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The book has been divided into the 5 major sections covering the following: Section I: Covers on the articles focused towards the major themes of strengthening Technology Application and Delivery systems, ICT, BLESS, NRM and women empowerment. Section II: Dealt with the extension strategies in development departments, institutional mechanism including NGOs, new media tools and impact assessment, followed by management of Natural Resources including ITKS. Section III: Gender mainstreaming, women empowerment, international experiences and policy issues have been synthesized under Section IV and V respectively. This book would enable in exposing the extension professionals on a cross cultural approach in various development spheres of extension reforms in India.

0 Start Pages

Preface   A series of interventions initiated in mid — 1960’s that led to the green revolution in cereal production transformed the country from a situation of food deficiency to food sufficiency. During the last two decaes, Indian Agriculture has largely been influenced by globalization, trade liberalization and increasing role of private sector. Agriculture is becoming more knowledge intensive and market driven and no more closed and protected, but globalised and open. Agricultural extension needs to assume new challenges and reforms interms of content, approach, success and processes. Adequate focuss have to be given on effective technology selection, optimization, application and management. The approaches and models evolved during 60-80’s and followed hither to are insufficient to deal with the current concerns emerging out of globalization, sustainability and other dimensions of agricultural development envisaged to meet the current challenges. The different section dealt in the book is addressing all those dimensions. Section I : Covers on the lead papers focussed towards the major themes of strengthening Technology Application and Delivery systems, ICT, BLESS, NRM and women empowerment, Section II : Dealt with the extension strategies in development departments, institutional mechanism including NGOs, new media tools and impact assessment, followed, by management of Natural Resources including ITKS in Section III : Gender mainstreaming, women empowerment, international experiences and policy issues have been synthesized under Section IV and V respectively. This book would enable in exposing the extension professionals on a cross cultural approach in various development spheres of extension reforms in India. The project experiences of the extension managers have been presented in the appropriate areas. The out come of the research endeavours incorporated in the text would serve as a strong data base and provide a viable platform to initiate network of research projects and schemes on consortium mode among extension scientists from State Agicultural Universities and National institutions. The editors believe sincerely that the content of the book would be much helpful to incorporate appropriate interventions in extension efforts in frontiers of developmental scenario.

1 Framework for Strengthening Technology Application and Delivery System in Agricultural Extension
V. Venkatasubramanian

The Context A series of interventions initiated in mid-1960s that led to the green revolution in cereal production transformed the country from a situation of food def iciency to self sufficiency. The green revolution was however, restricted to productivity improvements in cereals especially wheat and rice in the initial decades, primarily grown in irrigated regions. In subsequent decades, productivity increased in other crops, namely oilseeds, sugarcane, cotton, fruits and vegetables. The Green Revolution generally by passed India’s vast rain fed tracts, especially arid zones, hill and mountain ecosystems and coastal regions, thus exacerbating agro-ecological and economic disparities. Although self sufficiency was attained in food grain production, potential of different crop varieties are yet to be attained. The main features of the green revolution were: • exclusive focus on food grains • intensive use of water, fertilizer and pesticides to maximize yields from High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) • practically no focus on sustainability issues • benefited the resource-rich and large farmers and • dependent on few technological options focusing on hybrids, changes in plant architecture.

1 - 42 (42 Pages)
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2 ICT in Krishi Vigyan Kendra - A Transformational Technology for Indian Farmers
S. Prabhu Kumar, D. V. Srinivasa Reddy, C. V. Sairam and B.T. Rayudu

INTRODUCTION Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) also known as Agricultural Science Centres are the integral component of the National Agricultural Research System, which aims for development and promotion of location specific technology modules in agriculture and its allied enterprises, through Technology Assessment, Refinement and Demonstrations. At present there are 585 KVKs in the country grouped under eight zones and 77 in Zone VIII comprising of Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Puducherry and Lakshdweep. The major mandate of the KVKs includes Technology Assessment and Refinement through on Farm testing, popularization of technologies through Frontline Demonstrations to prove their production potentials in the farmers’ field. Conducting skill oriented training programmes to farmers and farm women, rural youths and extension personnel mostly focussing the technologies assessed/refined or demonstrated, conducting vocational training programmes for rural youth, popularization of technologies through various extension programmes so as to reach the masses, production and supply of good quality seeds, planting materials and other bio-products to the farming community.

43 - 50 (8 Pages)
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3 Business Led Extension Services (BLESs) : Global Perspective
V.G. Dhanakumar

Introduction The business models, in general are based on traditional ways of strategy formulation and implementation, leading to incremental and non- disruptive change in the nature of business and agri-industry practices. In today’s knowledge environment, we know that agri-businesses cannot survive by just running harder, but rather by running differently and “smarter” than competitors. (Seven, 2005). This article suggests a sense-testing tool for the extensionists and administrators to enable disruptive innovation of extension-led business models through examples and case evidence. Business is fundamentally concerned with creating value and capturing returns from that value. The term creating and capturing value reflects two fundamental functions that all extension organizations must perform to remain viable over an extended period of time. Successful extension organizations (SEOs) create substantial value by doing things in ways that differentiate them from the competition. The SEOs might develop core competencies, capabilities, and positional advantages that are different from those of competitors.

