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AGROBIODIVERSITY AND SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

M. Balakrishnan, S.K. Soam
  • Country of Origin:

  • Imprint:

    NIPA

  • eISBN:

    9789389130348

  • Binding:

    EBook

  • Number Of Pages:

    334

  • Language:

    English

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M. Balakrishnan
M. Balakrishnan NAARM, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad – 500030, Telangana

S.K. Soam
S.K. Soam Indian Council of Agricultural Reserch National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (ICAR-NAARM) Hyderabad- 500 030, India

In the present global scenario, biodiversity management draws the highest attention among researchers and development functionaries. The ’s carries information on current status of plant and animal biodiversity, indigenous practices, landraces, traditional knowledge and gene bank conservation. Detailed account has been presented on major agricultural crops such as wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, organic pigeon pea, millets, niger and cotton. s on as to how can underutilize bioresources be brought under commercial umbrella. Sustainability cannot be ensured without animal bioresources, therefore s have been included on cattle, Indian livestock, poultry, native chickens, camelids etc., and also on pollinator fauna. s are included on monitoring methods for presence of adventitious presence of transgenes and xenobiotic monitoring. Community is the central point in sustainable agrobiodiversity management. The awareness, community strategies, social equity, conservation of local practices and community participation are the key words. The s have been included on indigenous practices for seed storage, conservation of traditional water tanks, tribal farmers’ knowledge & practices, role of women in conservation, organic practices, community seed networks, community pastures and public-private partnerships.

0 Start Pages

Preface   In the present global scenario, biodiversity management draws the highest attention among researchers and development functionaries. Looking to sustainability aspects, the issue of biodiversity is much related to food and agriculture, therefore; National Academy of Agricultural Research Management (ICAR- NAARM) conducted a national conference on agrobiodiversity management for sustainable rural development. The purpose of this conference was to bring all the stakeholders on one platform and share the current knowledge for strategic policy making. Around 150 specialists attended the conference, the national level experts from ICAR, SAUs and state biodiversity boards were also partners. With the objectives of knowledge documentation and appropriate mechanism knowledge transfer, few papers were selected for national level publication in the form of a book. The chapters constitutes review papers on current status of plant and animal biodiversity, indigenous practices, landraces, traditional knowledge and gene bank conservation. Detailed account has been presented on major agricultural crops such as wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, organic pigeon pea, millets, niger and cotton. One of the chapter describes that how can underutilized bioresources such as wild banana be brought under commercial umbrella. Sustainability cannot be ensured without animal bioresources, therefore chapters have been included on cattle, Indian livestock, poultry, native chickens, camel and camelids etc., and also on pollinator fauna. Chapters are included on monitoring methods for presence of adventitious presence of transgenes and xenobiotic monitoring. Community is the central point in sustainable agrobiodiversity management. The awareness, community strategies, social equity, conservation of local practices and community participation are the key words. The chapters have been included on indigenous practices for seed storage, conservation of traditional water tanks, tribal farmers’ knowledge & practices, role of women in conservation, organic practices, community seed networks, community pastures and public-private partnerships. We are grateful to all the authors for contributing the research and review articles for this initiative, the contribution from the publisher ‘NIPA’ is significant so that this book fulfils the purpose of knowledge sharing at national and international level.

 
1 Enhancing Public Private Partnerships for Agrobiodiversity Management in Seed and Planting Material Domain of Horticulture: Role of Technology Transfer and Incubation Facility
Sudha Mysore, Ganeshan S., Krishnamoorthy A., Kavitha M., Vinay S. Shivkumar P., Rani K.C. and Vinay N.

Abstract Horticulture comprising a variety of fruits, vegetables, ornamental and medicinal crops has emerged in the recent times as a key sector of the Indian economy contributing substantially towards enhanced income, employment and welfare of the rural poor. A visible shift is seen in crop diversification across regions in favour of horticultural crops, especially vegetables over traditional cropping pattern comprising of cereals and pulses, since early 90s. Definitely higher profitability has been identified in comparison to cereals, increased urbanisation, enhanced living standards, besides the growing awareness for balanced nutrition as the main reason for such a shift. Commensurate with this trend has been a visible shift in enhanced R&D investments into horticultural R&D both from the public and private sectors. There is a growing need for the public sector research organisations like ICAR to increase their visibility and promote public private partnerships through innovative methods of research and development at this juncture.

1 - 6 (6 Pages)
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2 Commercial Exploitation of Wild Musa Biodiversity
Dayarani M., Dhanarajan M.S., Uma S., Saraswathi M.S., Udhayanjali K. and Aishwarya M.G.

Abstract In recent years the quest for improving the quality of life has ventured into many aspects of utilizing plants for the aesthetic sense. One such is an increased utilization of flowers /flowering plants for beautification of homes, offices, gardens etc. The increased interest in use of cut flowers has brought challenge of bringing in varieties of natural flowers from different sources. India’s rich biodiversity also contributes addition of lot of new species to the cut flower industry. Banana and Plantains have been revered only for their utility as dessert fruit or staple food. But aesthetic dimension has never been much explored. Musa comprises more than 50 species and sub species traversed across the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Musa Ornata is one such plant, native to north eastern regions of India, belongs to the family Musaceae and section Rhodochlamys. It draws its attention by virtue of its bright inflorescence and its long lasting nature. It is a medium statured plant, hence suitable for gardens also. It is a fertile wild species, multiplies mainly through suckers and through seeds to some extent.

7 - 16 (10 Pages)
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3 Collection, Conservation and Evaluation of Niger Plant Genetic Resources for Specific Traits for Achieving Sustainability in Production
Suvarna, Shakuntala N.M., Tembhurne B.V., Lokesha R. and Diwan J.R.

