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Alka Singh, B K Dhaduk
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This book deals with the basic aspects of landscape gardening including garden types and styles, principles, elements and garden components in detail and is well supported with illustrations and photographs for better clarity and easy understanding. It has been compiled especially for the students and it would also be useful to the landscape professionals, teachers as well as garden and nature lovers.

0 Start Pages

Preface   The villages are converting into small towns and small towns into metro cities creating concrete jungle with the shrinking of natural vegetation and the developing industrial epoch. Rapid urbanization has been accompanied by expansion of highly vulnerable communities living in informal settlements far away from nature, creating high environmental pressures with poor air quality in the outdoors as well as indoors. A high proportion of the population and economic activities are at risk from climate change, generating a high amount of global greenhouse gas emissions adding to the rise in global warming. Deaths due to air pollution have increased fourfold across the globe over the past decade as per the assessment by the World Health Organization. The accelerated pace of life has made man more mechanical that has further induced everyday stress and health problems. Landscape Gardening is the ray of a green hope in this fast mechanical era and the modus operandi for restoring balance with ecology. It bestows vitality, quality and aliveness to this expeditious and hasty life. A beautifully designed landscape and well planned avenue plantation not only improves aesthetic view but also curbs pollution, provides pure air, modulates temperature, sunlight and wind velocity, besides offering natural habitat for birds and connects human life with nature. A sight of blooming flowers captivates human heart with its enthralling beauty and further stimulates creativity and improves work performance. In the scorching summers, a sight of shady tree and a glimpse of tree blossoms changes the whole ambience.

1 Landscape Designing and Gardening:Significance and Scope

Definition, Significance and Importance Landscape design and gardening is the technique of design application to beautify our surroundings, our homes, office buildings and everywhere in open space with plants and garden features to give the soothing effect on the body, mind and soul. Rapid urbanization, industrialization with population explosion has been constantly depleting our natural resources through deforestation, ripping of hills and exposing them to erosion, pollution of rivers, streams and lakes with little understanding of the natural environment which supports human life. It is the application of the art and techniques of Landscape Gardening that can spell magic to our surroundings enhancing aesthetic beauty besides, improving and conserving environment. Besides, landscape beautification and ecological balance provision, other beneficial influence of gardens in human life have been researched and studied. Psychologists have found that access to plants and green spaces provides a sense of rest and allows workers to be more productive. Flowers convey our inner feelings sympathy, romance or celebration (pride and joy) or contrition in the most beautiful and delicate manner. Flowers are also used to express religious feelings. Interaction with gardens and natural spaces offers a variety of mental, physical and social beneficial influence for humans, ranging from stress reduction, quicker healing and mitigation of Attention Deficit Disorder in children to decreasing crime and air pollution. Studies throughout the world have proven the power of green spaces to improve human health. Recent studies in the Netherlands and Japan show that people with easy access to green space showed better health and lower mortality rates.

1 - 8 (8 Pages)
2 Basic Garden Styles and Conventional Gardens

Gardens have been considered important, sacred from ancient time and the styles developed being inspired form its surroundings. Thus the influences of climate, general landform, religion, spiritual vision, culture, nation, prevailing political conditions, social factors, architectural styles, etc have influenced in developing specific garden style in a particular region. These styles developed slowly over hundreds of years and remained insulated and remained intact till the travelling approach between different countries got well established. Later as the mobility between different countries became widespread, these style forms became intermingled and refined even to new forms. This resulted into the development of Japanese garden style or the arts of ‘bonsai’ making which had its origin in China, or the creation of west coast American garden that originated from the Bauhaus and modern movement that stated life in Germany, the mughal garden style in India based on Persian style from Iran etc. Basically, the different garden styles can be classified into formal, informal, intermediate and wild garden styles. Aristotle, the father of mathematics and Pythagorus, the father of geometry and disciple of Aristotle, strongly influenced the geometry, mathematics and calculative features of formal garden style. While informal garden style have evolved from the eastern vision of thoughts, originated with Laotsu and Confucious contemplation (preaching) that manifested gardens to express peaceful and compassionate atmosphere influencing meditation, silence and internal harmony.