51 - 64 (14 Pages)
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4 Role of Natural Resource Management in Livelihood with Special Reference to Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs)
K. N. Krishnakumar and Ganesh Yadav

INTRODUCTION Natural resources are the untamed natural essence of the environment which contain a significant amount of material as well as aesthetic values. Natural resources are broadly categorized into renewable, flow and non-renewable sources. While renewable natural resources primarily involve living sources such as forests, crops fish, reindeer, coffee, etc. and non-living sources like water and soil. Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations. Natural resource management is congruent with the concept of sustainable development. It is a scientific principle that forms a basis for sustainable global land management and environmental governance to conserve and preserve natural resources (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2009). Though forest, water, agriculture land and crops, minerals, livestocks and many more constitute natural resources in India but forest represents the second-largest land use in India after agriculture, covering about 641,130 square kilometers, or 22 percent of the total land base (FAO 2005). Forestry is the second largest land use after agriculture and accounts for about 1.5 % of the nation’s GDP (World Bank, 2006) in India. On one hand, forests support the livelihood of the poor, especially the tribals, and on the other hand, it is remarkable to see that the poorest people of our country live in the rich forest and natural resource base (Narain, 2008).

65 - 76 (12 Pages)
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5 Women Empowerment — Rhetorics and Reality
K. Thangamani

Introduction The status of women in India has been subject to many great changes over the past few millennia. From equal status with men in ancient times through the low points of the medieval period, to the promotion of equal rights by many reformers. The history of women in India has been eventful. In modern India, women have adored high offices in India including that of the President, Prime Minister, Speaker of Lok Sabha, leaders of opposition etc. The incumbent president of India is a woman but the same vast majority of the women suffer from the great discrimination and even the basic human rights are denied to them.

77 - 86 (10 Pages)
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6 Agricultural Education through Internet
H. Philip, P.P. Murugan and P. Mooventhan

Introduction Computerization in education is perpetual need of today. Computers store large quantum of data that can be retrieved and used wherever necessary. They can also be used as an interactive media in transfer of technology system, which aids farmers and extension workers to access in formation of their need and to communicate with each other. Positive advantages in web education over distance learning process are that farming community can access it from any part of the world. Web education has also the added advantage of updating its data base on weather conditions, market situation in hourly basis which is not possible distance education as the process need a long time with regard to the availability of human resource and static course material to be developed for a particular time frame. The distance learning process being conventional in nature and also in place for quite a long years has abundance of resources and infra structural facilities however in web education, the professional resources are less in number and still arm journalism is yet to gain popularity among them. So web based interactive knowledge network system in transfer of technology is a present need which has to be addressed with due attention to improve the quality of existing communication system.

87 - 96 (10 Pages)
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7 SWOC Analysis in Mango Pulp Industries in Tamil Nadu
T. Rathakrishnanl and S. R. Padma

Introduction SWOC analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Challenges involved in a project or in a business venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective. A SWOC analysis must first start with defining a desired end state or objective. A SWOC analysis may be incorporated into the strategic planning model. • Strengths: characteristics of the business or team that give it an advantage over others in the industry. • Weaknesses: are characteristics that place the firm at a disadvantage relative to others. • Opportunities: external chances to make greater sales or profits in the environment. • Challenges: external elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business.

97 - 106 (10 Pages)
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8 Adoption Level of Farmers on Post Tsunami Rice Cultivation Practices
B. Shanmugasundaram, K.A. Ponnusamy and H. Philip

Introduction Rice is considered as the most important crop of India both in terms of area as well as value of output. It is estimated to contribute about 2.5 per cent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India and provides employment to a large work force in crop production and in paddy processing. According to Reinsurance Company ‘Munich Re (2001), costs associated with natural disasters has gone up 14 fold since the 1950. Every year from 1991 to 2001, an average of 211 million people in the world were killed or affected by natural disaster. Described as one of the “Worst Disasters” in recent history the Tsunami travelled 4,500 km across the Indian Ocean in a period of about seven hours causing damage to twelve countries including Sri Lanka, India and Thailand most dramatically impacted, The FAO estimates that in the countries hardest hit by the disaster (Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Maldives, India and Thailand), a total of 47,000 ha of agricultural land has been damaged (FAO, 2005).

107 - 112 (6 Pages)
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9 Prioritiztion of Research in Selected Crops of Madurai District  
A. Pounraj, T. Rathakrishnan and Rexlin Selvin

Introduction The Horticulture crops and commercial crops like sugarcane have become a key drivers for economic development in many of the states in India, and it contributes 29.5 per cent and 24.80 percent respectively to the GDP of agriculture, which calls for technology-led development. The research priorities for genetic resource enhancement and its utilization, enhancing the efficiency of production and reducing the losses in environment friendly manner and effectively channellising the marketing for the produce. Accordingly the research was taken up to study on the prioritization of research for the crops viz., sugarcane, banana and jasmine. The study deals with the knowledge, adoption and research priorities on selected crops’ cultivation which has already been occurred.

113 - 126 (14 Pages)
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10 Reorientation of Agricultural Extension System in Tamilnadu towards ATMA
S. Parthasarathi and R. Ganesan

Introduction The extension approaches followed in agricultural sector during past decade is reoriented in various occasions and new system of approaches were implemented. The present day orientation is shifting the efforts of extension from production orientation to profit orientation. Under these circumstances, the key factor for success will largely depend upon the extension service provider’s orientation and farmer’s capacity to absorb new knowledge of improved practices and technology. In order to orient officials towards this change HRD is essential. This will help them to impart required competencies in knowledge and skill such as technical, organisational, managerial, communication and business skills. The present day extension approach i.e. ATMA focusing towards block level planning, farmers participation in planning and implementation of various schemes, group approaches, importance to agri and allied aspects are the major focus of ATMA. The Tamilnadu government in the year 2007 reorganised the extension system in to twotier at district level with the major focus to block level. In each block Agricultural Extension Centres (BAECs) were established which houses for agriculture, horticulture, marketing, agri. engineering departments.

