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Anil Kumar, Swati Saha, Jaipal Singh Choudhary
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The present book has been planned with 19 chapters specified by the authors on recent techniques on bio-intensive integrated approaches of horticultural pest’s management. The book attempt to made compile information’s on non-chemical ways of pest management strategies including from agronomic approaches to physical, mechanical, biopesticides, biocontrol agents, biorational pesticides etc. which are non harmful to environment and economically viable. This book can be useful reference material for organic product producing farmers, researchers and students who are involving bio-intensive pest management strategies.

0 Start Pages

Preface In fact insect pest problem rapidly increases in current scenario due to changing climatic condition, indiscriminate use of insecticides which leads to decrease biodiversity of natural enemies and effect on human being. There is a need of hour to create awareness for promoting environmentally sustainable horticultural production. The book, Biointensive Integrated Pest Management for Horticultural Crops has been planned with chapters and the scope of each chapter has been specified by the author. The book deals with the most recent biointensive integrated approaches utilizing components such as bioagents, botanicals and microbial pesticides, physical and mechanical methods, cultural methods such as crop rotation, summer ploughing, intercropping, pruning, mulching, spacing, planting date, trap cropping, etc., biorational chemicals and tolerant cultivars. It is our great pleasure to express our sincere thanks to the publisher, New India Publishing Agency for producing this book in a systemic way with quality within a period of time. It is earnestly hoped that the book will be a useful reading to all those who are interested in Biointensive Integrated Pest Management for Horticultural Crops. We request all the readers for rendering valuable suggestions for future improvement of this edition.

1 Scope and Importance of Horticultural Crops
Swati Saha, Udit Kumar, Tarak Nath Saha, Kavya Shree

Introduction Horticulture is the science and art of propagation, production, utilization, improvement, harvesting and marketing of crops such as fruits, vegetables, ornamental plants, spices & condiments, medicinal & aromatic plants, plantation crops, postharvest technology etc. The term is derived from the Latin word hortus mean garden and cultura means to cultivate. These crops are diverse which includes annuals to perennials, edible to ornamentals, temperate to tropical, humid to desert, etc. Horticultural plants help to sustain and enrich people by providing nutritious food, medicines, enhances the beauty of surroundings, besides reducing carbon footprint. They also serves as raw material for various industries, such as processing, pharmaceutical, perfumery and cosmetics, chemical, confectionery, oils and paints, etc. Importance of Horticultural Crops The horticulture crops are a source of variability in farm produce as well as human diets. The comparative production per unit area of horticultural crops is much higher than field crops. They are not only a source of nutrients, vitamins, minerals, flavour, aroma and dietary fibres, but also contains health benefiting compounds and medicines. Ornamental horticulture have aesthetic value and protects the environment. These crops are also useful for cultivation in wasteland, poor quality soil, slopy, uneven or undulating lands. Mango and cashew nut are cultivated on a large scale in hilly and hill back areas. Such crops are of high value, labour intensive and generate employment throughout the year. Further they have national and international demand and are a good source of foreign exchange.

1 - 12 (12 Pages)
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2 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management
Anil Kumar, S.K. Sahoo

Biointensive IPM incorporates ecological and economic factors into agricultural system design and decision making while addressing public concerns about environmental quality and food safety. It provides suitable guidelines and options for the effective management of pests and beneficial organisms in an ecological context in a holistic self-sustaining manner. The flexibility and environmental compatibility of the Biointensive IPM strategy make it useful in all types of cropping systems particularly in an agro-biodiversity rich ecosystem.

13 - 22 (10 Pages)
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3 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management of Litchi
Jaipal Singh Choudhary, Kuldeep Srivastav, Bikash Das

Introduction Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn), like most fruit tree crops, is usually attacked by two or three key pests, several secondary pests and a large number of occasional pests in localized areas where it is grown. Litchi is an important subtropical evergreen fruit crop belongs to family Sapindaceae. It is known as queen of the fruit due to its attractive deep pink/red colours and flavoured juicy aril (Singh et al., 2012). Insect pest attacks on litchi, in China there are 193 species of litchi pests in two classes, 11 orders, and 57 families. In India, nearly 42 insects and mite species reported to attacking on trees and fruits of litchi at different stages of growth (Singh et al., 2012). The majority belong to the Lepidoptera and Coleoptera, followed by the Homoptera and Hemiptera. However, only about three or four key pests including fruit and flower borers, sucking bugs, stem borers and erinose mites which require regular control, and the species involved vary between orchards. Secondary pests viz., fruit-piercing moths, defoliators etc generally occur at sub-economic levels, but can become serious pests as a result of changes in cultural practices and litchi cultivars or because of indiscriminate use of insecticides against a key pest. Recently, litchi fruit borer and litchi leaf roller have acquired the status of major pests and now, litchi looper, litchi bug and bag worm are emerging pests of litchi (Choudhary et al., 2013; Singh et al., 2014). Occasional or incidental pests also can cause economic damage only in localized areas at certain times; the great majority of pests reported here fall within this last category.