Abstract An experiment was conducted in two replications with seventy germplasm lines during kharif 2012 at College of Agriculture, UAS, Raichur. The germplasm included 30 local varieties from different parts of Karnataka and 40 lines collected from AICRP, Jabalpur. Each entry was sown in three lines of 4 m length with 30 cm x10 cm spacing. Out of seventy lines sixty two entries were germinated. These lines were evaluated for seed yield and other ancillary characteristics viz., days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of primary branches, number of capitula, number of seeds per capitulum and seed yield. Among them, six entries performed better than check variety No. 71 and 12 entries performed better than another check variety RCR 18. Among all the entries N-84 (238.89 kg/ha) and SD-33 (215.28 kg/ha) produced high yield. Hadagali local and No. 71 (51.5 days) were found earliest in flowering and maturing varieties and SP 141 was late in flowering (71 days) and late in maturing. Tavaregere local (66.5 cm) and SP134 had less plant height (67.5 cm) and BMD 127 had highest (113.5 cm) plant height. The number of primary branches was more in the genotype Humnabad local (12.5). Number of capsules per plant was more in Humnabad local and ICP 76 (53.0) and number of seeds per capsule were more in BMD 115 (77.0).

17 - 22 (6 Pages)
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4 Utilization of Local Wheat Biodiversity for Sustainable Development
S.K. Singh, K. Venkatesh, C.N. Mishra, V. Tiwari and Indu Sharma

Abstract Agricultural practices prior to the eighteenth century were completely dependent on crop landraces and their mixtures. The knowledge of plant genetics and its application to crop improvement programmes led to increase the production potential of agriculture. Contrary to this, the wonders of crop improvement have resulted in the erosion of genetic diversity of many crops in farmers’ fields, including wheat, due to the replacement of landraces and farmers’ old cultivars with modern high-yielding cultivars. Wheat is cultivated over an area of 216.6 million hectare globally and the production is 674.9 million tons. The seven largest producers of wheat are China, India, the Russian Federation, the USA, France, Turkey and Canada. During 2012-13, India produced 92.46 million tons of wheat from 29.65m ha area with productivity of 31.19q/ha (4th Advance Estimates, Directorate of Economics and Statistics, Government of India). Three wheat species namely, T. aestivum L., T. durumDesf. and T. dicoccumSchubl are grown in India as commercial crops covering 95, 4 and 1 percent area, respectively. The cultivation of T. dicoccumis confined largely to the regions of Karnataka and Maharashtra.

23 - 32 (10 Pages)
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5 Genetic Diversity Among Rice Genotypes for Yield and Quality Components Cultivated in Integrated Fertilizer Management
Dhurai Samir Yadaorao, D. Mohan Reddy and Pradeep Kumar Bhati

Abstract Genetic diversity of thirty two rice genotypes from different states of India was evaluated through Mahalanobis’s D2statistic under integrated fertilizer management for fourteen yield and quality characters. The genotypes were grouped in to seven different clusters. Cluster I had nine genotypes. Three genotypes each were included in cluster II, cluster IV and cluster VII, whereas six and seven genotypes in cluster III and cluster V, respectively while the cluster VI had only one genotype. The results revealed that the geographic diversity might not always be related to genetic diversity. Kernel length after cooking, days to maturity and kernel breadth contributed maximum towards divergence indicating their importance in choice of parents for the hybridization programme.

33 - 40 (8 Pages)
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6 Sorghum Germplasm Diversity in India
M. Elangovan

Abstract The Directorate of Sorghum Research has explored 9 states for sorghum germplasm during 2000 – 2011. The sorghum landrace collections are mostly named with the village name prefixed to the landrace (ex. tongraligaon maldandi, sultanpur maldandi etc), landraces are also named based on the grain colour (ex. tella jonna, bili jola etc.) and size (ex. moti rabi jowar), ear head compactness (ex. mudda jola), use of the stem, ear head or grain (ex. dagdi, gundu, allur, broom etc.) for varieties utilities. The landraces are being grown by farmers over the years for many reasons. The moli jowar grains are attractive and fetch higher price in the market compared to other released varieties in Madhya Pradesh. Some are used for specific food preparations. The irungu cholam flour is boiled with water to prepare food. The mathappu cholam is used to prepare a jelly like food known as khali in Tamil Nadu. The beed maldandi and bidri from Maharashtra are used to make quality jowar roti. Karnataka’s kodumurugu jola and allina jola are used to make laddu’s and pappads respectively. Broomcorn jowar from Uttarakhand are used for roti, cattle and poultry feed making. The allur jola from Karnataka is used to prepare allu dish during the nagapanchami (festival of snake god). The pachcha jonna from Andhra Pradesh, barmuda local, deshi chari and gudli local from Rajasthan and bendri dagdi and khondya from Maharashtra are very good fodder types. Valsangh maldandi local, Vadgaon dagdi maldandi, tongraligaon maldandi, tongraligaon dagdi, sultanpur local dagdi, sultanpur maldandi, harni jogdi (dagdi), harni jogdi, chungi maldandi, musti local (Maldandi), chungi kuch-kachi, baddi jowar, chakur maldandi from Maharashtra, and sai jonna from Andhra Pradesh are considered by the farmers as drought tolerant landraces. In Andhra Pradesh, Koya’s (tribe) grow konda jonna. Lambada’s used to grow the maghi sorghum landraces extensively in the state. The tribal community mainly uses the accessions as food and some are used for both food & fodder. The accessions collected from the higher elevation and remote forest area is source material for pest & disease resistance. The accession IC 347574 is used as the tribal food. The accession IC 347583 is a guinea race and IC 347585 is a durra-guinea race sorghum collected at an elevation of 500 feet from the tribal village. In Gujarat,Gomati (tribe) grow deshi jonna landraces. In Madhya Pradesh, Rewa district is the maximum deshi jowar cultivation region. This area is commonly called “Junariwala Shetra”. Mehran, Swarguor, and Kushwaha are the main tribes cultivating the jowar in these regions. In Maharashtra, Korukoo’s tribe grows somgi and deshi jonna landraces. They cultivate sorghum with lablab, chillies, cotton, redgram, and tomato at the height of 650 – 870 m from MSL. Maximum diversity of the sorghum still exists in the disturbed forests. Due to extend of its natural variability, India exists as the secondary origin of sorghum.

