kakyen, Khujin, Laba, Linmahu (Manipuri), Sarpe Phool, Bhuin aiselu (Nepali), Bhuinaakhe, Kophal (Himachali). 5. Description It is small perennial herb. It is found in cool and shady locations in wastelands as well as in the cultivated fields. The fruits are bright-red color, The plant resembles the strawberry to a great extent.

137 - 138 (2 Pages)
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42 Garcinia gummigutta

1. Botanical name: Garcinia gummigutta L (Roxb). 2. Family: Clusiaceae 3. Common Name : Cambodge Tree, Malabar-tamarind 4. Name in Indian languages Panapuli (Kodwa), Manda huli, Mantulli, Punara huli, Seeme hunnise, Upagi mara (Kannada), Gorakkapuli, Pinar, Kodampuli, Kudapuli, Marapuli, Meenpuli, Perumpuli, Pinampuli (Malayalam), Gorakkapuli, Heela, Kottukkappuli, Panampuli (Tamil).

139 - 142 (4 Pages)
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43 Garcinia indica

1. Botanical name : Garcinia indica Chiocey 2. Family : Clusiaceae 3. Common Name : Kokum, Indian butter tree 4. Name in Indian languages Kokum (Hindi), Bheranda, Bhiranda, Kokamba, Kokambi, Ratamba, Ratambi, Tambada Amba (Marathi), murgal, Murgal-mara(Tamil), Kaattampi, Kokkam(Malayalam), Murgina, Punarpuli, Devana huli (Kannada), Tintali (Oriya), Kokam(Gujarati), Bhirind, Kokam (Konkani), Vrikshamla, (Sanskrit).

143 - 146 (4 Pages)
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44 Garcinia xanthochymus

1. Botanical Name : Garcinia xanthochymus Hook 2. Family : Clusiaceae 3. Common Name : Mysore Gamboge, Sour mangosteen, Yellow Mangosteen 4. Name in Indian languages Jharambi, Tamal, Tumul (Hindi), Dampel, Tamal hindi tepor, Tepor tenga (Assamese), Chalata Bengali), Devajarige, Devagarike, Devangi, Gansargi, Hirekanigu (Kannada), Anavaya, Pinar, Samudrapacca (Malayalam), Tapinchha(Oriya), Bhavishya, Kalakhanda, Kusumodar (Sanskrit), Paccilai, Pachilai, Pacchilai (Tamil), Cikatimranu, Ivarumamidi, Memaditamalamu, Sikatimramu (Telugu), Beenakepuli (Kodwa).

147 - 150 (4 Pages)
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45 Garuga pinnata

1. Botanical Name : Garuga pinnata Roxb. 2. Family : Burseraceae 3. Common Name : Garuga, grey downy balsam 4. Name in Indian languages Kharpat (Hindi), Kakad (Marathi), Arunelli (Tamil), Annakaara (Malayalam), Garuga (Telugu), Konda vepa (Kannada), Kapila (Bengali), Khusimb (Gujarati), Karnikar (Sanskrit), Pama (Assami).

151 - 154 (4 Pages)
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46 Glycosmis arborea

1. Botanical Name : Glycosmis arborea Roxb. 2. Family : Rutaceae 3. Common Name : Orange berry 4. Name in Indian languages Ban Nimbu (Hindi), Ban jamir (Bangali), Guruvade (Kannada), Menki (Konkani), Kuttippanal (Malayalam), Kirmira (Marathi), Chauladhua (Oriya), Vananimbuka (Sanskrit), Pumippalam(Tamil), Konda golugu (Telugu).

155 - 158 (4 Pages)
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47 Grewia tiliifolia

1. Botanical Name : Grewia tiliifolia Vahl 2. Family : Tiliaceae 3. Common Name : Dhamani, Dhaman 4. Name in Indian languages Dhamani, Dhaman (Hindi), Unu (Tamil), Unnam (Malayalam), Cahrachi (Telugu), Todsal (Kannada), Dhamin (Bengali), Dhanu vriksha (Sanskrit), Thadachi pan (Kodwa). 5. Description Dhaman is a moderate-sized to large tree of family Tiliaceae. It is a very close relative of Phalsa. The yellow flower resembles the true Phalsa flower very much. The main difference is in the leaves. The main trunk can be 60cm or more in diameter. The leaves of Dhaman are oblique heart-shaped. Tree trunk is grey or dark brown. It flowers in April- May. The flowers are small, borne on thick axillary peduncles. Whole fruit expect seed are consumed at ripe stage. The tree is harvested from the wild for local use of its fibre, wood and edible fruit. 7. Morphology Large trees, bark dark brown or greyish-brown, rough, vertically striated; blaze brownish-red, fibrous, streaked; branchlets stellate-tomentose. Leaves simple, alternate; stipules 7-10 mm, lateral, auricled; petiole 8-35 mm, stout, swollen tipped, pubescent; lamina 6-36 x 3-24 cm, broadly ovate or obliquely ovate to round, base obliquely cordate or subcordate, apex acute, margin double serrate or crenate-serrate, glabrescent above and hoary pubescent beneath, coriaceous, 5-7-ribbed from base, prominent, lateral nerves 3-6 pairs, pinnate, prominent, intercostae scalariform, prominent. Flowers bisexual, yellow, in axillary umbels; peduncle 1.5-2 cm long; sepals 5, pubescent; petals 5, yellow, half the length of sepals, entire or notched, densely tomentose outside; stamens many, free, inserted on a glandular torus; gland densely villous on the margin; ovary superior, globose, hirsute, 2-4-celled, ovules 2-many; style subulate; stigma obscurely lobed, recurved. Fruit a drupe, globose to subglobose, reddish-purple, 2-lobed, sparsely hairy.