23 - 38 (16 Pages)
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4 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management of Citrus
Manish Chandra Mehta, Ingle Dipak Shyamrao, M. Raghuraman

Introduction A symposium organized by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) in 1966 and International Organization of Biological Control (IOBC) in 1967, felt the need for the development of a new concept called “Integrated control” which was later replaced by “Integrated Pest Management”. The origin of IPM was necessary after the serious failure of the chemical age which started in the 1940’s. The pesticides were used as the only tactic to completely annihilate the pests from the crop ecosystem, which did miraculously decreased the pests and increased the production of the crop extensively, but they failed to realize the balance of life, by nature and by virtue of the selection pressure pests started developing resistance against all kind of pesticides being dumped on them.While the pests were getting resistant, the dumped pesticides were accumulating in the environment and biomagnifying inside the bodies of animal (WHO, 1990; Alewu & Nosiri, 2011; Eskenazi et al., 1999). The indiscriminate use of pesticides led to the significant health hazard to the humans (WHO, 1990; Alewu & Nosiri, 2011; Sanborn et al., 2007; Mnifet al; 2011; Semchuk et al., 1992; Goad et al., 2004; McKinlay et al., 2008; Gasnier et al., 2009; Lin et al., 2015; Waddell et al., 2001), reproductive malfunction in male (Jamal et al., 2015), nervous system (Jaga and Dharmani, 2003; Rosenstock et al., 1991; Wesseling et al., 2002; Eskenazi et al., 2006), cardiovascular system (Hung et al., 2015) and ultimately death (WHO, 1990; Gunnell et al., 2007). From the lessons acquired of the hazards, the concept of IPM proposed the concept of “pest eradication” was replaced with “pest management”. There are more than 64 definitions of IPM but the most accepted one came from FAO (1967) which defined IPM as “a system in context with associated environment and the population dynamics of pest species, utilizes all suitable techniques and methods in as compatible manner as possible and maintains the pest populations at level below those causing economic injury”. IPM decreased the pest pressure of the crop and increased the productivity of the crop and income of the farmers. IPM is a complex approach that advocates the integration of several components such as physical, mechanical, biological, legal, ecological and chemical tactics, in a compatible manner in a complete ecological set up, so that natural mortality has a role in checking the pest population building up above economic injury level (EIL).

39 - 56 (18 Pages)
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5 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management of Banana
Fouzia Bari, S.K.Senapati

Introduction Banana (Musa sp; family: Musaceae) is the second most important fruit crop in India next to mango. Its year round availability, affordability, varietal range, taste, nutritive and medicinal value makes it the favorite fruit among all classes of people. It has also good export potential. Banana evolved in the humid tropical regions of South East Asia with India as one of its center of origin. Modern edible varieties have evolved from the two species – Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana and their natural hybrids, originally found in the rain forests of S.E. Asia. During the seventh century AD its cultivation spread to Egypt and Africa. Banana and plantains are grown in about 120 countries. Total annual world production is estimated at 86 million tonnes of fruits. India leads the world in banana production with an annual output of about 14.2 million tonnes. Other leading producers are Brazil, Eucador, China, Phillipines, Indonesia, Costarica, Mexico, Thailand and Colombia. In India banana ranks first in production and third in area among fruit crops. It accounts for 13% of the total area and 33% of the production of fruits. Production is highest in Maharashtra (3924.1 thousand tones) followed by Tamil Nadu (3543.8 thousand tonnes). Within India, Maharashtra has the highest productivity of 65.70 metric tones /ha. against national average of 30.5 tonnes/ha. The other major banana producing states are Karnataka, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Assam.

57 - 66 (10 Pages)
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6 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management of Pomegranate
Sandeep Kumar, Priyanka Kumawat, Ponnusamy N.

Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) also known Anar in Hindi it is belonging to the Punicaceae family, it is grown in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Originated in Indo-Burma region Iran and is extensively cultivated in the Mediterranean region since ages (Sheikh and Manjula, 2009). Pomegranate is used as table purpose, making juice, jam, jelly and paste. The fruit peel, tree stem and leaves and root bark are good source of secondary metabolites such as tannins, dyes and alkaloids (Mirdehghan and Rahemi, 2007). The edible part of the fruit is the seeds having a fleshy covering and called arils. India is major pomegranate producing country in the world. In India main pomegranate producing states are Maharashtra, Karnataka, Gujrat, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan. Maharashtra is leading state of pomegranate production in India. The prominent pockets where pomegranate cultivated area are concentrated are Solapur, Nashik, Sangli, Satara and ahemednagar districts of Western region of Maharashtra. Indian total pomegranate crop covers 0.24 Mha and production is 2.87 MT in India (Anonymous 2017). The export of pomegranate from India is only 0.04 MT it is very low. Pomegranate is majorly exported to UAE (43%), Bangladesh (16%) and European Countries (14%) A few tons also go to Saudi Arabia, Russia, Thailand, Nepal, Kuwait etc.

67 - 78 (12 Pages)
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7 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management of Papaya
Nagendra Kumar, Sandeep Kumar, Priyanka Kumawat

Introduction Papaya is a tropical tree fruit crop that cannot tolerate freezing temperatures. It has commercial importance because of its high nutritive and medicinal value. Papaya cultivation had its origin in South Mexico and Costa Rica. Total annual world production is estimated at 6 million tonnes of fruits. India leads the world in papaya production with an annual output of about 3 million tonnes. Other leading producers are Brazil, Mexico, Nigeria, Indonesia, China, Peru, Thailand and Philippines. Papaya fruit are borne on peduncles attached to the main trunk of the papaya tree and are clustered, starting a few feet above the ground and extending up to a foot below the top of the plant adequate water is essential to the uninterrupted growth and production of papaya fruit. There is number of factors which affect quality and quantity of papaya production. Out of insect pest is one of the important factors to reduction of papaya fruit production. List of insect pests of papaya given as below:

79 - 92 (14 Pages)
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8 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management of Guava
Beer Bahadur Singh

Introduction The guava fruit is a good source of vitamin C, pectin, calcium and phosphorus. The fruit is used for the preparation of processed products like jams, jellies and beverages. Guava jelly puree is very popular for its attractive purplish-red colour, pleasant taste and aroma. The puree can be used in juice, cakes, puddings, sauces, ice-cream, jam and jelly. Fruits can be preserved by canning as halves or quarters, with or without seed core (shells). Good quality salad can be prepared from the shell of ripe fruits. Their cultivation in India about 1.32 lakh ha area with production is 17.12 lakh tonnes. Biointensive pest management is use to major emphasis on conservation and enhancement of natural enemies and utilization of all compatible methods for achieving effective economical and safe pest control. These methods are the most appropriate in horticulture and in protected cultivation. The major aim of Biointensive pest management is to provide guidelines and options for the effecting management of pests and beneficial organisms in an ecological context. It will help to reduce the dependence on chemical pesticides and ecological deterioration. Biointensive pest management includes bio-pesticides derived from microbes, parasitoides, predators, botanicals and all conventional non-chemical methods or use of need based. Large number of insect pests has been reported to occur on guava at various growth stages. More than 80 species of insects and mites have recorded on affecting the growth and production. About three species of fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis, B. Cucurbitae and B. Zonata found to attack guava fruits, B. Dorsalis being the dominant. Maximum activity of fruit flies is observed during August to December reaching its peak during September. Two species of bark eating caterpillars, Indarbela quadrinota and I. Tetraonis are commonly found in the region. Sucking pests included Mealy scale, Chloropulvinaria psidii, Mealy bugs Ferrisia virgata, Plannococcus citri, Tea mosquito bugs, Helopeltis antonii, aphid, jassids etc (Azad Thakur et al., 2009). The major pests of guava that are economically damage on this crop given below:

93 - 100 (8 Pages)
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9 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management in Mango
Gundappa Baradevanal, Kumarnag K.M.