41 - 54 (14 Pages)
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7 Monitoring for Adventitious Presence of Transgenes in Ex Situ Cotton Collections Conserved at National Gene Bank in India
Gurinder Jit Randhawa, Rashmi Chhabra, Ruchi Sharma and Rajesh K. Bhoge

Abstract While harnessing the benefits of genetically modified (GM) crops, in terms of increased yield, better nutritional quality and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, it is important to undertake biosafety and risk assessment studies in a systematic manner to allay the concerns of their impact on the environment and especially on the genetic diversity. Since Bt cotton is the only commercialized GM crop in India, this paper reports on the monitoring of unintentional introgression of transgene(s)/ regulatory elements of four commercialized Bt cotton events, covering 99.5% of the area under cultivation, in 180 ex situ cotton accessions conserved in the National Gene Bank at National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR), New Delhi, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays. Based on the real-time event-specific and conventional transgene-specific PCR assays, no amplification signals specific to two major Bt cotton events MON531, MON15985; transgenes/markers/ regulatory elements of 4 widely cultivated commercialized Bt cotton events, i.e., cry1Ac, cry2Ab, marker genes, i.e., nptII (neomycin phosphotransferase), aadA (aminoglycoside-3’-adenyltransferase) and uidA (?-D-glucuronidase) marker genes, CaMV35S, nos (nopaline synthase) promoters and nos terminator were detected in any of the cotton accessions. The study shows that the cotton accessions conserved in National Gene Bank are GM free and the study can be used as a model for monitoring the adventitious presence of unintended mixing of cotton seed during seed production or harvesting in Bt cotton growing states of India. On similar lines, adventitious presence of transgenes can be checked in ex situ collections of different crops conserved in the genebanks.

55 - 66 (12 Pages)
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8 Awareness of Farmers About Sustainable Farming Practices in Pigeonpea Cultivation
Sidram B.Y., D.M. Chandargi, S.K. Meti and Hanchinal S.N.

Abstract A profile study of organic pigeonpea growers was conducted during 2007-08 in Gulbarga district of Karnataka state. Two taluks namely, Gulbarga and Jewargi were selected based on highest area under organic pigeonpea cultivation. One hundred twenty respondents were selected with simple random sampling procedure, to know (1) the practices followed by farmers in organic pigeonpea cultivation and (2) the forward linkage activities followed by organic pigeonpea growers. The study revealed that majority of respondents (63.33 %) had medium level knowledge about organic pigeonpea farming practices, with regard to individual organic farming practices, majority of respondents had knowledge about the practices like recommended seed rate (81.60%), recommended sowing time (98.33 %), application of FYM (100%), crop rotation (96.67%), pheromone traps (98.33%), NPV (100%) and NSKE (100%). With regard to post harvest operations, cent percent of respondents graded the produce manually and jute bags used to store the produce, whereas, 71.67% of the respondents sold later when price was suitable in regulated market (90.00%) through commission agents (77.50%) and got price information by personnel visit/phone call to regulated market (81.67%) and others who visited the market (68.33%). But no farmer certified the produce and sold at premium price. With regards to personal characteristics, majority of respondents (31.62 %) were illiterate, 59.17 per cent were had joint family, 61.17 per cent were having low farming experience, 60.83 per cent of respondents were big land holders and 69.17 per cent of respondents possessed medium level of scientific orientation.

67 - 76 (10 Pages)
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9 Conservation of Minor Millets For Sustaining Agricultural Biodiversity and Food Security
Omvati Verma, Kanchan Nainwal and M. Thoithoi Devi

Abstract Many people’s food and livelihood security depend on the sustained management of various biological resources that are important for food and agriculture. Agro biodiversity is the result of the interaction between the environment, genetic resources and management systems and practices used by culturally diverse peoples. The management of agro biodiversity by the indigenous communities is for a variety of reasons. The land use types, land use stages, aspect, soil fertility, availability of water and quality seed of crops etc. are essential variables which an indigenous farmer considers while cultivating a diversity of traditional landraces in the farm for food security. India is the largest producer of many kinds of millets, which are often referred as coarse cereals. However, realizing the nutrient richness of these grains they are now considered as nutria-cereals. Small millets, as a group includes several grain crops namely finger millet (ragi), proso millet, barnyard millet, italian millet, kodo millet and little millet. In the four decades since 1961, the area under millets declined by nearly 50% from about 18 million hectares to about 9 million hectares. During this time, production of millets declined from about 8.8 million tons to about 7.2 million tons; a decline of 18%. Tremendous decrease in area and production is directly or indirectly resulted in the loss of agro biodiversity of these crops as these crops are grown on marginal or rainfed areas without any fertilizers. Therefore, more emphasis should be given for maintaining bio diversity of these highly rich crops by increasing area under these minor millets and developing proper agro techniques for increasing its productivity.

