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B H M Patel, S B Prasanna, Mahadevappa D Gouri
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B H M Patel
B H M Patel Senior Scientist, LPM Section IVRI, Izatnagar, Bareilly

S B Prasanna
S B Prasanna Asst. Professor, (LPM) Veterinary College, Hassan KVAFSU, Karnataka

Mahadevappa D Gouri
Mahadevappa D Gouri Asst. Professor (LPM) Veterinary College, Hassan KVAFSU, Karnataka

This book will serve the long standing need of the students, teachers, research workers and other stake holders. The book will be helpful to the students and researchers in developing basic understanding of Animal Welfare sciences.

0 Start Pages

Preface   We collectively need to work towards a world in which animals are n’t treated as if they were inventory and in which the poor are given the opportunities, resources and education to treat animals with compassion and kindness, we may fail to rise to national greatness as defined by Gandhi Ji. Traditions can empower us as a people, or they can enslave us. Animal Welfare is generally defined as “The avoidance of abuse and exploitation of animals by humans by maintaining appropriate standards of accommodation, proper feeding, prevention of disease, assurance of freedom from harassment and unnecessary pain.” Today there is a widespread awareness to follow principles of 4R- Replacement, Reduction, Refinement and Rehabilitation before using any animals for experimental purpose. This book deals with some of the animal welfare problems occurring in India which can be applied to other developing countries with possible solutions. Some people argue that concern about animal welfare in developing countries are simply misguiding. This is because human suffering is more important and more relevant to the needs of poor people. A typical comment by most of us is ‘Animal welfare is a concern that can only be afforded by wealthy nation’s. A counterargument is that ‘What is good for animals kept in poorer countries is also good for their owners.’ There is a sense of obligation in looking after domesticated animals because of their dependency on people. The strength of the concern, however, varies between individuals. In developing countries, concern for animal welfare is based on self-interest rather than moral responsibility. Now a days concern on wellbeing/welfare of all categories of animals has been highlighted due to sensitization of public through various modes of media. In this regard many biologists, animal lovers, welfare NGO’s are working for the neglected animals. Today as defined by the Brambell Committee1965 the welfare of any sentient animal is explained by the five freedoms they enjoy (Freedom from 1. Hunger & thirst, 2. Discomfort, 3. Pain, injury & disease, 4. Fear & distress and 5. To express natural behavior). Keeping the importance of subject, recently Veterinary Council of India has introduced this new course VMD 511: Animal Welfare, Ethics and Jurisprudence under veterinary curriculum. The authors have made an attempt to fulfill the need for a reference book for the students undergoing this course in particular and for public concerned with animal welfare in general. Further, GOI has also made an efforts to train the needy people who are working in this area by opening a new institute (NIAW) on animal welfare. This book deals with assessment and practical aspects of welfare status of animals in our country and to briefly discuss how to address various welfare issues effectively. We have used simple language to make it understandable to undergraduates and all persons concerned. The purpose of this discussion is also to encourage cooperation and collaboration in order to propel new initiatives that will change hearts and minds and make dramatic improvements in the lives of farm animals. There is an abundant literature available on above subject with respect to developed country. However, information regarding developing country in particular reference to India is scanty. Therefore, authors have put efforts to compile the information based on the literature available and not our claims. Further, laws and acts have been drawn from Prevention of Cruelty Act, 1962 and have been summarized for easy understanding. Hence, this book should be used only as a source of information but not for any legal matter. This book discusses a number of practices that some may feel unjust. This book does not try to defend or criticize any practices. It simply provides information obtained from different sources that will allow reader to form their own views. Authors are thankful to World Animal Protection for sponsoring online course on Animal welfare assessment from Michigan State University, USA and training the authors to teach Animal Welfare by exposing to workshops at Bangkok, Thailand. The authors are thankful to moral support by the Dean, Veterinary College, Pantnagar, Hassan and Director, IVRI. Authors are also thankful to their teachers, colleagues, friends, students and family members for their full support during preparation of manuscript. We hope, this book will be helpful to veterinary students, field veterinarians, PG students and people who are concerned with animal welfare.