127 - 136 (10 Pages)
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11 Strategies to increase the Area, Production and Productivity of Cassava in Salem District in Tamil Nadu
A. Janaki Rani and P.P. Murugan

Introduction Cassava is an important tuber crop in India grown in 2.7 lakh hectare area with a production of 71 lakh tonnes. The average yield of tapioca is 22 tonnes per hectare. Cassava is a richest source of starch (25 to 35%) mainly processed for starch and sago. Cassava is an industrial crop of Tamil Nadu occupies 32.97% of the area and 45.98% of the production in India. (Edison et al 2006). In Tamil Nadu major traditional tapioca growing districts are Salem, Namakkal, Erode, Cuddalore, Dharmapuri and Kaniyakumari mostly as rainfed. Among the districts Salem District stands first in area (27000 ha) and with the production of 10.475 lakh MT(Anonymous, 2006).

137 - 146 (10 Pages)
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12 Market Information Utilization Behaviour of the Farmers Receiving Dynamic Market Information (DMI) through Short Message Service (SMS)
R. Balasubramaniyam and N. Anandaraja

Introduction India now emerged as the world’s second largest producer of fruits, vegetables and tea holding a share of 10 percent. The production base of horticultural crops has been expending since independence (Chadha, 2009). But as a controversy to the previous statement there is a clear indication about the declining farm sector performance-in addition to its deleterious economic ramifications often causing large scale rural distress which often ends up in farmer suicides (Sundaresan, 2009). This distress conveys much on the economic rationale ruling the agri and rural domain for its incompatibility in the changing market environment. The identified major problems faced by farmers in the present scenario were non-availability of information about marketing services including availability of crop specific markets, existing demand of a commodity and daily market price for their produce which can be broadly categorized under lack of market-led extension services.

147 - 156 (10 Pages)
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13 Information Sharing and Dissemination at Uzhavar Udhaviyagam — A Promising Linkage Model for Sustainable Extension Services
R. Sendilkumar, C. Cinthia Fernandaz and S. Parthasarathy

Introduction Public extension services in the agricultural sector have not kept pace with new challenges and opportunities. Overall, the reform measures initiated by the Government are yet to penetrate agriculture and allied rural sectors. The development of linkage in agriculture is extremely important for the system approach, in order to provide proper knowledge and services to the farmer contributing to the agricultural production. Many service sectors in agriculture are working independently to achieve their organizational objectives. This results in less organizational effectiveness and exhibits poor forward and backward linkages. Public private partnership and NGO partnership has been promising institutional interventions to provide need based information through information and communication technologies (Van Den Ban 1997). Policy frame work for Agricultural Extension (2000) has notified the provision for establishing partnership with private and other public agencies. Uzhavar Udhaviyagam is one of the interventions implemented by Govt of Puduchery since 2000, with an objective of integrating various agro extension services offered by related public sectors, private sectors and NGOs, cooperative sectors under one umbrella. This is a’so providing ample scope for establishing 3 Ps (Public private/NGOs partnership) model and participatory extension services. Keeping this focus point a study has been formulated with an objective to study the degree of linkage on information sharing and dissemination regarding the extension services rendered by Uzhavar Udhaviyagam.

155 - 162 (8 Pages)
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14 Status of Job Satisfaction of KVK Subject Matter Specialists
Nafees Ahmad and P. S. Slathia

Introduction Beginning with the Green revolution organised training of farmers and extension personnel in the country has now come of age. Since, multiple training institutions government and non-govt have come up, playing a pivotal role in transferring the technical knowledge and know how to the farming community. The turning point and a giant leap in farmers’ training came with the establishment of Farm Science Centre or Krishi Vigyan Kendras by ICAR during 1974. Having district as its jurisdiction area, KVKs have played crucial role in transfer of technology through a well qualified and trained work force at its disposal. As an organization, KVK has its own process for managing the trainers/ subject matter specialists in order to keep them motivated and dedicated to the service of poor farming community. Keeping in consideration some of the job related attributes/ factors that contributes towards effectiveness and efficiency of the SMSs, the present study has been conceived with the main objective- ‘To study the job satisfaction of the KVK trainers’.

163 - 168 (6 Pages)
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15 Strategies for Technology Transfer through Adarsha Rythus in Andhra Pradesh
N. Kishore Kumar and A. Sailaja

Introduction The share of Agriculture sector in GDP is declining over the years. This is because, of the a large gap in the latest known technology and technology being used by the farmers. Our human resources are not being utilized properly because our people in the villages are ignorant about many scientific innovations. In Andhra Pradesh, more than 70.00 per cent of the population is dependent on agriculture but its contribution to the state GDP is only 30.00 per cent. It is felt that this low contribution to the GDP by the Agricultural sector is due to uneconomic returns Indian agriculture is passing through a phase of reforms, owing to its shifting emphasis towards diversification, intensification, commercialization and sustainability, which has posed newer challenges before the extension functionaries. Understanding and appreciating the information needs of different clients (farmers, farm women, labourers, youth, etc) and providing quality extension service is central to its success, which needs quality manpower at different levels. Among extension services training need resources is a key input for human recourses development and contributes substantially to face the challenges by all concerned. Farmer led extension approach gives farmers the opportunity to share their experience and practices through a method demo with fellow farmers in the area. It was noticed that farmers who are successful in their farming venture have established credibility among their peers. These very same farmers are just waiting to be tapped to act as extensionist.

169 - 174 (6 Pages)
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16 Problem Solving Capacity of Agricultural Expert System
S. Helen and F.M.H. Kaleel

Introduction Farming community is facing multiple problems to maximize crop productivity as well as to increase farm income. In spite of successful research on new agricultural practices concerning crop cultivation, majority of the farmers are not getting upper-bound yield and not earning profit due to several constraints. One of them is that expert advice regarding crop cultivation is not reaching the farming community in a timely manner. It is true that India possesses valuable agricultural knowledge and expertise. However, a wide information gap exists between research and actual adoption in the field. Farmers need timely expert advice to make farming more productive and competitive. Local information resource centers are gaining importance with computers carrying expert systems to help farmers in making decisions. It is known that many Agricultural Research Institutes are involved in the development of agricultural expert system to satisfy the information needs of farmers.