77 - 86 (10 Pages)
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10 Strategies to Foster and Conserve Navara- A Wonder Medicinal Rice
R. Sendilkumar, Rekha. C.R. and M. Israel Thomas

Abstract Rice is the staple and principle food of about half the human race and is often the main source of calories. Navara is a unique rice cultivar indigenous to Kerala, gifted with extra short growth duration. It is mainly used for the preparation of Navara kizhi, which is an effective remedy for rheumatic complaints, neuro muscular disorders and body rejuvenation. It is traditionally given as a supplementary diet to the under-weight and also consumed as a replenishing drink called ‘Karkadaka kanji’ during the monsoon season along with certain other herbal medicines.Despite the Navara is known for its special medicinal attributes to the producers, consumers and other actors of the value chain, there is a declining trend of Navara rice cultivation noticed (2000 acres to less than 50 acres) in the state (The Hindu, November 28, 2010), which entails the loss of biological and cultural diversity associated with this unique rice.The study attempted to identify and analyze the actors involved in the value chain of Navaraon the conservation perspective. The primary data required to analyze actors in the value chain were collected from the farmers, input suppliers, processors, retailers and consumers of Palakkad, through key informant method, focused group discussion, and structured interview schedules and analysed through Value chain mapping tool and SWOT analysis. The secondary data regarding the rice and its properties were collected from websites and publications. The study revealed that the cultivation of Navarashould be purely organic to preserve its medicinal value. The cultural practices except ploughing, such as weeding, manuring, harvesting etc. are done manually. Application of chemical fertilizers will increase the vegetative growth of Navaraand subject to lodging of plants and at the same it also affects the quality of rice.

87 - 106 (20 Pages)
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11 Agricultural Biodiversity and Genetics of Fiber Characters, Yield and its Components in Intra and Inter Specific Hybrids of Allo-Tetraploid Cottons (Gossypium spp. Linn.)
K.B. Eswari, M.V. B. Rao, J. Suresh, K. Sumalini and Srikanth

Abstract The present investigation on “Agro bio-diversity and genetics of fibre characters, yield and its components in intra and inter specific hybrids of allo-tetraploid cottons (Gossypiumspp. Linn.)” was carried out at College Farm, College of Agriculture, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, to study the combining ability and heterosis for quality and yield characters. Further, an attempt was made to trace out best parents and crosses for future breeding programmes and also to know the gene action controlling the traits through generation mean analysis for designing appropriate breeding strategy. In this direction, seven lines and four testers were crossed in L x T design to generate 28 hybrids and evaluated with check NHH 44 to know the combining ability of parents and crosses. Since L x T design does not provide comprehensive picture on gene action governing the traits, the generation mean analysis through joint scaling test was done in four crosses for eleven characters. High PCV and GCV were recorded for number of monopodia per plant and seed cotton yield per plant and moderate estimates were observed for number of bolls per plant, boll weight. High heritability estimates coupled with high genetic advance were observed for number of bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield per plant. Estimates of components of variance and their ratios (?2 gca/?2 sca) indicated the preponderance of non-additive gene action for days to 50 % flowering, number of monopodia per plant, number of sympodia per plant, number of bolls per plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield per plant, whereas additive gene action was observed for the fiber quality traits viz., 2.5 % span length, uniformity ratio, micronaire value and bundle strength.

107 - 112 (6 Pages)
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12 Genetic Divergence Studies in Maize Germplasm (Zea mays L.)
K. Sumalini, K.B. Eswari, J. Suresh and T. Pradeep

Abstract The genetic divergence among 249 germplasm lines of maize was assessed by D2statistics based on nine parameters at Agricultural Research Station, Karimnagar. The germplasm lines were grouped into eleven clusters. Clusters I and II were the largest clusters with 73 and 79 genotypes, respectively. The highest inter cluster distance was observed between cluster X and XI followed by cluster V and XI indicating more variability in the genetic makeup of inbreds included in these clusters. Cluster V showed highest mean values for grain yield/plant and ear length. Cluster XI had the lowest mean values for plant height and ear height and these two characters showed maximum contribution towards total divergence among different characters. Based on inter cluster distances, inter crossing among the genotypes belonging to cluster V, IX, X and XI has the chance of getting high yielding hybrids with higher heterosis.

113 - 122 (10 Pages)
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13 Crop Diversity in Andhra Pradesh and Their Conservation Concerns
M. Elangovan and P. Kiran Babu

Abstract Crop diversity play important role of sustainable development. A study on crop diversity in Andhra Pradesh was conducted during 2010-2011. In Andhra Pradesh, cultivated crop plant species resulted in augmentation of 140 species belonging to 132 genera and 46 families. The maximum species strength was observed in the Rayalaseema region (127 species belonging to 120 genera and 43 families), followed by Telangana region (125 species belonging to 114 genera and 43 families) and parts of Coastal Andhra region (118 species belonging to 103 genera and 46 families). Species richness was predominant in cultivated crops like vegetable crops (31 species belonging 25 genera and 12 families), Fruit crops (25 species belonging 18 genera and 14 families), commercial crops (23 species belonging 23 genera and 15 families) and Leafy vegetables (12 species belonging 12 genera and 8 families). The maximum species richness in families was found in Fabaceae (16 genera and 19 species), followed by Poaceae (14 genera and 16 species), Cucurbitaceae (11 genera and 14 species), Asteraceae (7 genera and 7 species) and Apiaceae (5 genera and 5 species). The present and the past similar studies observed that many more native species remain in agriculture than previously thought, under the right conditions. There is a need to establish mechanisms of control on introduction of exotic species in natural habitats. We also need to strengthen the legislation on the use of biodiversity and to establish a research programme of the economic potential of local flora and fauna as an alternative to introduction of exotic species to safeguard our traditional crop diversity.