1 Animal Welfare and Ethics

1 History Animals are culturally worshipped and revered as gods in India by different communities such as cow as Kamadhenu by Hindu religion. The scientific study of animal welfare has rapidly grown during last few years. Many religions follow principles of ahimsa such as Jains and Hindus do not harm cattle; Muslims do not harm pigs etc. Thus caring for welfare of animals is an inborn attitude of majority of Indians. As per the Indian tradition and culture, animals always had a respect and a special place in society. Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism have always preached kindness and compassion to animals. Each Hindu God or Goddess is seen with an associated animal as vehicle or incarnation. For example, Lord Krishna was a shepherd and is seen with a cow, Lord Rama with the monkeys, Lord Vishnu with the eagle and Lord Shiva with a snake around his neck and the bull ‘Nandi’ at his feet, Goddess Saraswati is the goddess of wisdom and literacy is seen with swan.

1 - 10 (10 Pages)
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2 Human and Animal Welfare in Relation to Ecosystem and Environmental Factors

1 Human and Animal Interactions in the Ecosystem 1.1 Evolution It is proved that humans and animals share common ancestors as per evolution process. Thus, it is likely that, animal capacities are similar to humans, but these capacities differ only in degree. Furthermore, if the capacity for a particular feeling gives an adaptive advantage to an animal, then this provides supportive evidence for its existence. The presence of very similar neurological structures in other animals constitutes some sort of evidence that they can have the same sorts of mental states as humans. In the process of evolution depending on the favourable and unfavourable environmental factors, few organisms may die and few organisms might multiply. The relationship between biotic and abiotic components helps in the formation of ecosystem. In this ecosystem each and every organisms have equal chance to survive. The evolution process is well explained by Darwin’s theory.

11 - 22 (12 Pages)
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3 Role of Veterinarians in Animal Welfare

Care and treatment of animals is possible by the combined efforts of all the stake holders of animals shared by the owners, consumers and veterinarians. Although, veterinary services are available throughout the country, involving different stakeholders including veterinarian, there is an entrenched lack of empathy and a profound disconnect among stakeholders when it comes to identifying with the pain and discomfort of animals.  Veterinarians participate in two ways in animal welfare and animal ethics. One is the role of the veterinarian as an individual member of a profession. The other is the collective role of the profession, as expressed by the professional bodies.

23 - 28 (6 Pages)
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4 Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (PCA) Act, 1960

The purpose of PCA 1960 is to protect animals from being subjected to unnecessary pain or suffering. This at consists of 6 chapters covering 41 sections. This has been amended in 1982. The sections under each chapter have been concised for easy understanding. This provides only baseline information about the act.

29 - 42 (14 Pages)
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5 Animal Welfare Board of India, Their Role and Functions

Animal Welfare Board of India was started under the stewardship of Late Smt. Rukmini Devi Arundale, well known humanitarian. The Animal Welfare Board of India is a statutory advisory body on Animal Welfare Laws and promotes animal welfare in the country. The board established in 1962 under Section 4 to 10 of the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960 (No. 59 of 1960).  The primary sources of funding of the AWBI are grants from the Government of India. However, contributions, subscriptions, bequests and gifts will also be encouraged.

43 - 48 (6 Pages)
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6 Role and Function of Committee for the Purpose of Controlling and Supervision Experiments in Animals (CPCSEA)

A number of animals are used in this country for conducting a variety of experiments. There has been a long felt need to prescribe guidelines and procedures for animal experimentation covering all aspects. The Central Government has constituted a Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA) under PCA Act 1960 to ensure that experimental animals are not subjected to unnecessary pain or suffering before, during or after the performance of experiment on them. For this purpose the government has made “Breeding of and Experiment on Animals (Control and Supervision) Rules, 1998 as amended during 2001 and 2006 to regulate the experimentation on animal. Under these provisions, the concerned establishments are required to get themselves registered with CPCSEA, form IAEC, get their Animal House Facilities inspected, and also get specific projects for research cleared by CPCSEA before commencing the research on animals. Further, breeding and trade of animals for such experimentation are also regulated under these Rules.