175 - 180 (6 Pages)
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17 Technology Transfer through Tar Mode in Sugarcane Based Cropping System
T. Rajula Shanthy

Introduction Sugarcane based production system has to go a long way to turn hightech because of the existing technological gap in the irrigated agroecosystem. This has been realized more in the recent studies undertaken by social scientists. All the crops associated with the sugarcane based production need varietal introduction as well as the adoption of relevant crop management practices. Since the possibility of increasing area under sugarcane is remote in view of emerging low input high value crops, the projected target of 420 million tonnes by 2020 AD has to be achieved by enhancing the cane productivity and sugar recovery concurrently. The full exploitation of the existing improved sugarcane production technologies and development of a package of agro-techniques in the changing scenario of sugarcane based production system suiting to the socio-economic conditions of the farmers is as such the only master key to unlock the yield potential of sugarcane.

181 - 194 (14 Pages)
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18 A Comparative Analysis of the Extension Approaches used by both Private and Public Extension Service Providers
K. Vengalamani, R. Arunachalam and T. Masanaselvam

Introduction Agriculture has always been. India’s most important economic sector. To improve this agriculture betterment, it needs principally two important sectors, one is public sector and another one is private sector. In India, generally, Ministry of agriculture and co-operation, State department of agriculture, State agricultural universities, ICAR and its transfer of technology projects are the major public extension service providers The contribution of public extension in attaining self-reliance in food production is very well recognized. But in this changing time of globalization, public extension alone is not sufficient to address the multi-faceted problems faced by farmers. Also the performance of public sector extension is under scrutiny. Rivera et al (2000) reported that the public extension system is now seen as outdated, top-down, paternalistic, inflexible, subject to bureaucratic inefficiencies and therefore unable to cope with the dynamic demands of modern agriculture.

195 - 200 (6 Pages)
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19 Perception on Critical Technology Adopted by Vegetable Growers under Precision Farming –An Overview
K. Thangaraja, R. Ganesan, R. Sasikala and R. Rajasekaran

Introduction India’s population is projected to be around 1,350 million by 2020 AD which requires food grain production of 343 million tonnes. Considering the current food grain production levels, India needs to raise food grain growth by not less than 4 percent. On the other hand the available per capita cultivable land has declined from 0.48 ha to 0.14 ha and by 2050 it may further decline to 0.07 ha i.e. for every 14 persons only one ha land will be available to produce all essential items like food, fiber, fuel, fodder, fruits etc. (Harshal et al., 2006). About 75 percent of 105 million farm families belong to small and marginal farmers with less than 2 ha and 40 percent of the rural population lives below poverty line. We often talk about self-sufficiency in food supply but the fact is that population living below poverty line does not have the purchasing power.

201 - 208 (8 Pages)
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20 Performance Analysis of the Gram Panchayat Leaders in the Three Tier Panchayati Raj Institutions of Rajnandgaon District of Chhattisgarh
P. Shrivastaval, K.K. Shrivastava and J.D. Sarkar

Introduction Indian agriculture contributes to 25 per cent of the National Gross Domestic Product. As per Census of India, 2001, India’s total population was 1,028.6 million and the percentage of decadal growth of population during 1991- 2001 was 21.34 per cent. Thus, the main challenge is to produce enough food for increasing population. Many new agricultural technologies and improved practices are being developed in agricultural research stations. Effective communication of these agricultural innovations to millions of farmers in rural area is essential to bring about accelerated agricultural development. The impact of demographic pressure on reducing farm size further on the one hand and the need for longer or optimum sized farms to take more advantage of modern technology on the other hand would bring into sharper focus the growing contradiction in the farming sector.

209 - 218 (10 Pages)
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21 Case Study of a Successful Rabbit Farmer
S. Vishwendar

Introduction Livestock and livestock products are an important source of food nutrition and livelihood security. Animal origin foods are an important source of high quality protein and micronutrients compared to cereals and plant-based foods. Production of animal- based foods has grown dramatically over the past two decades. Meat, Milk and Egg consumption has grown rapidly in east and Southeast Asia over past twenty years. The greatest increase in the production and consumption of animal-origin foods, as a result of rising incomes and dietary diversification away from staple cereals, has taken place in East and Southeast Asia. World meat markets reveal that the production and trade of bovine meat, poultry meat, pig meat and ovine meat are significant unlike rabbit meat. In spite of many advantages in rabbit farming and rabbit meat, the rabbit meat is less consumed when compared to other meat. So the objective was to study the farmer who involved in rabbit farming.

219 - 224 (6 Pages)
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22 Transfer of Technology Issues in Bt Cotton
S. Parthasarathi and R. Ganesan

Introduction India is the third largest producer of cotton in the World. The cotton farmers of India are facing many problems. The stories of Vidharba are crucial lessons for the technocrats and policy makers. Most of the cotton growing areas are dry tract hence grown as rain fed crop. An amount of Rs. 12 billion worth of pesticides are used to control the serious pest i-e boll worm. In order to make the farmers to live debt free life and ensure the maximum reach out efforts of extension, it, needs a strategic TOT efforts. In this juncture introduction of Bt cotton is a phenomenal change in the cotton industry and needs a careful practices to increase the adoption since it has some complex issues like growing refugee crops. TOT of Bt cotton is unique because of its newness attracts positive and negative comments. A study to assess the acceptance, non adoption and constraints related to Bt cotton was carried out and the findings are given below.

