Browse Subject

Buy Now and Pay in EMI's

BIOMETRICAL METHODS IN HORTICULTURAL SCIENCES

Dr. Nirmal Sharma, Dr. V. K. Wali, Dr. Parshant Bakshi
  • Country of Origin:

  • Imprint:

    NIPA

  • eISBN:

    9789389130782

  • Binding:

    EBook

  • Number Of Pages:

    184

  • Language:

    English

Individual Price: ₹ 1,800.00 ₹ 1,620.00 + Tax

Add to cart Contact for Institutional Price
 

The book presents complicated statistical equations and formulae in the form of easily understandable text and simple formulae, so that large data gathered through the field experimentation could be properly analyzed and correct inferences may be drawn from it. The present book has been divided into seven chapters. First two chapters deals with the development of biometrics and basic statistics because biometrics cannot be understood properly without having knowledge of basic statistics. The third chapter deals with assessment of variability in a population which can be determined through different methods like D2 statistics, Euclidean cluster analysis and meteroglyph analysis, however, range, standard deviation, variance and coefficient of variation are simpler statistics for assessment of variability. Fourth chapter deals with breeding methods which include selection process, eritability, and selection index. Fifth chapter deals with aids in selection and include important topics like correlation, path analysis, regression analysis, cluster analysis, PCA and discriminant function analysis. Sixth chapter deals with aids in selection which include diallel analysis and generation mean analysis. Seventh chapter is varietal adaptation which includes stability analysis of a variety.

0 Start Pages

Preface   With the rediscovery of Mandelism by De Varies, Correns and Tshermak, plant breeding assumed a scientific dispensation. Subsequently, geneticists were divided into two groups mendelians and biometricians. However, with the advent of new discoveries like Pure line theory of Johanson, Multiple factor hypothesis of Nilson-Ehle, Emerson and Davenport and Continuous (quantitative) variations by Yule proved that both the groups were correct. The work of Mahalanobis (1928), Comstock and Robinson (1948, 1952), Jink and Hayman (1954), Griffings (1956), Anderson (1957), Kempthorne (1957), Rawlings and Cokerham (1962), Finley and Wilkinson (1963) and Eberhart and Russell (1966) gave the required impetus in this field. Now in the era of increasing population, present day crop breeding needs faster breeding cycles to meet the modern breeding objectives. Here, biometrics plays a major role in scientific planning of the breeding programmes. Besides, being an important area for researchers, biometrics is explicitly included in the academic programs of different agricultural universities/institutions. Its importance in the field of agriculture can only be assessed that no dissertation and scientific publication is complete without it. In due course of the development of biometrics, number of theories, methods and techniques have been developed most of which have been derived through statistical formulae. It often gives a feeling of giddiness to one who looks at a book page full of statistical symbols and formulae. Therefore, presenting these methods and formulae in an easy way is very important so that every one could understand the principles, practical utility and the inferences drawn from such methods. Though, a number of books have been published pertaining to biometrics in agriculture, but a person working in horticulture remain standstill when it comes to biometrics, because it is usually assumed that such techniques are applicable to agricultural plants and not the horticultural plants particularly the fruit plants. However, it is not so and same methods are equally applicable to fruit plants also. Therefore, an attempt has been made by the authors to put forth the complicated statistical equations and formulae in the form of easily understandable text and simple formulae, so that large data gathered through the field experimentation could be properly analysed and correct inferences may be drawn from it. The present book has been divided into seven chapters. First two chapters deals with the development of biometrics and basic statistics because biometrics can not be understood properly without having knowledge of basic statistics. The third chapter deals with assessment of variability in a population which can be determined through different methods like D2 statistics, Euclidean cluster analysis and meteroglyph analysis, however, range, standard deviation, variance and coefficient of variation are simpler statistics for assessment of variability. Fourth chapter deals with breeding methods which include selection process, heritability, and selection index. Fifth chapter deals with aids in selection and include important topics like correlation, path analysis, regression analysis, cluster analysis, PCA and discriminant function analysis. Sixth chapter deals with aids in selection which include diallel analysis and generation mean analysis. Seventh chapter is varietal adaptation which includes stability analysis of a variety.