123 - 138 (16 Pages)
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14 Indian Cattle Biodiversity – Source of Sustainable Livelihood Security Under Rural India
R.S. Gandhi, Avtar Singh, I.D. Gupta and Archana Verma

Abstract India is a country of villages (640930 villages) and 68.84% population of India is living in villages as per the All India Census, 2011. Dairy farming has been complementing the Indian agriculture since ancient times and rearing of livestock for milk/milk products and draft power has been the tradition of ancient India. Majority of the stake holders are from local communities, particularly pastoralists, have been using their traditional knowledge system for rearing the native breeds. The systematic breeding of cows over the centuries has led to the development of as many as 37 cattle breeds in India. Breeds like Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Gir, Kankrej, Tharparkar and Rathi are mostly reared for milk production. The number of the animals of majority of indigenous breeds has declined over the years attributed to crossbreeding. Further, their number is very low and majority of cattle population (80%) in India is non-descript. However, considering the importance of indigenous cattle, some of the breed improvement programs have been initiated to conserve and multiply these breeds.

139 - 154 (16 Pages)
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15 Livestock Breeds for Livelihoods and Sustainable Inclusive Development
D.K. Sadana

Abstract Local breeds of livestock represent embodiment of evolutionary wisdom fully in tune with ecosystem and able to produce and reproduce in spite of the prevalent hardships and shortages. Indigenous breeds survive and produce where others fail. Each of the recognized 144 indigenous breeds of livestock (covering cattle, sheep, yak etc.) has its unique qualities - some known and some yet unknown - but central to all features is ‘efficiency of production’ by local breeds. A breed in its own habitat makes the most efficient production system; under the same prevalent input system, any other breed from outside would not perform as efficiently. Another valuable common feature of the local breeds is their sustainability of survival and production. Production level may be medium as the animal has to spend energy in order to gain adaptability to high ambient heat, tolerance to drought, resistance to the prevalent diseases and be able to retain capability to digest low quality feed fodder which itself is not sufficiently available. In spite of such hardships, the local breed continues to survive and successfully procreates to sustainably maintain the production system over generations and thereby providing livelihoods to marginal people leading to inclusive growth. Innate features of sustainability of the local breeds provide sustainability to local livelihoods as well. It is noted that the livestock in its entirety, but especially the indigenous breeds proper, have the multifarious capability to provide livelihoods to our rural masses, infuse sustainability to animal-agriculture, and facilitate inclusive development by targeting and supporting the marginal people in the country.

155 - 160 (6 Pages)
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16 Profile of Village-Based Indigenous Chicken Production System in Kerala
P. Girishkumar and R. Richard Churchil

Abstract In the present study, the village chicken rearing practices were documented in Kannur and Kozhikode districts of Kerala. A total of 128 native chicken farming households were surveyed. The system of management is extensive backyard type with the provision of shelter at night. Around 90% of the farmers had more than five years of continuous experience in village chicken farming. Majority (73.4%) of chicken present in this region was either reproduced within the household from earlier generations or added from the neighbourhoods of the same Panchayat. Most of the farmers (68.8%) consider that chickens are reared for both egg and meat; while, others (31.3%) deem that they are meant for eggs alone. As many as 87 % of the farmers cull the surplus males before one and half years of age. In contrast, majority of farmers (78.1%) do not cull female birds and usually maintain them till their death.

161 - 176 (16 Pages)
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17 Indian Hill Camel (Camelus dromedarius) and Sustainable Camel Dairying
S.C. Mehta

Abstract The Arabian camels are well known for their existence and adaptation to the desert geo-climatic situations. Their service to mankind in the difficult terrains of the earth for transport and baggage is also well documented in the literature and has clear reflection in society through art and culture. The existence and adaptation of single humped camels in hilly terrains of India is not very much known, but there exists a population of camel in the hills of erstwhile Mewar state of southern Rajasthan and adjoining area. Based on the locality these camels are known as Mewari camels and are well adapted to travel and carry loads across hills. Phenotypically the Mewari camels are stouter and off-white to light brown in colour. Molecular characterization also distinguishes it from other major breeds of camel. The Mewari camels are mainly reared for milk production. In recent study, it was found that of the total camel population with camel milk producers, about 31% are in-milk female camels. On an average about 2.8 litres of milk per milking female is being sold in the market everyday. Assuming that the camel population in the tract has gone down by 25% of its level of the year 2007 and the current survey figures are utilized for extrapolation, the population of camels in the breeding tract comes to 10408 with 4335 breedable females and 3226 female camels in milk. Accordingly, thousand lactating camels are producing 2800 litres of milk per day or 1022 tonnes per annum and are exclusively meeting the milk requirement of 10,000 persons at present level of per capita availability of milk in the country i.e. 276 gm per day. If the production potential of superior animals of the breed is utilized, the per day production from a female camel can be gradually increased to 6 litres or even more as the the best animals produce an average yield of 10 litres of milk per day during a lactation period of 16 months. Thus with 1000 she camels presently meeting the milk requirement of 10,000 people, may meet the milk requirement of 20,000 people by selecive breeeding. With proper policy support, if more she camels can be covered, the population covered can be increased proportionately. The increase in milk production is expected to increase per capita milk availability in the deficient districts and thus may assist us in ensuring nutritional security of the people of the region. Consequently, the increased milk production may further ensure better returns to the camel owners and thus strengthening the livelihood and conserving the camel populations in situ.