225 - 232 (8 Pages)
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23 Adoption of Pest Management Technologies by Tomato Growers in Mettur Taluk of Salem District
P. Suhirdha, G. Tamilselvi and J. Vasanthakumar

Introduction Among the various vegetable crops, tomato (Lycopersicurn esculentum) is one of the important and popular vegetable and plays an important role in balanced nutrition and hence it is called as `poorman’s orange’. Tomato fruits can be seen in the market round the year. In India, tomato occupies an area of 2,90,279 ha with the productivity of 15.85 t/ha and production of 46,03,446 tonnes ( Among the different districts of Tamil Nadu, Salem district has an area of about 6311 hectares under tomato with 17,359 tonnes of production. Pest management is one of the important dimensions in cultivating tomato crop that needs significant attention. The objective of pest management technologies are maximize pest control in terms of overall economical, social and environmental values. In order to restore ecological balance, it is necessary to integrate all the available pest management techniques in the most compatible manner with the least use of chemicals which is the principle of pest management. ‘Pest management technology’ utilizes all suitable techniques and methods in a compatible manner as possible and maintains the pest population below their economic injury levels given by Bikramjit et al. (2007).

233 - 238 (6 Pages)
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24 Impact Evaluation of DPAP-V Watersheds in Karur District
R. Sasikala, A. Palaniswamy, K Thangaraja and M. Shanthasheel

Introduction Land and water are important natural resources available for agriculture crop production. The resource is available either for agriculture or for human / animal consumption, from precipitation in the form of rain. According to National Commission of Agriculture, half of the available land in India will continue to depend on dry land even after our total surface and ground water potentials are fully exploited by 2025 A.D. So far efforts were made in improving the irrigation potential to step up crop production and very little attention has been paid to dry lands. Considerably improved but the farmers in dry land areas are still suffering.

239 - 244 (6 Pages)
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25 Participatory Technology Development in Banana (PTD)
M. Israel Thomas, T. Rathakrishnan and S. R. Padma

Introdution In developing countries, traditional methods have special advantages over modern agricultural techniques. The capital and technological skill requirements in the use of traditional technologies are generally low and their adoption often requires little restructure of the traditional societies. By adopting such indigenous knowledge, our ancestors did not face any problem of large scale pest out break or economic crisis unlike the today’s farmers. The present study focused with this central theme of research. Indigenous Technical Knowledge refers to the unique, traditional, local knowledge existing within and developed around the specific conditions of women and men indigenous to a particular geographic area (Grenier, 1998). Indigenous Knowledge is the accumulated knowledge, skills and technology of the local people. Indigenous Knowledge has two powerful advantages over scientific knowledge like it has little or no cost, and is readily available. Indigenous Knowledge can be defined as the knowledge built up by a group of people through generations of living in close contact with nature over the years; the farmer in India had been using cow dung and cow urine as manure in the fields.

245 - 260 (16 Pages)
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26 Environmental Issues and Management of Natural Resources by Farmers for Sustainable Agriculture
R. Arunachalam

Introduction In India the present population of over 1000 million, accounting for about 18 percent of the world’s population, is estimated to become 1.4 billion by 2025 and 1.7 billion by 2050 AD, needing annually about 380 Mt and 480 Mt food grains respectively (Yadhav 2008). This scenario along with the increasing industrialisation and urbanisation will place tremendous pressure on the shrinking natural resources. However, we still have the capacity to produce enough food to meet the basic requirements of the burgeoning population, but the moot question is whether, we can do so while maintaining our natural resources and preserving the bio diversity at the same time. Land are the basic natural resources which are essential for agriculture.

261 - 278 (18 Pages)
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27 Eco-Friendly Agricultural Practices in Paddy — An Impact Analysis in Tamil Nadu
A. Janaki Rani. H.Philip and P.P.Murugan

Introduction During the last four decade, spectacular progress has been achieved in agricultural production in the country. Compared with 51 million tones of food grain production in 1950-51, India achieved food grain production of 211.17 million tones during 2001-02, making it not only self sufficient in food production but also in a buffer stock of over 30 million tones. This achievement was because of high intensity cropping and cultivation of high yielding varieties that were highly input responsive. Farmers used chemicals and synthetic pesticides, fertilizers and growth promoters above the level of recommended dose with a motive to get higher yields. In this process the soil, water and environment got polluted besides degradation of natural resources. Paddy is the principle food crop and ranks second in the consumption of pesticides in Tamil Nadu. In order to protect our environment, the state department of agriculture had started advocating eco-friendly agricultural practices in paddy cultivation. In addition to the government efforts, number of non-governmental organizations (NGO’s) also taking intensive efforts to make the farmers to adopt eco friendly agricultural practices. Among the several NGO’s in Tamil Nadu, Agricultural Man Ecology Foundation (AMEF) is a Netherland based NGO found to have taken strenuous efforts to advocate and popularize eco -friendly agricultural practices. It has network with other NGO’s situated all over Tamil Nadu and rendered technical and financial support to them for the promotion of eco-friendly agricultural practices. Keeping this in view, a study was conducted to assess the impact of eco-friendly agricultural practices among the paddy farmers who have trained by the AMEF network NGO’s.

279 - 286 (8 Pages)
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28 Intensive Agriculture and Environment
D. Jebapreetha and Rexlin Selvin

Introduction Soil, water and vegetation are three basic natural resources. The survival of God’s creation depends upon them and nature has provided them as assets to human beings. The management of natural resources to meet people’s requirements has been practised since the pre-Vedic era. Farmers were ranked high in the social system and village management was in their hands. Over-exploitation of natural resources by growing population resulted in various severe problems. Destruction of vegetation has resulted in land degradation, denudation, soil erosion, landslides, floods, drought and unbalanced ecosystems. A balanced ecosystem is an urgent need. There is an increasing realization throughout the world, about the state of our environment, caused by over-exploitation of natural resources for economic development. Resource exploitation in the developing world has largely been geared to meet the very basic needs of food, fodder, fuelwood and shelter of a large section of deprived societies. On the other hand, developed parts of the world have largely concerned themselves in trying to maintain and accelerate the already very high levels of resource consumption that they have achieved for a much smaller segment of the world’s population, based on an early initiative taken and advantage gained through industrialization. Natural resource base has often viewed as limitless by the industrialized world either due to a myopic view of the future or because of their immense faith in technology being able to substitute for the natural resource capital. This faith in technological quick-fixes for world’s problems linked with over-consumption is still prevalent.