Introduction Agricultural pests cause considerable yield losses throughout the world. In ancient times, farmers had to manage pest problem to safeguard their basic needs, and as a response, the farmers use to practice and develop cultural and mechanical pest control strategies based on their field experience. Over a period of time, these practices have become a part of their production management system. Pest management practices began to change in later stages of the 18th century. Introduction of pesticides in agricultural ecosystems 1950’s contributed substantially in raising agricultural productivity and they become an integral component of intensive agricultural ecosystems. At the same time, environmentalists raised their concerns on deleterious effects of pesticides on environment, human health and non-target organisms. Excessive use and abuse of pesticides leads to the problems like resistance, resurgence and residues (Beaument, 1993). One of the deleterious effects of over use of pesticides is the death of effective predator and parasitoids. This ultimately leads to the imbalance in the agroecosystem. Concerns about the negative effects of pesticides led to research and promotion of alternative pest control practices – Integrated Pest Control or simply IPC. This new concept called Integrated Pest Control (IPC) and later Integrated Pest Management (IPM) was stimulated by symposia organized by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations in 1966 and the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) in 1967. IPM made a paradigm shift in the philosophy of pest control, from pest eradication to pest management. Instead of single tactic control, emphasis was placed on the use of a combination of available tactics in a compatible manner keep the pest below economic injury levels. Consequently, a more integrated approach of pest control was advocated considering the natural mortality factors. IPM is a complex system approach that comprises judicious use of cultural, physical, mechanical, biological, host plant resistance, regulatory and chemical methods.

101 - 122 (22 Pages)
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10 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management of Okra
Davendra Kumar, Umesh Das

Introduction Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) also known as lady’s finger or bhendi, belongs to family Malvaceae. Tender fruits are used as vegetables and thickening of gravies and soups, because of its high mucilage content. The roots and stems of okra are used for cleaning cane juice (Chauhan, 1972). In okra several pest may damage the tender fruit that leads to reduction in yield which can be controlled by holistic approach to develop sustainable agriculture. There are several ways among this the Biointensive integrated pest management (BIPM) is one of the best way to discourage the development of pest populations and keep pesticides free so that it makes economically justified to farmers, reduce risks to human health and the environment. Biointensive integrated pest management (BIPM) is essentially a component of integrated pest management which helps to reduce the dependence on chemical pesticides thereby preventing ecological deterioration. The major elements of this approach includes many factors viz., host plant resistance, use of beneficial organism, agronomic practices, biopesticides, parasitoids, predators, plant exudates etc.

123 - 136 (14 Pages)
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11 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management of Brinjal
Ponnusamy N., Anil Kumar, Abbas Ahmad

Introduction Brinjal is an important vegetable crop grown extensively throughout India. In India, brinjal is cultivated in around 730.4 ha with a production of 17.5 million tonnes in the year 2017-18. It is also called as poor man’s vegetable. It is consumed in variety of ways depending upon the eating habits of the different parts of the country. It is grown extensively in Bihar, Orissa, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and states with matching climatic conditions in the tropics and subtropics. Brinjal is an important vegetable crop, but insect pests are making more losses in brinjal cultivation. In brinjal, more than 36 pests have been reported from the time of planting to harvest (Regupathy et al., 1997). Among all insect pests shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbanalis), hadda beetle (Epilachna vigintioctopunctata), jassid (Cestius phycitis), Ash weevil (Myllocerus subfasciatus), white fly (Bemisia tabaci), lace wing bug (Urentius hystricellus) are important (Barker and Pritchrad, 1960). Despite serious nature of the pest, its management tactics by and large is limited to frequent sprays of chemical insecticide without much impact on the yield. Such practice of pesticide usage is detrimental to environment, also increases the cost of production and chances of insecticide residues in the fruit. About 47 per cent insecticides are used for management of fruit and shoot borer out of the total pesticide consumed in vegetables. In this background major emphasis, now-a-days, is being given on Biointensive integrated pest management as alternate to the insecticides for management of any pest. More than a dozen parasitoids and three pathogens have been recorded as natural enemies of insect pest. But the extent of parasitisation/predation under field condition is very low. In this context, inundative release of bio-agents, particularly egg parasitoids in pest management may be more advantageous.