177 - 192 (16 Pages)
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18 Evolution, Status and Conservation of Camelids
S.C. Mehta, U.K. Bissa, Sajjan Singh and N.V. Patil

Abstract Camelids across the world are reared for milk, meat, draught, race and tourism. Camelids are also the source of world’s finest natural fibre. They are distributed in the South American, African, Arabian and Asian countries. Apart from this a feral population exists in Australia and recent reports indicate that a few animals of the species are also being reared in Europe. Camel (Camelus dromedarius) is the predominant species of the camelids. The world camel population shows an increasing trend with 12.92 m in 1961 to 26.63 m in 2011 producing 0.42 m tonnes of meat and 2.11 m tonnes of milk per annum. The top 20 camel rearing countries produce both milk and meat with the exception of India and Pakistan as per FAO data. There are about 83 populations of the dromedary camels in the world spread mainly across African and Asian countries. There are about 3.04 m Alpacas in world with Huacaya and Suri as the two main populations and 3.24 m Llamas with Chaku and Kara as the two main populations. The Guanaco population in the world is about 0.5 m and that of Vicuna is 0.35 m. The wild Bactrian camels are around a thousand but the domesticated Bactrian camels are about 0.6 m. The Alpaca and Bactrian camel genome has been sequenced whereas the expressed sequence tags of the Dromedary are available in the public domain. A brief account of evolution, present status and conservation of camelids is discussed.

193 - 204 (12 Pages)
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19 Sustainability of Grazing Land Through Assessment of Carrying Capacity of Pasture Land in Western Zone of Tamil Nadu
V.S. Mynavathi and C. Jayanthi

Abstract Determining the optimum stocking rate for a grazing land is a key decision affecting the profitability and viability of a grazing system. Forage intake and subsequent performance is dependent on forage availability to the livestock on a daily basis. Fixing stocking rate too low results in wastage of forage and loss in profit and too high results in lowered forage intake and livestock output thus results in diminished profits. Overgrazing occurs when the grazing pres-sure exceeds the carrying capacity of the land and would modify the physical properties of soil and ecosystem. Due to the overuse of the grazing land, vegetation cover declines and thus reduces the soil organic matter content and soil infiltration capacity. On farm field experiments were conducted in three farmer’s fields at dryland tracts of Tirupur district for a period of two years from September, 2009 to March, 2011 with the objective to assess the carrying capacity of silvipastoral farming system. Treatments were five silvipastoral systems viz.,Acacia leucophloea + Cenchrus ciliaris, Acacia leucophloea + Cenchrus ciliaris + Stylosanthes hamata, Acacia leucophloea + Cenchrus setigerus + Stylosanthes hamata, Acacia leucophloea + fodder sorghum + Pillipesara and Acacia leucophloea + Cenchrus setigerus + Stylosanthes hamata & fodder sorghum + Pillipesara. One unit of Mecheri sheep of five ewes (female) and one ram (male) and two buffaloes were maintained in each location. Observations on carrying capacity, annual forage yield, utilization rate, average daily intake and average fodder requirement of sheep and Length of grazing season were made. The experimental results revealed that, among the different silvipastoral systems, rotational grazing of 39 numbers of sheep per ha of silvipasture land with Cenchrus setigerus + Stylosanthes hamata & fodder sorghum + Pillipesara system is found to be the best. This would imply relatively less pressure on land that would indicate sustaining the carrying capacity of grazing land without exerting pressure on natural resources.

205 - 218 (14 Pages)
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20 Sustainable Rural Poultry Production through Conservation and Improvement of Native Chickens
Santosh Haunshi, M.K. Padhi and M. Niranjan

Abstract Indigenous chickens play vital role in sustainable rural development by providing livelihood and nutritional security to the rural and tribal people. However, indigenous chickens in the country increasingly face the threat of their replacement or erosion in their genetic diversity due to introduction of exotic or improved chickens to enhance productivity of backyard poultry production. Therefore, it becomes imperative to improve the growth and productivity of indigenous chickens in order to make the rearing of indigenous chickens economically attractive proposition. Aseel is one of the important indigenous breeds of chicken that is being conserved and improved for growth and egg production at Directorate of Poultry Research (DPR), Hyderabad. The averageegg production of improved Aseel chickens recorded in a laying cycle of 72 weeks of age was 150.3±5.63with an average egg weight of 48.66 ±0.34g. The average body weights of male and female birds recorded at 72 weeks of age were 3156 ± 27.4 and 2133±36.1 g, respectively while corresponding shank lengths were 135.23±0.7 and 104.9±0.4 mm. Another indigenous chicken germplasm, Ghagus-ecotype was collected from border area of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh at Kolar district and is being characterized and conserved at DPR. The comparative growth performance of these indigenous chickens was also studied under similar management conditions. It was observed that the growth and egg production of improved Aseel breed was significantly higher than the Ghagus-ecotype chickens. The improved Aseel breed with its better growth and production performance appears to be a promising indigenous chicken for sustainable rural poultry production.

219 - 228 (10 Pages)
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21 Studies on Pollinator Fauna and Their Relative Abundance of Mustard (Brassica Juncea L.: Cruciferae) At Pantnagar
Vimla Goswami and M.S. Khan

Abstract Pollinators provide key services to both natural and agricultural ecosystems. Agricultural productivity depends, in part, on pollinator populations from adjacent semi natural habitats. Honey bees are the primary pollinators of mustard crop because it is highly attractive to bees and provides both nectar and pollen. Studies were conducted to assess the diversity and relative abundance of pollinators in mustard (Brassica juncea) of 2011-2012 at Apiary Garden, G.B Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar.A total of 19 insect visitors belonging to order Hymenoptera (15) and Diptera (4) were found to visit the mustard blossoms. Hymenopteran visitors belonged to six families namely Apidae (6), Scollidae (3), Xylocopidae (1), Halictidae (2), Magachilidae (1), Anthophoridae (1) and Sphecidae (1). Lepidopteran visitors belonged to families Pieridae (1). Besides this some Dipteran visitor belonged to families these were Syrphidae (3) and Muscidae (1) were observed on mustard flowers. From the family Apidae, honeybees (Apis mellifera, Apis dorsata, Apis cerana indica and Apis florea), Ceratina sexmaculata, Xylocopa iridipennis and stingless bee Tetragonula laeviceps family Apidae. Scolia (Discolia) binolata, Campsomeriella collaris and C. annulata of family Scollidae, the Alkali Bees (Nomiasp.) and Halictussp. of Halictidae, Leaf cutter bee (Megachile disjuncta) of Megachilidae, the digger bee (Anthophorasp.) of Anthophoridae and Sphex sp. of Sphecidae. Three species from family Syrphidae (Syrphus corollae, Episyrphus valtiatus and Eristalis tenax) and one species from Muscidae (Musca domestica) visited the mustard flowers. The abundance (percentage of insect/m2/2min.) of Hymenopterans were maximum (79.97 %) followed by the Dipterans (16.15 %) and others (3.73 %). In Hymenopterans, the honeybees (Apis bees) were observed maximum (57.55 %) followed by non Apis bees (21.06 %) and the scolid wasp (1.35 %).