159 - 162 (4 Pages)
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48 Haematocarpus validus

1.Botanical name : Haematocarpus validus (Miers) Bakh. f. ex Forman 2.Family : Menispermaceae 3.Common Name : Khoon Phal, Blood Fruit 4. Name in Indian languages Khoon phal (Hindi), Roktogula/Lalgula (Bengali), Rosco (Chakma), Thoyphal (Tripura), Te.pattang (Garo), Theichhung-sen (Mizo), Ranguichi (Marma), Raktaphal (Tamil/Telugu/Malayalam), Sohsnam (Khasi & Pnar). 5. Description Khoon Phal is a dicotyledonous plant species. It is an evergreen perennial creeping woody climber capable of growing under extreme conditions, from very dry environments to highly acidic soils. It grows up to 1000 m and more in height with dark green glabrous profusely branched stems. It creeps and grows on other big trees for support.

163 - 166 (4 Pages)
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49 Hippophae rhamnoides

1. Botanical Name : Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. Turkestanica L. (Fam.) 2. Family : Elaeagnaceae 3. Common Name : Sea buckthorn,Leh berry 4. Name in Indian languages Amesh, Khatai (Garhwali), Tarbu (Lahaul), Dhurchuk (Hindi), Chook/ Dhurchuk (Kumoani), Tseta lulu (Ladakh), Chharma, Tir guk (Spiti). 5. Description Sea-buckthorn is a dioecious, usually spinescent deciduous shrub or a small tree of Elaeagnacae family. It grows up to a height of 10 m and found growing in the river beds of the drier ranges of the state at an altitude of 1600-3300 m in Himalayan ranges from Ladakh to Uttarakhand. Leaves are small and linear-lanceolate. Flowers are very small, greenish or yellowish. The fruit is acidic and is made into a jelly with sugar. A syrup is also prepared from it which is used in respiratory complaints. A decoction is used for cutaneous eruptions. The fruit is a rich source of vitamin C, carotene and also contains vitamin B. The leaves and flowers are used for treating arthritis, gastrointestinal ulcers, gout, skin rashes and lowering blood pressure.

167 - 170 (4 Pages)
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50 Leptadenia pyrotechnica

1. Botanical Name : Leptadenia pyrotechnica Forssk. Decne 2. Family : Apocynaceae 3. Common Name : Kheep, Broom bush 4. Name in Indian languages Kheep (Hindi), Khip(Punjabi), Jivanti (Sanskrit). 5. Description It is a much branched often leafless erect shrub. The edible part is tender fruit. It can grow up to 3 metres height. A desert plant, it is often utilized by local people within its native range, particularly as a fibre plant and for fuel. It is also planted in soil stabilization in arid areas. 6. Origin and distribution It is originated from North Africa to desert areas to Western India. It is distributed throughout the arid zone of Rajasthan particularly in Jodhpur, Bikaner, Jaiselmer districts of Rajasthan. Kheep is also found gorwing in Pakistan, Iran, Arabia, Egypt, Sudan, Somalia, Chad, Libya and Algeria.

171 - 172 (2 Pages)
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51 Machilus edulis

1. Botanical name :Machilus edulis King ex Hook. 2. Family : Lauraceae 3. Common Name: Pumsi, wild avocado 4. Name in Indian languages : Pumsi, Phumkung (Lepcha), Lachyphal, Kawala (Nepali). 5. Description Pumsi is an evergreen species grow up to a height of about 15-20 m, with spreading branches. It grows from Nepal to Sikkim, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and the whole north-eastern region. Pumsi is considered as one of the forms of Avocado (Percea americana) in its native region. 6. Origin and distribution It is native of India,Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and the whole north-eastern region. The plants growwell incool humid regions in hills.The species is found in low density in forests at 1200 - 2400 metres height.The species is hermaphrodite, suitable for light sandy to loamy and clay soils. It can grow in semi-shade. It prefers moist soil.