137 - 148 (12 Pages)
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12 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management of Cucurbitious Crops
Ayan Das, Sudarshan Chakraborti

Introduction Cucurbits belong to the family cucurbitaceae; constitute the largest group of summer vegetables grown all over the world which includes about 118 genera and 825 species. Cucumbers, muskmelons, watermelons, squashes, gourds, luffagourd, tissel-gourd and pumpkins are commonly grown cucurbits are mostly important one. These crops are attacked by a variety of insect pest and diseases throughout its growth period; generate wounds that help to transmit of viral particles, bacteria and invasion of fungal pathogens. Major insect pests include cucumber beetles, red pumpkin beetles, fruit flies, epilachna beetles, squash bugs, aphids, white flies, squash vine borers, two-spotted spider mites, and nematodes affects significant damages from seeding stage upto harvest. Insect pest infestations in cucurbits bring about heavy losses through reduction in yield, lowered quality of produce, defoliation of leaves, damage roots or flowers, contribute to poor crop standard increased cost of production and harvesting besides expenditure incurred on materials and equipments to apply control measures.

149 - 178 (30 Pages)
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13 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management of Tomato
Dhole, R.R, Patil, S.P. Maurya, R. and Singh, R.N.

Introduction Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is the largest and most important vegetable crop belongs to family Solanaceae grown all over the world. It is grown for its edible, fleshy, berry typed, mostly red coloured fruits.The species has its origin in coast of Ecuador, Peru, part of Bolivia and the northern region of Chile i.e.western South America and cultivation started most probably by the people of Maxico of Central America1-3. It is found to be a rich source of many minerals like Ca, K, Cu, Fe, Zn and S and vitamins and other nutritive values so it is cultivated both as protective and supplementary food4.In India and in some European countries with common form of tomato fruits the cherry type of tomato fruits also cultivated on large scale. Cherry type of tomato fruits when consumed fresh, act as a very efficient source of diet of urban and rural people as it is reported to be a good source of many macro elements of human requirements such as K, Mg, P and Na5. As it is short duration crop and gives high yield, it is important from economic point of view and hence area under its cultivation is increasing day by day. India is considered to be a second largest producer of tomatoes succeeding to China. Tomato is used in preserved products like ketch- up, sauce, chutney, soup, paste, puree etc. Cherry fruits are commonly used in diverse ways, including raw in salads and processed, and their acidity allows for ease of preservation without refrigeration (long shelf life) or home canning processing for later use6

179 - 206 (28 Pages)
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14 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management of Potato
Sagar Tamang, Tanweer Alam, Lalita Rana

Introduction Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the most important food crop of the world. Potato is a temperate crop grown under subtropical conditions in India. The potato is a crop which has always been the ‘poor man’s friend’. Potato is being cultivated in the country for the last more than 300 years. For vegetable purposes it has become one of the most popular crops in this country. Potatoes are an economical food; they provide a source of low cost energy to the human diet. Potatoes are a rich source of starch, vitamins especially C and B1 and minerals. They contain 20.6 per cent carbohydrates, 2.1 per cent protein, 0.3 per cent fat, 1.1 per cent crude fibre and 0.9 per cent ash. They also contain a good amount of essential amino acids like leucine, tryptophane and isoleucine etc. Potatoes are used for several industrial purposes such as for the production of starch and alcohol. Potato starch (farina) is used in laundries and for sizing yarn in textile mills. Potatoes are also used for the production of dextrin and glucose. As a food product itself, potatoes are converted into dried products such as ‘potato chips’, ‘sliced’ or ‘shredded potatoes’. Potato is grown almost in all states of India. However, the major potato rowing states are Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Karnataka, West Bengal, Bihar and Assam. The main constraint to potato farming in India are: It is vulnerable to control the pests hence implying a high risk of failure, growing potatoes requires substantial capital and the crop needs intensive care and attention. However, a proper Biointensive insect pest management programme will minimize losses to potato crop.

207 - 240 (34 Pages)
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15 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management of Chilli
Dhole, R.R., Patil, S.P., Mahalle, R.M., Maurya, R.

Introduction Chilli (Capsicum annuum var.annuum L.) is one of the most important economical and popular vegetable crops grown for its green fruits as vegetable and red one as a spice1. It is a native of southern Texas and Maxico and was introduced in India by the Portuguese in 19th century2. Chilli is mainly used in culinary adding flavor, color, pungency and rich source of vitamins like A, C, E, P and having medicinal properties3. Chilli is one of the important cash crops grown in almost all parts of the country and is widely grown in the tropics and subtropics as also under glass houses in temperate regions4. The plants are very sensitive to excessive rainfall, water lodging and frost2,5. The ideal condition for its cultivation are well drained loam soil rich in organic matter but can also be grown in many type of soils6. India is a major producer, exporter and consumer of chilli7. Chilli is presently grown extensively throughout the country, both under rainfed and irrigated conditions, in almost all the states covering an area of 792.1 thousand Ha with annual production of 1223.4 thousand metric tonnes8. Andhra Pradesh is the largest producer of chilli in India. It contributes about 30% to the total area under chilli, followed by Karnataka (20%), Maharashtra (15%), Orissa (9%), Tamil Nadu (8%) and other states contributing 18% to the total area under chilli8.