49 - 52 (4 Pages)
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7 Rules, Regulations and Laws on Animal Welfare

The process of civilization and materialist life style has forced man to make laws which govern or rule the conduct of the people of society or community. In the earlier days the relation of human and animal was interdependent and mutual. Now a days man has become self-centered and ignorant of his surroundings. This has led to cruelty on the animals in many circumstances. Therefore, in pursuit of prevention of the cruelty to animals following laws, regulations have made by the government.

55 - 60 (6 Pages)
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8 Protection and Welfare of Performing Animals

Performing animal means any animal which is used at, or for the purpose of any entertainment to which the public are admitted through sale of tickets. Thousands of wild animals are used worldwide to perform demeaning and unnatural tricks to entertain the public (circuses, side-shows, within zoos, and in advertising, film and television).  There are number of welfare issues related to performing animals which involves animal fighting, shows, (among domestic animals) or entertaining wild animals.

61 - 70 (10 Pages)
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9 Protection and Welfare of Working Animals

Long used as beasts of burden, animals in India are still regarded today as little more than commodities rather than sentient beings who feel pain, stress, exhaustion and depression. Low literacy rates and the tendency to follow traditional practices and cultural traditions have left India surely lacking in the area of animal welfare. India holds the majority of the world’s working animal population. Animals that are forced to work in India include bullocks, horses, ponies, mules, donkeys, camels, elephants and dogs. Despite a proud heritage and a culture rooted in tolerance and compassion, animal welfare is largely ignored by Indian society, leading to extreme animal suffering. Our villages and to a great extent, the urban population still allow working animals to be mercilessly exploited in fields, on the streets, in brick kilns, on battlefields, on playgrounds and in timber areas – all in the name of agriculture, entertainment, security and any number of other “justified” pursuits.

71 - 80 (10 Pages)
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10 Pet and Companion Animal Welfare

Companion animals are all those species of animals which are kept by man for companionship and which are often referred to as pets. It is quite common to see community dogs or cats living in residential colonies. This is because due to very fast urbanization all the open spaces are getting used up for construction of residential complexes, and the animals like dogs and cats living on these open areas are getting displaced. The residents that occupy these residential buildings find these animals to be a nuisance and want them to evicted. Pet and companion animal can be discussed under street dog/stray dogs and owner dogs.

81 - 90 (10 Pages)
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11 Animal Welfare Organizations

Animal welfare organizations are those organizations which are volunteered to help people to protect their animals. It is concerned with the health, safety and psychological wellness of animals. They have a deep understanding of needs of animals and thus help animals in distress. The types of stake holders depend on what type of animals are reared.

91 - 102 (12 Pages)
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12 Protection and Welfare of Cattle and Buffaloes

Productivity measures, such as rate of growth or reproduction have traditionally been used as indicators of biological functioning. If this is regarded as closely related to animal welfare, then high productivity should be evidence for a high state of welfare. In some cases, selection for production has pushed animals to the point where basic biological functioning and body maintenance is compromised. Therefore, Production measures are always misused.  Productivity of the group is a different measure than productivity of the individual. Such group overall is performing poorly but that productivity from a few outstanding individuals makes average productivity look high. Similarly specific individuals who are performing very poorly may be overlooked if average group performance is high. Although commercial organized dairy farms are very limited, but welfare issues are always there in both small and large farm. Some of the important issues in the organized farms are discussed below.

103 - 114 (12 Pages)
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13 Protection and Welfare of Sheep and Goat

Sheep and goat rearing in India continues to be traditional even today. This sector is primarily in the hands of poor, landless or small and marginal farmers who raise their animals on natural vegetation, stubbles and supplement tree lopping. The productivity of sheep in India is relatively low with an average body weight gain of 20 to 50 g/day. The major causes for the low productivity are inadequate grazing resources, tropical heat and disease incidences and a lack of awareness about improved management practices.