173 - 176 (4 Pages)
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52 Madhuca longifolia

1. Botanical Name : Madhuca longifolia var. latifolia (Rox.) A. Chev. 2. Family : Sapotaceae 3. Common Name : Indian Butter Tree 4. Name in Indian languages Mahua, Mohwa (Hindi), Maul (Bengali), Kat-Illipi (Marathi), Illupa Malayalam), Ippa (Telugu), Mahudo (Gujarati), Hippe Mara (Kannada). 5. Description Indian Butter tree (mahua) is one of the most important trees of Indian forest. It produces delicious and nutritive flowers, fruits, seeds and valuable timber. It is a deciduous tree with a large, spreading, rounded crown that can grow 16 metres or more tall. The short main trunk can be up to 80 cm in diameter. Mahua is an indigenous tree of high economic value. A characteristic tree of the dry region, it is found in north and central India. The tree is very well known to rural folk since ages in India. Its flowers, fruits, and oil obtained from seeds are eaten in various ways. Mahua flowers are a rich source of sugar containing appreciable amount of vitamins and minerals. Fruit is eaten as raw or cooked. Pulp is a good source of sugar, whereas dry husk makes a good source of absolute alcohol. Seed is a good source of oil.

177 - 180 (4 Pages)
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53 Meyna laxiflora

1. Botanical Name : Meyna laxiflora Robyns 2. Family : Rubiaceae 3. Common Name : Moina, Aliv 4. Name in Indian languages Kutkura, Moin (Assamese), Mainphal, Muduna, Muyna, Muyuna (Bengal), Alu, Atu (Gujrati), Moina, Muduna, Muyuna (Hindi), Mullakare, Gundkare, gobergally (Kannada), Alu, Huloo, Halawni (Marathi), Pindi, Pinditaka, Pindituka, Pindu (Sanskirit), Manakkarai (Tamil), Segagadda, Veliki, Visikilamu (Telgu), Monono, Montaphoo (Odiya). 5. Description It is a large common shrub or a small tree and commonly found in evergreen forests. Meyna is a genus of shrub and small trees distributed in tropical and subtropical region. The fruits are used for preparation of pickle.

181 - 184 (4 Pages)
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54 Mimosops elengi

1. Botanical Name : Mimosops elengi L. 2. Family : Sapotaceae 3. Common Name : Spanish cherry, Molshri, Bullet wood tree 4. Name in Indian languages Maulsri (Hindi), Magizhamboo (Tamil), Ilanni (Malayalam), Bakul (Bengali), Bakuli (Marathi), Ranjal (Kannada), Barsoli (Gujarati), Maulsari (Nepali). 5. Description Maulshri is a evergreen small tree of the Indian subcontinent. It provides a dense shade. The main stem is often short and divided into several large main branches. The tree provides food, medicine and a range of commodities for the local people. It is often cultivated in the tropics and subtropics, as an ornamental avenue tree and in gardens.

185 - 188 (4 Pages)
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55 Morinda pubescens

1. Botanical Name : Morinda pubescens 2. Family : Rubiaceae 3. Common Name : Indian Mulberry, Morinda tree 4. Name in Indian languages Aal (Hindi), Dhaula, Aseti (Marathi), Mannanunai, Mannanatti, Nonu, Nuna (Tamil), Mannappavitta (Malayalam), Maddi (Telugu), Haladipavette, Maddi (Kannada), Achu, Pindra (Oriya) , Paphanah (Sanskrit). 5. Description Aall or Indian mulberry (Morinda pubescens) is a species of flowering plant in the family Rubiaceae, It is an evergreen shrub or small tree growing . The fruits are small and edible. A scarlet colouring matter is procured from the roots and bark, and used for dying hand kerchiefs, turbans, etc. It is also used to assist more expensive dyes in giving a red colour to yarnand cloth. The red threrads used in carpet-making used entirely to be dyed with it. The tree formerly used to be much more commonly cultivated than it is now. Since the introduction of the cheap aniline dyes’s its cultivation decreased.

189 - 192 (4 Pages)
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56 Myrica esculenta

1. Botanical Name : Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D.Don 2. Family : Myricaceae 3. Common Name : Box myrtle 4. Name in Indian languages: Kainaryamy (Telugu), Nagatenga (Assami), Satsarila (Bengali), Kariphal (Gujarati), Kaiphal (Hindi), Kirishivani (Kannada), Maruta (Malayalam), Soh-phi (Khasi), Kaphal (Kumaoni), Kayaphala (Marathi), Krishnagarbha (Sanskrit), Masudam (Tamil). 5. Description Myrica esculenta is grow extensively in hilly regions of Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh , Nepal and Bhutan at elevations of 1000-2300 m. It is small to medium size evergreen tree. The stem bark is grayish dark in colour and rough. The fruits of this species are edible and used by the local population. The stem bark and wood is very good for fuel wood purpose.