9 - 26 (18 Pages)
3 Garden Types and Designs: Contemporary View

Modern garden designs are classified on the basis of utility, need, location and materials used. Nowadays, garden types are focused on issues contributing towards ecological balance, biodiversity, environmental moderation and sustainability as well as personal preference and taste. This has given new perspectives to roof gardening, rock gardening, home gardening, kitchen gardening, green belt development, traffic islands, avenue plantation etc. Further there is incorporation of alternative energy sources like solar systems, water harvesting, etc. A garden could be for entertainment or a place to relax for some people and for others, a productive kitchen or herbal garden is more important. Some common garden types are given below, where in it is also possible to combine elements of two or three different types to create something entirely different.

27 - 48 (22 Pages)
4 Garden Designing: Principles

Garden should serve the feelings of comfort and pleasure along with soothing effect on mind and soul of the owner and the visitors. This should be the basic aim of the landscape designer along the budget. Landscape artist should never imitate another garden which has secured popularity but should develop one’s own design. Every plot or site may not be even and ideal for designing a garden. The principles of landscape design work together to create the overall look of the garden. Natural undulations of a barren landform should be utilized with its advantages and also to break the monotony of leveled plain. The principles of garden designing interact with the elements of color, texture, line, form and scale to develop a unified landscape design that blends the beauty of nature with the splendor of modern architecture.

49 - 64 (16 Pages)
5 Basic Elements of Landscape Gardening: Landform, Plant Material and Water

Landform, water and plants form the three basic elements of garden designing. Each of these basic element is described and discussed in detail. I Landform “Landform” refers to three-dimensional relief of earth’s surface. Thus, in simple words it is the lay of land, synonymous with, “topography”. Land is defined as the surface of the earth and all its natural resources. Landform is thus 3-D view of earth’s surface including all the visible feature of an area of land and landscape refers to the picture representing a view of natural inland scenery. Landform is the common module in exterior environments, a base, an axis, a thread, which ties all the physical elements, space together along the horizon or the water edge. Landforms can be classified as macro-landforms, micro-landforms and mini-landforms. Macro-landforms refers to valleys, mountains, rolling hills, prairies, desert, seashore and plains. Micro-landforms refers to mounds, slopes, level areas or elevation changes using steps and ramps. Mini-landforms refers to subtle, undulations or ripples of a sand dunes or the textural variation of stones and rocks. Different techniques are used for explaining and representing the type of landform. These include (i) Contour lines, (ii) Models, (iii) Ratio method, (iv) Value and colour, (v) Spot elevation, (vi) Computer graphics, (vi) Hatches (disconnected lines are used) and (viii) Percentage method. These techniques are used for proper study of the landform, to identify loopholes and need to modification in order to establish proper drainage or to modify the site in order to accommodate of various elements or to create an aesthetically pleasing ground plan.

65 - 110 (46 Pages)
6 Components of Landscape Gardening

Definition and Significance Garden Components are the garden features that form the expressions of garden, adding charm to the basic garden landscape and constitute its style, contributing strongly to its texture and structure. Thus, garden features are important as they provide face lift to the garden skeleton, giving it a filling effect with charismatic appeal. Garden features include garden wall, fencing, arches, pergolas, hedge-edge, topiary, etc. Creating sudden and unexpected change of scenery sometimes reveal good contrasts. Thoughtful planning of garden features make an invaluable contribution to garden design. It is possible to design a garden with a large number of man-made artistic items. However, indiscriminate and haphazard use of these items results in clutter. Further, new and strange features in the garden always attract visitors and give unbounded pleasure. During ancient time, because of the traditional style of architecture and high craftsmanship, garden features and adornments have played a big role in many famous gardens of the world. Selection of features and positioning of ornaments in a garden are the visible evidence of the owner’s taste of nature and aesthetic sense. Whatever features are chosen, they must add charm, create an atmosphere of naturalistic design and improve the quality of landscape design. Garden features and ornaments are many, but they must be utilized in the design with restraints. Some important garden features are described below.

111 - 145 (35 Pages)

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