115 - 120 (6 Pages)
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14 Protection and Welfare of Pigs

Pig production is concentrated mainly in the North-eastern corner of the country and consists primarily of backyard and informal sector producers. Though pig population is only 2% of all the livestock animals, Pork production in India  represents 7% of the country’s total meat production. This value is highest compared to any other species of meat animals.

121 - 129 (9 Pages)
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15 Protection and Welfare of Poultry

1 Broilers The broilers are also called young meat chickens; generally attend a body weight of 2 kg at 35-38 days of age with a feed conversion of 1.5-1.8. This improvement in growth is equivalent to reduction of market age by one day per year. This fast growth is possible due to intense feeding good quality feed & growth promoters in less space. However, this type of rearing has challenges many welfare issues in broiler farming.

131 - 136 (6 Pages)
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16 Application of Behavioural Knowledge on Animal Handling and Restraining

Good livestock welfare practices demands thorough understanding of the basic nature of the animal. The science of understanding the details of animal behaviour is known as Ethology.  Knowledge about the behaviour of the species being reared proved as an important tool for implementing animal welfare in practical husbandry practices. Now a day’s global community is also advocating for the better livestock welfare standards. Exploiting animal’s natural behaviour could certainly prevent unnecessary sufferings related to handling and restraining during routine farm activities. On the one hand this ensures physical and mental welfare of livestock, while on the other hand improvement in the production is guaranteed. Without involving heavy investment behavioural knowledge based management interventions can bring paradigm shift in welfare status of farm. Therefore, behavioural studies are of great importance in increasing our understanding and appreciation of animals.

137 - 146 (10 Pages)
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17 Protection of Wildlife in Nature and Captivity

India is known for its rich wildlife heritage. In fact, the country is considered one of the best among available mega-biodiversity areas in the world. The landscape and agro-climatic conditions of India make it a unique habitat for wild animals. The government of India has made attempts to conserve wildlife through different projects like Corbett tiger, Elephant projects etc. The wild life management in India is at present ‘preservation-oriented’. This is bound to remain so for a long time because of the significantly depleted status of our wild life population. Indian government in pursuit of conserving the heritage of wilderness has made committed efforts with several wildlife and Forest Acts to ensure protection by declaring the areas as protected under the spectrum of national park and wildlife sanctuaries. The eco-tourism and conservation awareness has created environmental consciousness among the people.

147 - 156 (10 Pages)
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18 The Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972

The wildlife (protection) Act, 1972 (No. 53 of 1972) consists of 7 chapters, 6 schedules and 66 sections. This act has been amended in 1980. This act further amended as The Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Act- 2002, from 17thJanuary, 2003. This act deals with all those matters related to wildlife in captivity/free range for conservation. Chapter I (Preliminary) It discusses about the terminologies and definition Captive animal means any animal, specified in Schedule 1, Schedule II, Schedule III or Schedule IV, which is captured or kept or bred in captivity. Circus means an establishment, whether stationary or mobile where animals are kept or used wholly or mainly for the purpose of performing tricks or manoeuvrers.

157 - 164 (8 Pages)
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19 Welfare of Animal During Transportation

All farmed animals are transported at some stage in their lives, sometimes to places where food is more readily available, sometimes to a different owner or a different place of keeping and sometimes to slaughter. The handling, loading, transporting and unloading of animals can have very substantial effects on their welfare. Wherever   poor welfare associated with the transport of animals is prevented, there is an immediate financial advantage because mortality rates and carcass downgrading are reduced. The attitude towards animals has major consequences on animal welfare during transportation. Therefore, laws and codes of practice can also have significant effects on animal welfare during transport. In order to produce guidelines that can be used to prevent or minimise poor welfare in animals during transport, it is necessary to be aware of the biological functioning of the animals concerned and the attitudes and actions of the people involved in the handling and transport procedures.