241 - 270 (30 Pages)
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16 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management of Commercial Flower Crops
Davendra Kumar, Sapna Panwar, Girish K.S.

Introduction Biointensive integrated pest management (BIPM) is essentially a component of integrated pest management which helps to reduce the dependence on chemical pesticides thereby preventing ecological deterioration. The major elements of this approach includes many factors viz. host plant resistance, use of beneficial organism, agronomic practices, bio pesticides, parasitoids, predators, plant exudates etc. It also includes all other conventional non-chemical methods of pest control like use of botanical insecticides preferably plant based insecticides like Azadirachtin from Neem (Azadirachta indica), Rotenone from Derris chinensis and Derris elliptica, Nicotine from Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), Juvocimene 1 or 2 and Ocimin from Ocimum sanctum, Atropine from Datura stramonium, Annonine and Squamocin from Annona squamosa etc.

271 - 284 (14 Pages)
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17 Insect-Pest of Common Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and Their Sustainable Management
Umesh Das, Suprakash Pal, Nagendra Kumar

Introduction Medicinal plants are known to Indian traditional healers since time immemorial. The plants were collected from the wild and were used in many preparations of wellness products. India is endowed with diverse group of medicinal plants accounting for more than 8000 species which are being used in more than 10,000 herbal products. Ninety percent of herbal industry’s requirement of raw materials is meted out from the natural ecosystem-forests-resulting in ruthless exploitation and destruction of its natural habitats (Mathivanan et al., 2016). Medicinal plants are cultivated or found in the wild throughout the country and are used for various purposes including traditional herbal remedy (infusion, tincture and decoction) and extraction of phytochemicals for homoeopathic and ayurvedic drugs, cosmetics, neutraceuticals/dietary supplements, functional foods and aroma therapy oils (Nagpal et al., 2004). The large scale cultivation of medicinal plants may face the problem of sudden appearance of large populations of insect pests in a single crop. Like other plants, medicinal plants too have to bear the devastating effects of injurious insect-pests, which are not only harmful for the plant but also, deteriorate the quality of the produce, thus hampering its medicinal value.This chapter discusses major insect-pest and their eco-friendly measures in medicinal plants so that a package of practices can be recommended for an easy adoption even by small and marginal farmers and gardeners in India.

285 - 294 (10 Pages)
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18 Biointensive Integrated Pest Management of Spice Crops
B.S. Gotyal, S. Satpathy, V. Ramesh Babu

Introduction Biotic stresses, particularly insect pests adversely affect the economical yield potential and the quality of the widely cultivated spice crops. These pests attack the crops at various developmental stages of the crops. For instance, Pollu beetle alone in black pepper is the most destructive pest and causing 30 to 40% yield loss in humid, tropical evergreen forests of India (Devasahayam, et al., 1988). Considering the cost of cultivation and profitability, it is very important to develop and recommend low cost, economic easily adoptable technologies. Food production process in India during the green revolution period has been based on the use of more chemical fertilizers and pesticides which are detrimental to the environment. The challenge before the crop protection scientists is to boost the yield from the available land without harming the environment. To manage the problem of insect pests in spice crops, farmers are over using synthetic chemical pesticides indiscriminately and this result in environmental degradation and high pesticide residue levels in the produces are are mainly hindering the export. Now the focus is on organic spice production, therefore a search for safer measures of pest and disease management is gaining importance. Integration of various approaches like use of resistant/tolerant varieties, disease or pest free planting materials and exploitation of biological means such as bio- control agents, bio-pesticides, entomo-pathogens, parasitoids and predators at the right time paved the way to achieve this goal (Dhanya et al., 2019; Prakash et al., 2016). Incorporating ecological and economic factors into decision making and addressing the public concerns about environmental quality and food safety is the need of the hour. There is now wide array of techniques available to replace the use of conventional chemical insecticides in IPM programmes. These issues can be sorted out by adopting eco-friendly Biointensive Integrated Pest Management strategy.

295 - 312 (18 Pages)
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