193 - 196 (4 Pages)
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57 Phoenix sylvestris

1. Botanical Name : Phoenix sylvestris Roxb. 2. Family : Palmae 3. Common Name : Wild Date Palm, Indian wild date, Sugar date palm 4. Name in Indian languages Khajur (Hindi), Thangtup (Manipuri), Kharik, Kharjuri (Marathi), Inthupaanai (Tamil),: Niilanthent (Malayalam), Ita (Telugu), Ichalu, Kharjura (Kannada), Khejura (Bengali), Khorjurri (Oriya), Khaajuri (Assamese), Khajuri (Gujarati), Kharjuri (Sanskrit), Kandela, Taadii (Nepali). 5. Description Wild date palm is native to India and southern portions of Pakistan. It is closely related Phoenix dactylifera (Date palm). It grows naturally and is cultivated around homesteads, farmland periphery and in marginal lands along the roadside and canals, even on fallow land. It can survive in disturbed areas, such as wastelands or seasonally inundated areas. It is a medium height tree of 9–10 m. The single-seeded fruit ripens to a purple-red colour, and is eaten fresh or processed. The leaf sap also used in various preparations. Fruits are rich source of carbohydrate, phenols, amino acids, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, terpenoids, dietary fibers, vitamins and minerals. Different parts of the plant have diverse medicinal properties such as antipyretic, cardiotonic, laxative, diuretic and antioxidant.

197 - 200 (4 Pages)
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58 Phyllanthus acidus

1. Botanical Name : Phyllanthus acidus (L) skeels. 2. Family : Phyllanthaceae 3. Common Name : Star Gooseberry 4. Name in Indian languages : Jangli Aonla (Hindi), Aria Nellikai (Tamil), Narakli (Oriya), Nora (Bengali), Kiru nelli(Kannada). 5. Description Star gooseberry is a small tree of 4 to 8m height. The tree’s dense and bushy crown is composed of thickish, tough main branches. It tree grows well in the tropics up to an altitude of 1500 - 1800 metres. It prefers hot, humid tropical conditions with a short dry season. The fruits are yellow and used as fresh or processed. The plants grow well in dry areas but require moist site for initial establishment otherwise, plants are drought tolerant.

201 - 204 (4 Pages)
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59 Physalis minima

1. Botanical Name : Physalis minima Linn. 2. Family : Solanaceae 3. Common Name : Ground Cherry, Sun berry 4. Name in Indian languages Rasbhari, Chirpati (Hindi), Chirboti, Ran-popti (Marathi), Kupanti (Tamil), Notinotta (Malayalam), Kupanti (Telugu), Gadde hannu (Kannada), Bantepariya (Bengali), Popti (Gujarati). 5. Description Sunberry is an erect, much-branched, annual plant growing around 50cm tall. The edible fruit is sometimes gathered from the wild and used locally. This is a popular wild fruit to pick and eat. The taste of the ripe berry is sweet and distinctive. The berries are ripe when the husk turns brown and the berry inside takes on a yellowish cast. The plant also has a range of medicinal uses. Physalis minima is commonly found on the bunds of the fields, wastelands, around the houses, on roadsides, etc. where the soil is porous and rich in organic matter. It is an annual herbaceous plant having a very delicate stem and leaves.

205 - 208 (4 Pages)
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60 Prunus armeniaca

1. Botanical Name : Prunus armeniaca Linn. 2. Family : Roasaceae 3. Common Name : Wild apricot 4. Name in Indian languages Zardalu, Sarha, Chulli (Himachali), Chuari, Zardalu (Hindi), Gurdalu, Cherkush (Kashmiri), Chuaru, Chola, Kushmaru (Kumaoni); Chul (Laddakhi), Zardalu (Punjabi). 5. Description Wild apricot is a common fruit of the hills in northern India, comprising the major parts of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. The fruits are small but tasty. 6. Origin and distribution This tree is indigenous to the Central Asia. It is widely distributed and is found in Europe, Western and Central Asia, Baluchistan, the north-west Himalayas and Western Tibet upto 2500 meters msl. It is found in the in mild-hills, ranging from 1,100 to 1,700 meters above the mean sea-level in Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu Kashmir. Most of the plants are seedlings, with varying flesh and kernel characters.

209 - 212 (4 Pages)
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61 Prunus nepalensis

1. Botanical Name : Prunus nepalensis (Ser). Steud. 2. Family : Rosaceae 3. Common Name : Wild peach, Sohiong 4. Name in Indian languages Jangaliaru, Arupate (Nepali), Arupaty (Bengali), Sohiong (Khasi), Sajong (Assamese).