165 - 184 (20 Pages)
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20 Welfare Related to Animal Slaughtering and Slaughter House

In India, the cow is a worshipped as symbol of wealth, strength, abundance, altruistic giving and full of earthly life. Cows are traditionally treated as a sacred animal. Dairy products are extensively used in India and are one of the most essential nutritional components of meals.   The laws governing cattle slaughter is shown in entry 15 of the State List of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution, meaning that State legislatures have exclusive powers to legislate the prevention of slaughter and preservation of cattle. Some States allow the slaughter of cattle with restrictions like a “fit-for-slaughter” certificate which may be issued depending on factors like age and gender of cattle, continued economic viability etc. Others completely ban cattle slaughter, while there is no restriction in a few states. Prohibition of cow slaughter is a Directive Principles of State Policy contained in Article 48 of the Constitution.

185 - 196 (12 Pages)
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21 Animal Welfare During Natural Calamities and Disaster Management

A disaster (from Latin meaning, “bad star’) is the impact of a natural or man-made event that negatively affects life, property, livelihood or industry often resulting in permanent changes to human societies, ecosystems and environment. The event itself is not a disaster; it is the impact that is a disaster. Their possibility of occurrence, time, place and severity of the strike can be reasonably and in some cases accurately predicted by technological and scientific advances. Hence, we can to some extent reduce the impact of damage though we cannot reduce the extent of damage itself.  The impacts suffered include trauma, starvation, dehydration, infection, disease, shock etc. Animals are often the silent victims of disasters, and there is a real need around for the provision of effective training and management programmes to ensure that their survival and welfare are adequately accounted for. This demands the study of disaster management in methodical and orderly approach.

197 - 207 (11 Pages)
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22 Assessment of Animal Welfare and Audit Programme in the Livestock Farms

Various indicators like range of behavioural, physiological, pathological and carcass-quality parameters can be used to assess the welfare of animals. Whenever, animals undergo painful handling or any other managerial operation, they are likely to face short-term stress. In this condition an increased physiological responses, behavioural responses, injury or mortality are most commonly used; however, some animals which are kept in improper housing with less floor space may cause chronic stress leading to increased disease incidence and suppression of normal development. Therefore, the following techniques can be used to assess the animal welfare at farm level in any given situation.

209 - 214 (6 Pages)
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23 Abnormal Behaviour in Animals

Animal’s response  to external stimuli is a behavior. Domestic animal behaviour and performance are correlated. Man’s intervention has led to huge modifications and modulations in animal behaviour patterns over ages but certain characters and normal behaviours of animals are needed to be expressed, otherwise may lead to abnormalities or performance loss. Animal freedoms also ensure certain basic freedoms to domesticated animals including freedom to express normal behaviour. With the developing concern over animal welfare among consumers, growers and animal activists, the need to ensure animal freedoms is call of the hour. Measuring animal welfare is a complex process which requires multidisciplinary approaches. There are four approaches to determine animal welfare viz, productivity, animal health and disease, physiology and behavior which are used individually or in combination.

215 - 224 (10 Pages)
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24 Alternatives to Animal Usage in Teaching and Research

Use of animals in teaching is an inevitable process of learning in Veterinary and Animal Science colleges. Consequently, animals have to be handled for anatomical demonstration, surgical practice and used as experimental animals in various investigatory researches. The apprehensions and pain the animals have to suffer from these handlings (mishandlings) have brought the need to look for alternative ways to deal with animals and yet the purpose of learning about them does not diminish. Now-a-days, a growing emphasis is placed on minimizing the overall use of animals alongside advancements in science.

