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Sasi Kumar R., Sivakumar P.S.
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The book deals with value addition and processing of agro-food crops. Each agro-food crop is discussed from the point of its production, processing, value addition, packaging and storage. Main food crops of special importance in the food processing sector like cereals, millets and pulses, minor forest products, fruits and vegetables and milk and milk based products are considered at length. The book gives a comprehensive account of food processing and value addition with regards to encourage for setting up small food processing industries in their local area using local agro food crops base. Indigenous food preparations based on fermented cereals and pulse, milk and other crops based products have been discussed. Various food laws and regulation by the Government to control food quality and standards are highlighted. Agro food based, food processing industry, in small or cottage scale level in their local region with available resource projects are alsodiscussed in details. An outstanding text for students, researchers and entrepreneurs in food processing with little or no previous instruction in food science and technology, food science is also a valuable reference for professionals in food processing, as well as for those working in fields that serves, regulates or otherwise interfaces with the food processing industry.

0 Start Pages

Preface The book is written to meet the needs of students of Indian Agricultural Universities pursuing courses in Food Technology, Postharvest Technology, Food Processing & Preservation, Home Science and allied courses, at the graduate and post graduate levels. The book currently used as text and reference books, mostly written by western authors, do not satisfy the needs of Indian students, which are important in ours. Our book eliminates this imbalance The production, storage, processing and utilization of agro based food crops are discussed in details from the Indian context. Convenience and Health food products from cereals and millets, pulses and oilseeds, fruits and vegetables and milk based food products like idli, dosa, chapti, fruit juice, ready soup mix and milk based products have received special attention. Convenience and health foods from different source, which are important to overcome malnutrition of infant and young children of developing countries like India, are considered. Indian food laws and the role of Indian Standards Institute in regulation of food standards are discussed while production of convenience and health foods. The book gives a comprehensive account of preparation and production convenience and health food products. It consists of 12 chapters, deal with available of local Agro based food crops resource, for producing and developing into various convenience food products, includes standard procedure, formulation and development of value added products from different combination. Chapter 12 deals Project preparation, how the local people can start food related project using local available resource, includes minimum financial requirements, fund allocation into different heads and judging a feasible project. We trust that the book would be of interest to all students and scientists working in the field of Food Industry, Food processing and Preservation related research institutes. Suggestions for improvements of the book are welcome.

1 Cereals, Millets and Pulses Based Foods

Importance of Foods The word “instant” has been used in widely different types of premixes to specify the products either as ready-to-eat food or semi processed foods. The instant premixes available in Indian market were classified as Indian products and Westernized or sophisticated products. The instant mixes included under Indian market products are spice mixes, snack mixes and desert and sweet meat mixes. The Westernized products (instant mixes) contained soup mixes, beverage mixes, desert mixes and soft drink mixes. Convenience foods are gaining popularity in recent years as they are very easy to handle, require minimum storage space and are attractive. Convenience foods have emerged as a new set of products in the international market. Most of the traditional foods that are commercially available in our country are being prepared / processed by cottage industries and by some of the multinational companies. The various types of convenience foods/ instant mixes that are presently being processed, marketed and consumed all over the country. Supplementation with protein-rich sources and preparation of acceptable ready-to-eat snack foods would not only correct its nutritional inadequacies, but would also provide a variety. Instant mixes were high in nutritive value especially needed for armed forces, light in weight, easy to carry and prepare. Rapid industrialization and urbanization and changes in eating habits of Indian people led to very high demand for ready-to-use snack foods. The convenience instant foods are meeting the urgent and exigency situations of offering hospitality to unexpected guests. Changing life styles and values are at the root of considerable changes in eating habits over the last few years. Hand-in-hand with a strong demand for fast and take away foods, there has been a marked upturn in popularity for convenience foods in India. The major reasons for this trend are: the decline of the family meal time, growth in disposal incomes (only in cases of city dwellers), the desire for more leisure time and demand for “foreign” or “sophisticated” dishes inspired by the media and increased travel.

1 - 56 (56 Pages)
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2 Traditional Foods

Importance of Traditional Foods Traditional convenience food, or tertiary processed food, is commercially prepared food designed for ease of consumption. Products designated as convenience foods are often prepared food stuffs that can be sold as hot, ready-to-eat dishes; as room-temperature, shelf-stable products; or as refrigerated or frozen products that require minimal preparation (typically just heating). These products are often sold in portion controlled, single serve packaging designed for portability for “on-the-go” eating. Convenience food can include products such as candy; beverages such as soft drinks, juices and milk; fast food; nuts, fruits and vegetables in fresh or preserved states; processed meats and cheeses; and canned products such as soups and pasta dishes. Traditional Foods Preparation of Vadagam and Appalam Vadagam is a traditional product mostly prepared from rice flour and also sago. It is an deep fat fried product and consumed as a side dish in the meals. Papad also known as appalam or papadam in South India, is essentially a thin wafer like product, usually circular in shape rolled from a dough made out of pulse, cereals, edible vegetable oil, alkaline and mucilaginous additives. It is normally consumed in toasted or fried form. In India, papad has been associated and deeply entwined with social customs/ rituals and has been developed into culinary art.