213 - 216 (4 Pages)
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62 Prunus persica

1. Botanical Name : Prunus persica Batsch 2. Family : Rosaeceae 3. Common Name : Wild peach 4. Name in Indian languages Kateru, Katakiaru (Himachali), Kathu aru (Kumaoni). 5. Description The wild peach is closely related to cultivated peach. Many wild forms of peach are found in Himalayan hills. The most distinguishing feature of this form is the very late ripening of its fruits. The fruits of this wild plant ripen at some places as late as October. The fruits are smaller than cultivated varieties and bitter and acidic in taste. 6. Origin and distribution The peach is native to himalayan region. These wild peaches are found in plenty in the Solan, Sirmur and Simla Districts of Himachal Pradesh. The plants are also found Kumaon and Garhwal divisions of Uttarakhand.

217 - 218 (2 Pages)
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63 Prunus undulata

1. Botanical Name : Prunus undulata Buch.-Ham. 2. Family : Rosaceae 3. Common Name : Dieng tyrkhung 4. Name in Indian languages Dieng tyrkhung (Khasi). 5. Description It is locally known as Dieng tyrkhung in Meghalaya and belongs to Rosaceae family. It is a rare species growing wild in Khasi and Jaintia Hills occurring in mountainous or hilly forests or river valleys. It is a small deciduous tree, upright and moderately branched. It can grow 5 - 16 metres tall. The fruits are harvested from the wild for local used as a food and source of materials. It thrives in a well-drained moisture-retentive loamy soil.

219 - 222 (4 Pages)
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64 Pyrus pashia

1. Botanical Name : Pyrus pashia L. 2. Family : Rosaceae 3. Common Name : Himalayan pear, Indian wild pear, Wild pear 4. Name in Indian languages Kainth, Chotia, Kaimh, Shegal (Himachali), Mehal, mol (Hindi), Mehal, mol (Kumaoni), Mayal, Passi (Nepali), Kainth, Shegal (Punjabi), Sohshur (Khasi), Soh ait-syiar (Pnar), Tangi (Kashmiri). 5. Description Himalayan pear is a small, deciduous tree of rosaceae family. It is common in open field borders and forest margins from 1000-2400m. The tree reaches up to a height of 5-8 m. The stem is greyish brown and rough. The flowering takes place in the month of February-March and the fruits mature in month of October to November. Fruits are globose, brown ultimately becoming black and rough. The fruits are astringent in taste when immature. The ripe fruits are sour -sweet with some astringency. This is widely used as rootstock for pear.

223 - 224 (2 Pages)
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65 Pyrus serotina

1. Botanical Name : Pyrus serotina Rehd. 2. Family : Pomaceae 3. Common Name : Wild pear (large-fruited type) 4. Name in Indian languages Bada kainth, Shiara, Zarenth (Himachali), Shiara, Garmehal (Kumaoni). 5. Description The trees of Pyrus serotina is found throughout the mid-hill region of Himalaya. The population of this species is very less as compare to Pyrus pashia. The fruits of this species are larger and less gritty. It is cold-hardy, tolerate low temperatures when dormant. It also has lower chilling requirements than most other. 6. Origin and distribution It is native of central and East Asia form . It found in North Western Himalayan region.

225 - 226 (2 Pages)
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66 Rhus semialata

1. Botanical Name : Rhus semialata Murr 2. Family : Anacardiaceae 3. Common Name : Chinese Sumac, Chinese gall, Nutgall tree 4. Name in Indian languages Tatri (Hindi), Heimaang (Manipuri), Bhaki amilo, Chuk Amilo, Dudhe Bhalaayo, Bhangil (Nepali), Sohmad/ Sohmluh (Khasi), Sohsama (Pnar). 5. Description It is a deciduous shrub or small tree with an open, spreading crown. It usually grows up to 12 metres tall. The trunk can be 6-18cm in diameter. The plant has an extensive root system and spreads by means of suckers, often forming thickets. The tree has edible fruits. It has several having medicinal properties. It is good source of tannins and dye. Fruits are gathered from the wild and mainly used locally. Galls produced as a result of insect activity on the plant are widely used medicinally in East Asia.

227 - 230 (4 Pages)
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67 Rourea minor

1. Botanical Name : Rourea minor (Gaertn.) Alston 2. Family : Connaraceae 3. Common Name : Cow Vine, Big-leaved Rourea 4. Name in Indian languages Cheriyamarikunni, Kuriel (Malayalam), Puli pan (Kodwa), Hulimajge hannu (Kannada). 5. Description It is a large woody climbing shrubs of family Connaraceae. Stem is black. Leaves are compound with 3-7 leaflets. Flowers in axillary panicled cymes.The fruits ripe in June –August. Whole fruit expect the rind and seed is consumed at ripe stage. It is rarely found. Rourea minor is a vigorous climbing shrub producing stems up to 25 metres long that climb into the surrounding vegetation.Although poisonous, the plant is sometimes harvested from the wild for local use in traditional medicine.