287 - 296 (10 Pages)
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29 Sustainability of Traditional Institution in Tank Irrigation Management: An Example from Madurai District of Tamil Nadu, India
M. Jegadeesan and Koichi Fujita

Introduction The prosperity of Tamil Nadu depends on the development of rural areas. As per the 2001 Census, Tamil Nadu’s rural population was 36.2 million, amounting to 58% of the total population. Of these 90 percent are earning their livelihood through agriculture and allied activities. The agricultural situation in Tamil Nadu largely depends on the quantum of rainfall received during seasonal rainfall of South West and North East monsoon. North East monsoon which occurs around September to November is more crucial as South West monsoon which will give enormous rainfall to other Indian states is blocked by Western Ghats. So Tamil Nadu is receiving low rainfall and it also comes in three to five heavy showers during October and November. This limits the wet period (good condition for cultivation) to two to five weeks for the whole season. The wet period is further shortened by fast wind and soil type in some area. Thus, the success of the crop is largely determined by one’s capacity to exploit the short wet period. Even though the Tamil Nadu is relatively better position in tapping available ground water resources (92 percent of potential has been tapped), 82 percent of the well is owned by medium and large farmers who is only 10 per cent of total cultivators.

297 - 306 (10 Pages)
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30 Training Needs of Wetland Farmers in Organic Farming in Tamil Nadu
Noorjehan A., K.A.Hanif and I. Mohamed Iqbal

Introduction Organic agriculture is defined by Food and Agricultural Organisation / World Health Organisation Codex Alimentarius Commission as “a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. It emphasizes the use of management practices in preference to the use of off farm inputs. This is accomplished by using, where possible agronomic, biological and mechanical methods as opposed to using synthetic materials, to fulfill any specific function within the system”.

307 - 314 (8 Pages)
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31 Impact of Tsunami on the Farm Households of Coastal Tamilnadu State of India
M. Shantha Sheela, K. Palanisami, Chieko Umetsu and V. Ravichandran

Introduction On 26th December 2004, out of the 7516 km long coastline of India, more than 4500 km stretch was badly affected by the 9.0 magnitude earthquake- triggered tsunami, resulting in the total destruction of living environment along the coast. The worst affected areas along the Indian coast were in Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh states. Tamil Nadu state suffered maximum loss with the damage concentrated in 4 districts. It was reported that due to 26 December, 2004 Tsunami in Tamil Nadu state, 8.96 lakh people were affected, 376 villages had heavy damage, 7951 human lives lost, 1000 KM coastal length is affected, the sea water penetrated 1-1.5 KM distance into the main land, 128394 dwelling units affected, 9559 cattle lost, 10245 ha cropped area affected, 42655 boats damaged. (GOI, Ministry of Home Affairs, 09.01.2005). Many felt that impact will be very serious and it will take years to resume normal activities in the region. This paper presents an analytical study of the impact of tsunami on agricultural production, household income of the farm households on a continuous basis from 2005 to 2008.

315 - 322 (8 Pages)
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32 Contract Tree Farming in Industrial Wood Agro Forestry
H.Philip, K. T.Parthiban, Vennila and P.Durairasu

Introduction Indian forests are being denuded at an appalling rate of 1.5 million ha per year but only a tenth of this is being renewed. This has resulted in the accelerated dwindling of forest resources to a meager level of 23.55 per cent of the total geographical area against the mandated requirement of 33 per cent. This low forest cover coupled with poor productivity (0.5 -0.7 m3 ha-1 yr-1) in comparative global statistics (2.1 m3 ha-1 yr-1) of Indian forest has ushered in a total mismatch between supply and demand of both domestic and industrial wood besides creating environmental de- stability and disequilibrium. The National Forest Policy of 1988 has resolved to phase out the supply of raw material to wood based industries and ultimately totally stopped the raw material supply from the forest (Anon., 1988). The policy also indicated that wood based industries have to become self reliance in meeting the raw material demand by establishing direct linkages with the farmers by providing lending facilitates and other input needs. This is going to pave the way for a strong industry-farmer nexus, with many farmers attracted towards tree husbandry due to assured marketability and income. As the activity gets intensified, location specific problems warranting solution are also found to be in the ascendancy.

323 - 336 (14 Pages)
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33 Rationality Analysis of Indigenous Tribal Agricultural Practices followed in Kolli Hills
P. Venkatesan and M. Sundaramari

Introduction The people in Kolli Hills were more traditional in nature believing the fith and practices of the local communities. They happened to manage their livelihood through agriculture and maintained an indigenous life with their own knowledge system. They used to maintain the longstanding traditions from their ancestors and spread the knowledge in different spheres of livelihood. Such socially generated knowledge is popularly called as local knowledge. The ongoing practice of using such knowledge for indigenous communities established the belief that such knowledge used in atraditional manner was fruitful for the people. The concept of indigenous knowledge gained its worldwide recognition through the United Nations Conference on Environment and Education in 1992, World Conservation Strategy of International Union and Conservations of Natural Resources in 1980, Brundtland Commission, and World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987. These events recognized the existence of indigenous knowledge in every country, society, culture. Since India has a long history and much enriched culture there is abundant reservoir of indigenous knowledge in every part of the country. Similarly Kolli Hills of Namakkal district in Tamil Nadu, is a historical land having enriched cultural heritage which has varied communities and immense resources. Its flora and fauna are vast and varied in nature. The tribal communities, of this Kolli Hills, “Malayali” appear to live on their own knowledge system. The paper is intended to unfurl the essence of Indigenous Tribal Agricultural Practices (ITAPs) in Kolli Hills and the rationality analysis ITAPs in the study area. According to Grenier (1998) indigenous knowledge is the traditional knowledge of the local community existing within and developed around the specific conditions of women and men indigenous to a particular geographical area.