225 - 232 (8 Pages)
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25 End Pages

Annexures   Schedules list for wild animals The Wild Life (Protection) Amendment Act, 2002, No, 16 of 2003 date 17th January, 2003 Schedule - I Part – I Mammals (41) Binturorg (Arctictis binturong), Black buck (Antelope cervicapra), Brow-antlered deer or Thamin (Cercus eldi), Caracal (Felis Caracal), Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), Clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Dugong (dugong dugon), Fishing cat (Felis viverrina), Golden cat (Felis temmincki), Golden langur (Presbytis geei), Hispid hare (caprolagus hispidus), Hoolock (Hylobates hoolock), Indian lion (Panthera leo persica), Indian Wild Ass (Equus hemionns Khur), Indian Wolf (Canis lupus), Kashmir Stag (Cerous elaphus hanglu), Leopard cat (Felis bengalensis), Lesser or Red panda (Aiturus fulgens), Lion-trailed macaque (Macaca silenus), Loris (Loris tardigradus), Lyax (Felis lynx isabellinus), Malabar Civet (Viverra megaspila), Marbled Cat (Felis marmorata), Markher (Capra falconeri), Musk door (MOschus moschiferus), Ovis Ammon or Nyan (Ovis ammon hodgsoni), Pallas’s cat (Felis manul), Pangolin (Manis crassiaudata), Pygmy hog (Sus salvanius), Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis), Rusty spotted cat (Felis rubiginosa), Slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang), Snow, leopard (Panthera uncia), Spotted linsang (Prionondon pardicolor), Swamp deer (all sub-species of Cerous duvauceli), Takin or Mishmi Takin (Budorcas taxicolor), Tibetan Gazalle (Procapra picticaudata), Tibetan Wild Ass (Equus hemious kiang), Tiger (Panthra tigris), Urial or Shapu (Ovis vignei), Wild buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Part II-Amphibians and Reptiles. (3) Crocodiles (including the Estuarne or salt water crocodile) (Crocodilus porosus and Crocodilus palustris), Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus). Part III - Birds (18) Bazas (Aviceda jeordoni and Aviceda leuphotes), Cheer Pheasant (Catreus wallilchii), Great Indian Bustard (Choriotis nigriceps), Great Indian Hornbill (Buceros bicornis), Jordon’s Course (Cursorius bitorquatus), Lammergeior (Gypaetus batbatus), Large falcons (Falco peregrinus, Falco biarmicus, Falco chicquera), Mountain quail (Ophrysia supercilios), Narcondam hornbill (Rhyticeros (undulatus) narcondami), Nicobar megapode (Megapodius freycinet), Peafowl (Pavo cristatus), Pink-headed duck (Rhodonessa saryophyllacea), Scalater’s Monal (Lophophorus sclateri), Siberian white crane (Grus leucogeranus), Tragopan pheasants (Tragopan melanocephalus, Tragopan blythii, Tragopan, satyra, Tragopan temmincki), White-bellied sea eagle (Haliaetus leucogaster), White-eared pheasant (Crossoptilon crossoptilon), White-winged wood duck (Cairina scutalata). Schedule – II includes special game animals mentioned in two parts Special Game Part – I (23) 1) Agra Monitor Lizard [Varanus griscus (Dandin), Bengal Porcupine (Altherurus mecrourus assamensia), Bison or Gaur (Bos gaurus), Gapped Langur (Presbytis pileatus), Crab-eating Macaque (Macaca irus umbrosa), Dolphins (Dolphinus delphis, Plataanista gangetica), Farrat Badgers (Melegale moschata and Melogale personata), Flying squirrels (All species of the genus Hylopetes, Petaristes, Belom Bupetaurus), Giant squirrels (Ratufa macroura, Rafuta indica and Raiufubi color), Himalayan Brown bear (Ursus arctos), Himalaya crestless Porcupine (Hystrix hodgsoni), Hog badger (Arctonyx collaris), Indian elephant (Elephas maxumus), Leaf Monkey (Presbytis phayrei), Malay or San bear (Helarctos malayanus), Pig-tailed Macaque (Macaca speciosa), Pythons (Genus Python), Serow (Capricornis sumatraensis), Stump-tailed Macaque (Macaca speciosa), Tibetan Antelope or Chiru (Panthelops hodgsoni), Water Lizard (Varanus salvator), Wild Dog or Dhole (Cuon alpinus), Wild Yak (Bos grunniens),

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