231 - 232 (2 Pages)
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68 Rubus ellipticus

1. Botanical Name : Rubus ellipticus Smith 2. Family : Rosaceae 3. Common Name : Himalayan Yellow Raspberry 4. Name in Indian languages Jotelupoka (Assameese), Ache, Akki, Anchhu, Hinure (Himachali), Hinsalu, Anchhu (Hindi), Gouriphal, Hisara (Kashmiri), Esar, Hishalu, Jogiya hisalu (Kumaoni), Ainselu (Nepali), Akhi (Punjabi). 5. Description It is one of the tastiest wild fruits of Himalayan hills. This plant grows in abundance throughout the mid hill region of Himalaya. The fruits are relished by all and are also offered for sale at many places. Rubus ellipticus is an evergreen shrub producing a cluster of stout, heavily armed, upright, biennial stems from a woody rootstock. It usually grows 100 - 300 cm tall, occasionally up to 450 cm. The stems only produce leaves, and do not flower, in their first year of growth, forming flowering branches in their second year and then dying after fruiting. The plant can rapidly form tall, dense thickets. The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food and a medicine. The fruit is sold in local markets in the Himalayan states.

233 - 236 (4 Pages)
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69 Rubus niveus

1. Botanical Name : Rubus niveus Thunb. 2. Family : Rosaceae 3. Common Name : Mysore raspberry, Hill raspberry 4. Name in Indian languages Huftoo, Kale hinure (Himachali), Kala hinsalu, Kali anchhi (Hindi), Kandiari, Kharmuch, Surgaqnch, Oche (Kashmiri), Kalawar, Kalahisalu (Kumaoni), Kaloaselu (Nepali), Gunacha, Kandiara (Punjabi), Gomulli, Mulli (Kannada), Dieng soh khawiong (Khasi), Heijampet (Manipuri), Gowriphal (Marathi). 5. Description Mysore raspberry is a shrub growing to 1-2.5 m tall. The stems are whitish velvety at first, becoming smooth green to purple later. Leaves are compound with 5-11 leaflets. The leaflets are dark green above, densely pale grey to white velvety beneath. The flowers are five dark pink to red petals. The fruit is densely grey velvety, dark red at first, ripening to black. The fruits are commonly harvested from forest for local use as a food and is also used as a medicine. Mysore raspberry is grows wild throughout the temperate Himalayan region. This species is successfully introduced North America. It resembles the raspberry.

237 - 240 (4 Pages)
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70 Rubus paniculatus

1. Botanical Name : Rubus paniculatus Smith 2. Family : Rosaceae 3. Common Name : Heart-Leaf Raspberry 4. Name in Indian languages: Kothalu, Kala hinsar (Hindi/Garhwali) 5. Description Heart-leaf raspberry is a rambling climber, distinguished by its large ovate-heart-shaped, finely toothed leaves. It is a deciduous shrub, producing each year a cluster of scrambling, minutely-prickly, biennial stems up to 300 cm tall. The stems only produce leaves, and do not flower, in their first year of growth; forming flowering branches in their second year and then dying after fruiting. The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food, and sometimes also as a medicine. 6. Origin and distribution It is native of Himalayas and found in the higher hills in Uttarakhand and Himachal Pradesh. It is also found in Nepal, Bhutan and China. The plants are at elevations from 1,500 - 2,900 metres msl. It is found in damp shady ravines to 1800 metres in Jaunsar and Tehri-Garhwal of Uttarakhand.

241 - 242 (2 Pages)
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71 Salacia chinensis

1. Botanical Name : Salacia chinensis L. 2. Family : Celastraceae 3. Common Name : Chinese salacia 4. Name in Indian languages Chourondi (Malayalam), Saptachakra (Sanskrit), Chuntan, Karukkuvai (Tamil). 5. Description It is a usually climbing plant, though is sometimes a scrambling shrub and occasionally becomes more tree-like. It can grow from 3 - 10 metres tall with a stem up to 16cm in diameter. The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food and medicine. 6. Origin and distribution It is originated in coastal India, China, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines. It is distributed in the Indian subcontinent, including the semi-evergreen forests of the Coastal Karnataka, Kerala and Tamilnadu.

243 - 244 (2 Pages)
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72 Salvadora oleoides

1. Botanical Name : Salvadora oleoides Decne 2. Family : Salvadoraceae 3. Common Name: Pilu 4. Name in Indian languages Pilava pilu, Mityar, Mitijal, Mithivan, Pilu, Chootapilu, Bahapilu, Diar, Jhal, Godpilu (Hindi), Khakan, Pilava, Pilu, Mityal (Gujarati), Kalawa, Kohu, Karkol (Tamil). 5. Description Peelu (Salvadora oleoides) is an evergreen shrub or tree with a dense crown of numerous, drooping branches. It is small to medium sized evergreen tree with dense foliage. It can grow 6 - 9 metres tall. The main trunk is quite often twisted or bent. It can be up to 2 metres in diameter. The tree is harvested from the wild for local use as a medicine and source of materials. Apart from edible fruits, other parts of the tree also have economic value. Leaves are very good feed for animals especially goats and camels while the twigs are used for cleaning the teeth. The other plant parts such as root bark and leaves etc have value in folk medicine. It is highly resistant against abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity.