229 - 234 (6 Pages)
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22 Biodiversity and Agro-Biodiversity in Restoration of Traditional Village Tank Systems with Community Participation in Southern India
Bitra Sada Siva

Abstract Irrigation tanks (Traditional water harvesting structures) are our heritage handed over to us by our ancestors and are the lifelines of villages. Tanks are small irrigation structures predominantly serve small and marginal farming communities to sustain the agriculture production by supplementing the monsoon rains. There will be festivities in the villages if its irrigation tanks get filled. A proper maintenance of the tanks will prevent famine, starvation and unemployment and bring in prosperity. In most of the Southern states in India, the major threats to tanks are mainly from the encroachers, inefficiency in the functioning of tank system and improper use by the government itself. Tank irrigation in Andhra Pradesh has played a vital role in the development of its agricultural economy. There are around 79,000 small and minor irrigation tanks providing water for irrigation and domestic use, supporting grazing land, fuel wood growth and ground water recharge. Many of these tanks are hydrologically linked in chains (called tank cascades) that cut across administrative boundaries. With deteriorating tank systems, marginal and small farmers are increasingly at the mercy of monsoon and are forced into a cycle of deprivation and debt. These ancient irrigation systems still function as a crucial element in supplying water for agriculture, and they constitute one of the richest sources of wetland biodiversity in the country. A tank system in a cascade has a small reservoir catchment, the reservoir, a strip of trees downstream of the reservoir that act as wind-breaking barrier, paddy fields, and the village. The village tanks play significant role in food production sector and provide employment in the rural sector. In addition to providing irrigation water, the tanks made the micro-climate pleasant and cool, provided a rich biodiversity and agro-biodiversity

235 - 248 (14 Pages)
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23 Agrobiodiversity (Landraces) Conservation through Traditional Storage Practices
P. Jyothi and G. Swathi

Abstract Agrobiodiversity is the back bone playing a significant role in food security and sustainable livelihoods. Agricultural systems of India are home to a great diversity of plant species and genetic varieties, but unfortunately these traditional farming systems are facing the danger of extinction today. The present study was conducted from three tribal mandals namely Araku, Paderu and Ananthagiri in Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh as it is noted as a hub of biodiversity in North coastal zone of Andhra Pradesh. Data was collected by direct interview method and the traditional storage practices for the conservation of agrobiodiversity (landraces) were described.

249 - 254 (6 Pages)
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24 Traditional Knowledge of Tribal Farmers on Agrobiodiversity (Landraces) in Visakhapatnam District of Andhra Pradesh
G. Swathi, R.Vasantha and S. Kiran

Abstract The human race has been dependent on plants for both material and financial needs for millions of years. This has enabled them to evolve a unique system of knowledge on the utilization and conservation of plant genetic resources. Tribals rich traditional knowledge is associated with biodiversity. This knowledge has been acquired over years, treasured and are endowed with and passed on by the local communities and the tribals. Farmers with their age old experience in farming developed a comprehensive knowledge on nutrient content and medicinal properties of various plants. Cereals, small millets, pulses, oilseeds & many more forest plants form important component of food source for the tribal people of North coastal zone of Andhra Pradesh. This knowledge was documented from older generation who could provide age old information about the landraces and traditional life styles which are under threat. This paper briefly describes the extent of knowledge possessed by tribal respondents on Agrobiodiversity in terms of crops and landraces cultivated in selected mandals of Visakhapatnam district. Results indicated low knowledge on landrace of Jowar whereas medium knowledge in case of oilseeds and millets and high knowledge in cereals, pulses and vegetables. This calls for a immediate attention from various stake holders for Agrobiodiversity conservation.

255 - 264 (10 Pages)
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25 Identification of Predominant Farming Systems in High Altitude and Tribal (HAT) Zone of Andhra Pradesh
V. Rajendra Prasad, K. Tejeswara Rao and D. Chinnam Naidu

Abstract High Altitude zone is comprised of 40 mandals distributed in parts of Srikakulam, Vishakhapatnam, East Godavari and Khammam districts of Andhra Pradesh covering a geographical area of 1.8 m. ha. The area of this zone lies between 50 to 1680 MSL and is characterized by high slopes, mountains, hills and hillocks as part of Eastern Ghats. Red soils are the most predominant type (94.8%). A small area is covered under alluvial soils and coastal sands. The mean annual rainfall ranges from 1245 to 1288 mm of which about 70 per cent is contributed by southwest monsoon. Large geographical area (58.9%) in the zone is under forests and the net cropped area is only 19.2% with very little irrigation sources. The tribal people of this area practice shifting cultivation locally known as “podu” cultivation for their subsistence. Rice is the most important crop in the zone occupying 36.2 per cent of the gross cropped area of 0.42 m. ha. The other principal crops grown are millets, mesta, niger and tuber crops. Tea, coffee and other plantation crops are also grown in addition to aromatic and medicinal plants. Cropping intensity is 120 per cent. Forest produce such as honey, gum, soap nuts, tamarind fetch income to the tribal people (www.angrau.net).