337 - 344 (8 Pages)
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34 Rural Farm Women Knowledge Gain and Perception of Interactive Multimedia Compact Disc (IMCD)
N. Anandaraja, T. Rathakrishnan and M. Ramasubramanian

Introduction Very few countries have experienced rapid economic growth without agricultural growth either preceding or accompanying it. Agricultural growth is a catalyst for broad based economic development in most of the low-income countries. Over the last few decades, the share of agriculture in GDP has steadily declined in India from over 19.7 per cent in the 1970-7 to 5.7 per cent in 2009-10. In contrast, the share of industry and services has increased to 26.4 and 55.1 per cent respectively due to greater focus on these sectors. But, agriculture still remains the backbone of Indian economy as nearly as 58 per cent of the rural population depends upon agriculture and allied activities for livelihood. The National Agricultural Development Policy (NADP) of India envisages a growth rate of 4 per cent per annum in the agriculture sector so as to achieve a target of over 300 million tonnes of food grain production by the year 2020. (Survey of Indian Agriculture, 2007).

345 - 358 (14 Pages)
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35 Empowerment of Urban Women through SHGs under SJSRY in Coimbatore District
K.C.Leelavathy and K.S.Selvanayaki

Introduction Women empowerment is a global issue and it is the outcome of criticism and debates generated by the women’s movements / feminists. Empowerment is the process by which the powerless gain greater control over the circumstances of their own levels relating to both resources and ideology. Empowerment means the ability to assert oneself; striving for upward mobility or attaining the psychological status of being powerful. Empowering of women is necessary for sustainable development of a community. Sustainability implies a state of balance and equilibrium in factors related to human life which can be social, political, financial, environmental and even spiritual. (B.K.Singh,2006). Women empowerment often involves the empowered developing confidence in their own capacities. Empowerment, probably, the totality of the following or similar capabilities (social welfare,2010).

359 - 376 (18 Pages)
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36 Impact of Self Help Groups on Development of Entrepreneurship among Farm Women
S.K. Meti and S. Aparana

Introduction In India, the marginal, small and semi-medium land holding constitutes more than 90% of the land holdings in the country. They are caught in a vicious cycle of low investment, low productivity and low income with little chance to get out of it. In general, majority of farm families possess limited and scattered land holding with a low productivity and they have very limited accessibility to the improved agricultural information because of their illiteracy and lack of participation in extension programmes. The development of entrepreneurship in subsidiary activity like vermicompost production and Dairying will definitely help the small and marginal farmwomen to increase the farm income. The entrepreneurship among farmwomen in vermi composting and dairying will definitely encourage them to start self employment in addition to the agricultural income. Farmwomen perform -multifaceted role in various fields such as production, processing and marketing. In spite of their significant contribution to production they have virtually remained invisible as farmers, home makers and the ultimate by protecting the whole family. Their role has become critical in the process of moving their family out of the vicious ‘circle of poverty’ Nataraju and Perumal, (1990). Farmwomen generally have lower income and less leisure time than men and seldom have equal opportunities to develop their capabilities. Farmwomen have been considered unorganized and inferior to men, Lelamma (2001).

375 - 380 (6 Pages)
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37 Self-Help Groups Approach for Agri-Rural Environment : Need of the Hour
B. Narayanaswamy, K Narayana Gowda and R.K. Naika

Introduction Since six decades after independence, the existence of people in a state of social, economic, political and knowledge disempowerment is considered as major threat to overall development. There is an essential demand for the integrated development, which should cover up development in all aspects, specifically in status, equality, security, complete physical, mental and social well-being of the target group. One sided emphasis on economic achievements by policy makers has set in motion so for But the social cleavage in rural areas has deepened. The power to the people signifies a new movement, which has been born out of the realization that society’s traditional arrangements for voicing their problems are very meager. The economic growth does not mean that only creation of wealth, but also creation of people’s capacity to create wealth and this resides in their health, education, knowledge and skills. It has been proven fact that, the economic development in any country should be preceded by social development which is interdependent. To combat the poverty at present juncture, efforts should be through the group approach only. So the new paradigm like Self - Help Groups (SHGs) can attain sustainability because of the clear cut understanding among them. Almost failure of co-operatives to mitigate unemployment problems and combating rural poverty, it is essential to think over self help group approach to empowering the rural poor.

381 - 388 (8 Pages)
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38 Fortifying Farm Women through Entrepreneurial Training: Problems and Prescriptions
S.R. Padma and T. Rathakrishnan

Introduction In the existing socio-economic scenario, economic independence is considered as one of the main status indicator in the society. Women especially in rural areas are the deprived section of the society on account of their dependence on others for economic reasons. This necessitates generation opportunities so as to make them economically independent. Moreover, women’s contribution to national development is crucial. The process of development would be incomplete and lopsided, unless women are fully involved in it. Many innovations have failed due to non-satisfaction of women on the perceived attributes of innovations. So, it is necessary that they should be informed, trained, convinced of a technology primarily. Farm women can’t emerge as a good entrepreneur, if they are not equipped with any skill, knowledge, education and information. So, research studies are essential to assess the training needs of them to become a successful entrepreneur. In order to know the training needs of farm women for entrepreneurial development, and the constraints faced by them to become a good entrepreneur.