245 - 248 (4 Pages)
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73 Securina leucopyrus

1. Botanical Name : Securina leucopyrus syn. Flueggea leucopyrus 2. Family : Euphorbiaceae. 3. Common Name : Bushweed, Indian snow berry, White honey shrub 4. Name in Indian languages Katupila, Shinar (Hindi), Pandharphali (Marathi), Mulluppulatti (Tamil), Cerimklaav (Malayalam), Pulugudu (Telugu), Bilchuli (Kannada), Parpo (Konkani), Humri (Gujarati), Shwetakambuja(Sanskrit), More pan (Kodwa). 5. Description Bush weed is an erect shrub of family Euphorbiaceae. The plant grows up to 4 m tall with branches cylindrical or obtusely angular. Leaf is elliptic, obovate, or round papery to thinly leathery. Flower cymes arise in leaf axils or at leafless nodes. Flowers are tiny and yellowish. Fruit is a nearly spherical berry, about 4 mm in diameter, whitish when ripe.

249 - 250 (2 Pages)
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74 Semecarpus anacadium

1. Botanical Name : Semecarpus anacadium L.f. 2. Family : Anacardiaceae 3. Common Name : Marking Nut 4. Name in Indian languages Bhilawan (Hindi), Bhillava (Marathi), Kavaka (Tamil), Ceenkkuru (Malayalam), Bhallatamu (Telugu), Gerannina mara (Kannada), Bhallataka (Bengali), Bonebhalia (Oriya), Amberi (Konkani), Bhala (Assamese), Bhilamu (Gujarati), Bhallatakah (Sanskrit), Bhalaayo (Nepali). 5. Description Marking nut tree is a small to medium-sized tree that can reach a height of 25 metres, but is usually smaller. Possibly best known for its use in making a permanent marking ink. This multi-purpose tree also provides food, medicines, oil etc. It has high priority and applicability in indigenous system of medicine. It is often cultivated as an ornamental plant in the tropic.

251 - 254 (4 Pages)
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75 Tamilnadia uliginosa

1. Botanical Name : Tamilnadia uliginosa (Retz.) Tirveng. & Sastre 2. Family : Rubiaceae 3. Common Name : Divine Jasmine, Tamilnadia 4. Name in Indian languages Kalaphendra (Marathi), Wagatta, Kalikarai (Tamil), Pindichakka (Malayalam), Kuka-elka (Telugu), Pidaar(Nepali). 5. Description Divine jasmine is a very rigid, ramous, small tree, armed with numerous strong thorns. This found in bogs, swamps, banks of rivers and other moist places. It flowers in the beginning of the hot season. The flowers of this species, are known for beauty. It is good shrub for flower garden. It is an important medicinal plant because each and every part of it can be used for medicinal purposes. Sometimes leaves of the plant are used to make chutney. 6. Origin and distribution It is native of India. It is distributed in India, Bangladesh, Srilanka, Thailand, Vietnam. In India, this species is found in moist deciduous forests.

255 - 256 (2 Pages)
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76 Vitis himalayana

1. Botanical Name : Vitis himalayana Br. 2. Family : Vitaceae 3. Common Name : Wild grape, Himalayan Woodbine 4. Name in Indian languages: Bhambti, phlankur (Himachali), Chappar tang, Bara churcheri (Kumaoni). 5. Description This climbing shrub is commonly found in the forests. One of the important characteristics of this wild grape is that they ripen very late i.e., in October. The plant has tuberous roots. 6. Origin and distribution Himalayan Woodbine is found in the Himalayas, from Pakistan to Sikkim, South West China and Myanmar at altitudes of 1800-3300 m. In India, it is found in Himachal and Uttarakhand. 7. Morphology Himalayan Woodbine is a very large climber, growing to 18 m long. It has trifoliate leaves with 3 ovate long-pointed, sharply toothed, stalked leaflets. Leaves are shining green above and pale on the underside, about 10 cm long. The lateral leaflets have asymmetrical bases. Flowers are tiny, yellow-green, in spreading flat-topped clusters. Flowers have petals about 5 mm long, with 4-5 stamens. Fruit is a black berry.