265 - 270 (6 Pages)
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26 Role of Women in Agrobiodiversity Conservation
R.R. Chaudhari

Abstract India is bestowed with immense richness of agro-biodiversity and a rich diversity in landraces / traditional cultivars/farmers varieties in several Agricultural and Horticultural crops. A huge number of crop plants (384) are reported to be cultivated in India. This includes 168 species earlier reported under the Hindustani centre, one of the eight Vavilovian centers of origin and diversity. Further, an enormous richness (326 species) is reported in wild relatives of crop plants. A total of 49 indigenous major and minor crops have been reported in the “History of Agriculture in India”, published by the ICAR. A large number of cereals, millets, oilseeds and vegetable varieties have originated and are cultivated in India, making it one of the richest Centres of Origin of crop and plant diversity in the world.

271 - 278 (8 Pages)
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27 Modern Tools and Techniques for Xenobiotic Monitoring
Meenakshi Sati, Megha Verma and J.P.N. Rai

Abstract The advent of modern chemical industry has resulted in the release of huge amounts of novel organic compounds, as industrial by-products, pesticides, other agrochemicals etc into the environment. These new compounds tend to resist biodegradation, with potential consequences such as persistence in the environment or bioaccumulation in food chains. Early detection of toxic chemical compounds in the environment, particularly in water, and their biological effects on organisms has therefore become increasingly important. The traditional approach to environmental pollution assessment is based on chemical analytical methods which only provide information about the absolute concentrations of known chemicals in the environmental sample without an adequate interpretation of its toxicity to biota. In order to get more relevant information about environmental pollution risk, it is therefore inevitable to supplement the chemical analytical data with the results of methods providing information on biological impacts. The negative biological effects of pollutants present in all kinds of environmental samples can be assessed using different living organisms or cells as ‘analytical devices’. The biological response following the exposure of living organisms or cells to environmental sample usually gives an information on toxicity, genotoxicity, estrogenicity etc. of the whole mixture of chemical compounds. According to the technical principle, methods of biological monitoring can be classified to bioassays, biosensors, immunoassays, and ecological methods. Besides being sensitive only to the bioavailable fraction of pollutants, biotests also have the power to assess the integrated effect of interacting chemical compounds and to detect the compounds, which are toxic only due to bioactivation.

279 - 294 (16 Pages)
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28 Open Source Seed Network
G.V. Ramanjaneyulu and G. Raja Shekar

Abstract This paper is intended to focus on importance of Agro-diversity, seed conservation practices, impact of monoculture on biodiversity and connected formal and informal institutions and governance mechanisms. Furthermore this paper explores to discuss the innovation processes, technologies which help in conserving existing diversity, process of evolving newer lines that eventually meet the needs of the farems. Open Source Seed Network (OSSN) would be an organisational platform which consists people engaged in conservation, farmers that can develop Value for Cultivation and Use data for the existing crop varieties in different agro- climatic growing conditions using participatory varietal selection. Farmer breeders engaged in selection and development of newer varieties and Farmers institutions involved in production and marketing of seed to other farmers. Further to elaborate the process the stakeholders will perform the responsibility of conservation and revival of the existing varieties, PVS for generating VCU data, PPB, perform Maintenance Breeding, maintain community seed banks, seed production and marketing. In addition we attempts to focus on mechanisms while making public sector as partners in participatory plant breeding which enable development of locally suitable varieties. An access and benefit sharing mechanism based on an open source model rather than on exclusive rights based is planned for free exchange of germplam within the purview of General Public License for plant Germplasm (GPLGP). This paper emphasise advantages of GPL that prevents exclusive rights, bio piracy, safeguarding farmer derived genetic resources, develop legal/institutional framework that eventually allows farmers to freely exchange, save, improve and sell seeds. In the end this could trigger the emergence of an institutional framework in which farmers and plant scientists work together in plant improvement that contribute to a sustainable food system.

295 - 302 (8 Pages)
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29 A Review on Strategies for Community-Based Biodiversity Conservation (CBC)
R. Venkatakumar, M. Balakrishnan and Manoj P. Samuel

Abstract The best way to conserve the biological diversity is by involving the local community. It is popularly known as community-based biodiversity conservation (CBC). The conflict between the nature and local communities who have stakes and rights in their territory is a matter of great concern. Likewise, when there prevails the community diversity, what would be the role, participation, share, stake, management issues, equity parameters etc. are the factors that affect CBC. However, CBC is future of conservation of natural resources. It needs adequate focus of community-scale projects on biodiversity conservation implemented by different parties and NGOs. Similarly, empowering community people through adequate financial support and appropriate monitoring and evaluation are the key success factors of community conservation projects. Ethnicity, gender and wealth were the factors that predicted CBC. Hence, the CBC programmes must address these aspects with adequate emphasize. The conflict between human activity and biodiversity conservation, if handled very effectively, will be a productive strategy to highlight pragmatic problems that arise at the field level and creating equitable and sustainable solutions. The general threats as a result of conflict between human activity and biodiversity conservation are agricultural intensification, recreation and human activities and policy related threats. Hence, awareness creation must have an integrative and interdisciplinary approach including the bodies that administer social and natural movements as well as the interests and priorities of local communities. Governing biodiversity conservation measures through political processes by engaging the appropriate representatives has valid implications for the whole process of biodiversity conservation. Alienation of local community, lack of favorable legal framework and lack of addressing the conservation issues through political process may adversely affect the biodiversity conservation as a whole.

303 - 316 (14 Pages)
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