389 - 398 (10 Pages)
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39 Perception of Women SHG Members on Training Programmes
Santha Govind and T. Mukesh

Introduction Women are vital part of the Indian economy, constituting one-third of the national labour force and are considered to be the major contributor to the survival of the family. Despite progress in several indicators, gender analysis of most social and economic data demonstrate that women in India continue to be relatively disadvantaged in matters of survival, health, nutrition, literacy and social status. More than 90 percent of rural women in India are unskilled thus restricting them to low-paid occupations. Women generally have no control over land and other productive assets, which largely excludes them from access to institutional credit and renders them dependent on high-cost informal sources of credit to secure capital for consumption and for productive purpose. Among 621.1 lakh population in Tamilnadu (according to 2001 census) 308.4 lakh are females. The people below poverty line in Tamilnadu are about 21.12 percent, out of this, women share equal percentage of poverty. In a patriarchal society, women have inadequate knowledge on various aspects and depend largely on the male siblings or husbands. They also do not have much access to credit or income as most of the expenditure is controlled by men. Even where they have some measure of control they spend most of their earnings on family needs. Estimates shows that more women and girls experience the vigour of poverty than men in poor holds because of inequalities in access to food, healthcare and education. (

399 - 408 (10 Pages)
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40 Positive Therapy for Enhancement of Self- Esteem, Self-Efficacy and Management of Stress among Women in Local Governance in Coimbatore District
M. Shanmugavani and K.C. Leelavathy

Introduction Women in India had a high and glorious tradition. All nations have attained their pinnacle of glory only when women have been free, cultured and pure. Women have been the transmitter of culture in all societies. Modern living has brought with it not only innumerable means of comfort but also a plethora of demands that tax human body and mind. Stress is an inescapable part of human life is manageable to a large extent. With proper understanding of the processes that cause stress, the situation can be well managed. The stress management is very easy if we sincerely analyze the reasons of stress. Physical stress management techniques have been used since a long time. The investigator had undertaken the study entitled “Positive Therapy for enhancement of Self-Esteem, Self-Efficacy and Management of Stress among Women in Local Governance in Coimbatore District”.

409 - 414 (6 Pages)
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41 Role of Rural Women in Farming, Allied and Off-Farm Activities
P. Sumathi and M. Senthilkumar

Introduction Women constitute half of the Indian population. Around 80 % of the total female population lives in rural and out of 31 million women work force of the country, 20 million are living in rural areas. The role played by women in agriculture is more enormous and fully recognized. Women accounted for more than 76 per cent of the marginal workers and about 16 per cent of them are main workers. Among main workers as well as marginal workers more women belong to the category of agricultural labourers. The role of women and their involvement is more in production, processing and storage of grains. In general, 60-70 per cent of labour input is provided by womenfolk which increases upto 80 per cent in rice. Women formed part of a highly valuable human resources which with appropriate training and education, can bring about phenomenal changes in the desirable direction. By keeping this view, the main focus of this paper was, to find out the role played by the farm women in farming, allied and off-farm activities.

415 - 422 (8 Pages)
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42 Empowerment Level of Farm Women Beneficiaries of Karnataka Community Based Tank Management Project
B.S. Swetha and N. Narsimha

Introduction Agriculture is the base of Indian economy on which the fortunes of over 70 million families directly or indirectly rest. The women in these families are also partners in crop and food production as managers, decision makers and skilled farm workers. The socio economic advancement of a country can be best judged by the status and position, which is bestowed on its women. Women as a class, play a vital role in the process of economic development. According to census 2001, women constitute 48.26 per cent of the total population of India and 25.67 per cent of the female population are designated. Amongst the female workers, 32.50 per cent are identified as cultivators and 39.43 per cent as agricultural labourers.

423 - 430 (8 Pages)
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43 Credit Management Pattern of Farm Families
K. Mahandra Kumar and T. Rathakrishnan

Introduction For uplifting the socio economic conditions of the poor mass, government enacted many programmes to make available of institutional credit flow to the farmers almost at their doorstep at a reasonable rate of interest. Hence, the mind set of borrowers has changed. credit is no more regarded as “hangman’s rope” but are considered as an economic “ladder or elevator” However, Credit can serve useful purpose only when it is used for productive purpose to generate additional income. Otherwise, its deviation for non productive purposes would affect the repaying capacity of borrowers and create over due and defaulters. The increasing rate of non repayment has been one of the major problems for all the financial institutions. Increasing default in the repayment of loan led to very serious implication, for instances, it discourages the financial institutions to refinancing to the defaulting members.

431 - 436 (6 Pages)
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44 Strategies to increase Castor Production in India through Effective Resource-Use Management (RUM) Behaviour
R. Venkattakumar, M. Padmaiah and C. Sarada

Introduction Castor (Ricinnus communis L.) is an important non-edible oilseed crop and occupies an important place in the country’s vegetable oil economy. The crop is mostly confined to Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. Although other states like Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Orissa, Maharashtra, parts of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Chhattisgarh cultivate castor, their contribution to either area or production is limited. Presently, castor is grown over an area of 8.7 lakh hectares with a production of 11.7 lakh tonnes and productivity of 1352 kg/ha in the country (2008-09). Castor oil finds application in manufacture of a wide range of ever expanding industrial products such as nylon fibres, jet-engine lubricants, hydraulic fluids, soaps, varnishes, paints, medicines and a host of similar other products. Castor cake is used as manure and also as nematicide. Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh put together contribute to 68.5% of the total castor area and 80% of the total castor production in the country. The crop has been cultivated under resource-rich irrigated conditions in Gujarat with very high productivity (1963 kg/ha), while in Andhra Pradesh, the crop has been cultivated under rainfed and poor resource management conditions, with very low productivity (509kg/ha).

437 - 443 (7 Pages)
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