257 - 258 (2 Pages)
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77 Vitis lanata

1. Botanical Name : Vitis lanata Roxb. 2. Family : Vitaceae 3. Common Nam : Wild grape 4. Name in Indian languages Bhambay (Himachali), Asajiya, Asoja, Paharphuta, Purain (Kumaoni), Kolo, Kolo nari (Santali). 5. Description Vitis lanata grow naturally throughout the sub-Himalayan tract, ascending up to 1,500 metres in Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand. It is woody climber. 6. Origin and distribution It is native of East Asia from Himalaya to China. It grow wild in the northwestern Himalayan foothills. It is found in hills upto 1500 metres in the Himalayas particular on moist open rocky places.

259 - 260 (2 Pages)
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78 Xeromphis spinosa

1. Botanical Name : Xeromphis spinosa (Thumb.) Keay 2. Family : Rubiaceae 3. Common Name : Thorny Bone-apple, Common emetic nut 4. Name in Indian languages Mainphal (Hindi), Ghela, Khajkanda(Marathi), Madkarai (Tamil), Karacchulli (Malayalam), Marrga (Telugu), Kaarekaayi-gida (Kannada), Patova (Oriya), Madanah (Sanskrit), Kare pan (Kodwa). 5. Description Xeromphis spinosa is a plant of family Rubiaceae. It is a spiny, deciduous shrub or small tree growing up to 7 metres tall. The plant sometimes adopts a climbing habit. The fruits matures in the month of June-July. The whole fruit expect the seed is consumed at ripe stage. 6. Origin and distribution It is native of East Asia, Southern China, Indian subcontinent, Malaysia, Vietnam, Indonesia. It is found all over India except higher hills. It is also found in the Himalayas, up to an altitude of 1600 m. It is common in hilly area of Rajasthan.

261 - 262 (2 Pages)
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79 Ziziphus nummularia

1. Botanical Name : Zizyphus nummularia Burm. f. 2. Family : Rhamnaceae 3. Common Name : Jhar Ber 4. Name in Indian languages Jhar ber, Bordi, Jharberi (Hindi), Bhubadari (Bengali), Mulluhannu (Kannada), Junglebor (Marathi), Bhu-kartaka (Sanskrit), Narielandai (Tamil), Nelaregu, (Telugu), Poast jharberi (Urdu). 5. Description Jhar ber (Ziziphus nummularia) is a most commonly occurring branched thorny shrub species in the Indian desert with a height of 1-2 m. It occupies almost all the habitats including crop lands and grazing lands. It is found growing naturally on farm lands and spreads through root suckers and also by seeds. It forms an integral part of rain fed farming system in arid zones of Rajasthan. Underground suckers of jhar ber remain dormant during summer season but they sprout with monsoon rain and complete the life cycle including vegetative growth, flowering and fruiting by November-December. The bushes are headed back at ground level after the kharif cropping season is over.

263 - 266 (4 Pages)
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80 Zizyphus rugosa

1. Botanical Name : Zizyphus rugosa Lamk 2. Family : Rhamnaceae. 3. Common Name : Wild Jujube, wrinkled jujube 4. Name in Indian languages Churna, Suran (Hindi), Toran, Turan (Marathi), Totari (Tamil), Thodali, Tutari (Malayalam), Gottichettu (Telugu), Belahadu, Mulluhannu (Kannada), Kotte pan (Kodwa). 5. Description Zizyphus rugosa is a large armed, spiny, evergreen tree growing around 5 - 9 metres tall with large elliptic usually subcordate leaves, paniculate flowers and wood is reddish, moderately. This plant is found chiefly in deciduous and semi-evergreen forest, hills and mountains below 1200 m altitude. The leaves are simple, and are broadly elliptic and short tips. Fruits are globose or pyriform, white when ripe. Whole fruit expect the seed is consumed at ripe stage. It is found in degraded forest areas of entire of Western Ghats. The plant is harvested from the wild for local use as a food and a medicine.

267 - 268 (2 Pages)
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81 End Pages

References Abhishek Mundaragi, Thangadurai Devarajan, Sangeetha Jeyabalan, Shivanand Bhat and Ravichandra Hospet. 2017. Unexploited and underutilized wild edible of Western Ghats in southern India fruits. Scientific Papers. Series A. Agronomy, Vol. LX. Agrahar-Murugkar D., Subbulakshmi G. 2005. Nutritive values of wild edible fruits, berries, nuts, roots and spices consumed by the Khasi tribes of India. Ecology of Food and Nutrition 44: 207-223. Ajay Kumar Mahapatra, Satarupa Mishra, Uday C Basak and Pratap C Panda. 2012. Nutrient analysis of some selected wild edible fruits of deciduous forests of india: an explorative study towards non conventional bio-nutrition. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 4(1): 15-21. Anand, S P., Deborah,S. and Velmurugan, G. 2017. Antimicrobial activity, nutritional profile and phytochemical screening of wild edible fruit of Catunaregam spinosa (Thunb.) Tirveng . The Pharma Innovation Journal 2017; 6(10): 106-109

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