57 - 76 (20 Pages)
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3 Fruits and Vegetables Based Foods

Importance of Fruits and Vegetables in Human Life Fruit is the edible, and more or less juicy, product of a tree or plant and consist of the matured ovary including its seeds and adjacent parts. Usually fruits are sweet, with a wide range of flavours, colours and textures. Composition Fruits are very poor source of protein and fat. Avocado is the exception containing 28% fat. Fruits contain high amount of moisture hence they are highly perishable. They are also good source of fiber. Fruits are not very good sources of calories. Fruits like bananas give fairly good amount of calories. Ripe fruit contains a higher percentage of sugar than unripe fruit does and the sugar is chief in the form of sucrose, fructose and glucose. Generally fruits are poor source of iron, Mangoes are excellent source of carotenes. Oranges are fairly good source of beta carotene. Guavas are the best source of vitamin C. Citrus fruits are good source of vitamin C. Cashew fruits are inexpensive and rich in vitamin C, although there is variation of vitamin content from fruit to fruit most fruits in the raw state contain some ascorbic acid. If fruits are bruised, peeled, cooked or exposed to air, large amounts of the vitamin may be oxidized. Apples are not only expensive; they contribute little to the nutritive value. They give fiber to the diet.

77 - 106 (30 Pages)
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4 Tropical Root and Tuber Crops Based Foods

Introduction The tropical root and tuber crops are comprised of crops covering several genera. They are staple foods in many parts of the tropics, being the source of most of the daily carbohydrate intake for large populations. These carbohydrates are mostly starches found in storage organs, which may be enlarged roots, corms, rhizomes, or tubers. Many root and tuber crops are grown as traditional foods or are adapted to unique ecosystems and are of little importance to world food production. Others such as cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and white-fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) are known worldwide. Several of these crops have been termed under-exploited and deserving of considerably more research input Potato and Banana chips: Potato chips are one of the popular snack foods consumed throughout the country. Chips are mostly prepared by small scale artisans / confectioners, and sold in plastic film or paper packs. Recently, however some of the companies have installed plants having relatively large capacities and have started marketing chips in attractive packs. The fat content generally ranges between 25-40% and moisture content between 2-4%. Potatoes having high total solids, low reducing sugars and low amylase activity are most suitable for chips manufacture. Banana chips are prepared from varieties rich in starch having very low levels of soluble sugars and polyphenol - oxidase activity. These are mostly processed and marketed in Southern States especially in Kerala. Previously, the chips were fried in coconut oil, but now other vegetable oils are also used in their processing. Relatively, banana chips are harder in texture than potato chips.

107 - 142 (36 Pages)
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5 Minor Forest Products Based Foods

Tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) Introduction The fruit of tamarind a pod 5 to 15 cm long, 3 to 10 seeds surrounded with edible pulp which is principal souring agent for sauces, chutney, in beverages and in general cooking. Pulp is carminative, laxative, given as infusion in biliousness and febrile conditions. It is also used in dyring and tanning and for polishing and cleaning metal ware. The tartaric acid is extracted from unripe fruits. The polysaccharide (jellose) is extracted from seeds, which is used as a sizing material in the cotton and jute industries. Besides, polyose obtained from the seed is good substitute for fruit pectin in the preparation of jam, jelly or marmalade. The bark and leaves are used for tanning. Tamarind balls are prepared after taking out seeds from the fruit. Tamarind paste and tamarind juice concentrate are the other commercial products. The fruits, flattish, bean-like, irregulary curved and bulged pods, are born in great abundance along the new branches and usually vary from 2 to 7 in long and from 3/4 to 1 1/4 in (2-3.2 cm) in diameter. Exceptionally large tamarinds have been found on individual trees. The pods may be cinnamon-brown or grayish-brown externally and, at first, are tender-skinned with green, highly acid flesh and soft, whitish, under-developed seeds. As they mature, the pods fill out somewhat and the juicy, acidulous pulp turns brown or reddish-brown.

143 - 168 (26 Pages)
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6 Milk and Milk Products Based Food

Importance The dairy products, which have originated in India, are called indigenous dairy products. The products can be broadly classified in to khoa based and channa based. The importance of the dairy products were known to Indians since time immemorial or it could be roughly estimated to be around five thousand years ago and the development could be considered as an art.

169 - 180 (12 Pages)
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7 Food Additives used for Foods

Importance of Food Additives Food additives are chemicals, biochemical ingredients etc., which are added to food products for their technological benefits. These benefits may be to preserve the quality of food, to maintain and improve its appeal, to ensure its nutritional value and to provide innovations in new products with consumer appeal and satisfaction. Additives are also added to maintain uniform quality and to enhance quality parameters such as flavour, colour, texture etc. in large-scale production. They and their by-products ultimately become part of the food that is consumed and so they must be safe. Additives may be direct additives, which are added deliberately to improve its sensory quality, nutritive value, stability, ease in processing and retention of quality during handling and retailing. There are also indirect additives, which are not added intentionally but get included into foods incidentally during handling, processing and packaging. There are some guiding principles for the use of food additives. They should be justified for their technological effectiveness and purpose. They should be safe for use. There should be maximum adequate levels, absolutely necessary levels of usage and ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) properly evaluated while considering its safety and permitted usage levels in foods. They should not be added with the intention of misleading consumers about quality. They should also not significantly affect adversely the nutritional quality of food products.

181 - 188 (8 Pages)
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8 Food Package Development

Definition Packaging is the science, art, and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packaging also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Food packaging is packaging for food. It requires protection, tampering resistance, and special physical, chemical, or biological needs. It also shows the product that is labeled to show any nutrition information on the food being consumed Packaging may be defined as co-ordinated system of preparing foods for transport, distribution, storage, retailing and their use. It is also a means of ensuring safe delivery of goods to the consumer in sound condition without affecting adversely the quality of the product packed in it at a reasonable cost. Packaging thus has as “techno-economic function” aimed at maintaining the quality of food stuff packed, with a view to retain the quality for a reasonable period. Packaging plays a vital and dominant role in marketing, in maintaining quality and in preserving the food. Consequent to the increase in the consumer awareness of the healthy hazards, which may be posed by different types of packaging material. It becomes inevitable for the packers to use better quality, hygienic packaging material which could retain the quality of the product for a longer time without posing any health hazard. The choice of a suitable packaging becomes all the more necessary for a number of factors like physico-chemical characters and acceptability of the commodities packed in any packaging material. Apart from this the package should be of the right shape and size and must attract the consumer's eye which could offer an absolute confidence regarding the wholesomeness of the products pack in it.

189 - 202 (14 Pages)
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9 Food Storage and Quality Control

Importance of Food Storage Food storage is both a traditional domestic skill and is important industrially. Food is stored by almost every human society and by many animals. Storing of food has several main purposes: •Storage of harvested and processed plant and animal food products for distribution to consumers •Enabling a better balanced diet throughout the year •Reducing kitchen waste by preserving unused or uneaten food for later use •Preserving pantry food, such as spices or dry ingredients like rice and flour, for eventual use in cooking •Preparedness for catastrophes, emergencies and periods of food scarcity or famine •Religious reasons (Example: LDS Church leaders instruct church members to store food) •Protection from animals or theft

203 - 211 (9 Pages)
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10 Food Law and Regulation

Purpose of Law The Food Laws or Regulations are made in order to protect people consuming these foods from undue risks, which may arise from processing, transport, retailing and consumption of food products which may undergo contamination, spoilage, inclusion of harmful chemicals/microbes or at harmful levels. Besides safety, consumers are also protected by these laws with respect to quality, quantity and substance that the food products are supposed to represent. Finally, laws also aim to protect the consumers from Nutrition and Health considerations with special consideration being given to vulnerable group such as infants, pregnant women etc. Food additives are chemical substances added to foods to improve flavour, texture, colour, appearance and consistency or as preservatives during manufacturing or processing. Herbs, spices, hops, salt, yeast, water, air and protein hydrolysates are excluded from this definition. In many countries, the use of food additives is regulated, and food additives must be declared on food labels by using their chemical names or numbers. the use of any new additive in a particular food, they ensure that:

213 - 220 (8 Pages)
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11 Project Preparation

Introduction of Food Industry India is one of the major food producers in the world. The food sector contributes to about 28% of India's GDP. India stands at 1st position in the world for production of cereals, milk, livestock, banana and Mango, 2nd in producing fruits and vegetables and ranks amongst top 5 in producing rice, wheat, groundnut, tea, coffee, tobacco, spices, sugar and oilseeds. India's share in global production of fruits is 10% and vegetables are 13.7%. The current consumption of fruits and vegetables is approx Rs.2 lakh crores at current prices with an estimated growth rate of 11% per annum. The growth rate is higher than cereals and milk and comparable to meet consumption Status of Food Processing Industry The food processing industry in India is still in a sorry state. The rural population comprising 70% including small cities, consume less than 10% of the processed foods and vegetables, whereas 60% of the processed food is consumed in four major metropolitan cities and 30% in the state capitals and big cities. Another fact is that 40% of the processed food and vegetables produced in the country in terms of value are bought by institutional buyers like Hotels, Restaurants and Defense etc. The highest growth in domestic market has been in fruit drinks, tomato ketch up and Jams. There is another fact that India is the largest milk producer in the world, however, organized industry accounts for less than 15% of the milk produce in India. It is estimated that there may be a total production of 1100 million tons of production of food products mainly food grains, oilseeds, sugarcane and fruits/vegetables during 2011-12 and leaving marketable surplus of 870 million tons.

221 - 278 (58 Pages)
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