 
1 Introduction

Years ago before becoming the food producers, humans, for years remained food gatherers and the food collected from wild was sufficient to satisfy the food needs of human on the earth. The ever increasing population demanded more food to quench their hunger which is mainly served by plants but plants have limited intrinsic potential or threshold limit upto which it can put on biomass which ultimately could be consumed as food. Though by making certain modifications in the genetic make-up of the plant, the output can be altered. Before attempting any modification in the genetic make-up, it is necessary to understand the genetics and genetic behavior of the targeted plant. So the aim of studying the genetics and genetic behavior of the plants is to improve the quality and quantity of the produce. The inferences of genetics cannot be directly applied to the improvement but the principles of genetics and the genetic behaviors are set into particular situations. This part of genetics which deals with the improvement of the quality and quantity of the produce with the aim of benefitting mankind is called plant breeding.

1 - 10 (10 Pages)
₹258.00 ₹233.00 + Tax
 
2 Basic Statistics

Statistics involves procedures for collection, classification, analysis, interpretation and presentation of numerical data (Gupta, 1997). Statistical investigations involves four stages ie. collection of data, compilation of data, analysis of data and drawing inferences. For any statistical analysis, first step is data collection which constitutes the foundation for statistical analysis. The required data may be obtained either through survey or an experiment. Survey is the process of collecting data from a population but have no control over the factors which may affect the population characteristics under study, whereas in experiment, data is collected while control is exercised over the factors which may affect the population characteristics under study. Experiments always and almost provide better information than the survey but surveys are necessary in natural populations. When data is not available, it is collected by any of the two methods i.e. census or survey method. In census method, data are collected for each and every unit of the population whereas in sample method a representative sample is drawn from the population on the basis of which all the conclusions are drawn about the population from that sample.

11 - 42 (32 Pages)
₹258.00 ₹233.00 + Tax
 
3 Assessment of Variability

Availability of genetic variability and exploitation of this variability are two basic requirements of successful crop breeding programmes. The presence of genetic variation in a character is a must for any improvement in that character. If all the individuals in a population are identical i.e. no variation is there, selection cannot be done, so no improvement will be done. In case of crops, if variation is not present or variation is very small, variations are created through hybridization, mutation, polyploidy etc. Selection is identification and isolation of desirable plants from a variable population. A population consists of large number of heterogenous individuals with different morphological expressions. This variability is contributed by three factors: 1. Genetic constitution of individual, 2. Environmental effect on the individual and 3. Interaction effect between gene and environment. These three factors contribute towards the phenotypic variability among the individuals of the population. Assessment of magnitude of variability present in a crop species is of utmost importance as it provides the evidence for effective selection. Phenotypic variation in a population arises due to genotypic and environmental effects.

43 - 54 (12 Pages)
₹258.00 ₹233.00 + Tax
 
4 Breeding Methods

Important breeding methods can be classified as follows:     1.    Introduction     2.    Selection     a.    Mass selection: Done in self pollinated crops, cross pollinated crops and dioecious crops.     b.    Individual plant selection: Done in self pollinated crops, cross pollinated crops (line breeding) without control of pollination, artificially self pollinated lines, dioecious plants and clonally propagated lines.     3.    Hybridization     a.    Crossing in self pollinated crops.     b.    Single crosses, double crosses and synthesized varieties.     c.    Varietal crosses.

55 - 66 (12 Pages)
₹258.00 ₹233.00 + Tax
 
5 Aids in Selection

Selection is an important activity in all the breeding programmes. Different types of selections i.e. mass selection, progeny selection and cyclic selection etc. are used depending on the mode of pollination of the crop species, the predominant gene action and the breeding objectives. The efficiency of selection largely depends on the extent of genetic variability present in the population and the heritability of the character. Selection is more effective for character with high heritability than those having low heritability. Breeding for higher or better yield is the breeding objective for most of the breeding programmes, but it has low heritability. Yield is considered to be complex or super character which is influenced by many components or contributing traits both in positive and in negative directions. Due to the fact that it has low heritability, selection is done for the yield contributing traits so that yield may be increased through selection. Prior to selection for yield contributing traits, it is always beneficial to study the extent and type of relationship between the character and yield. There are different procedures which aid in the isolation of superior yielding genotypes from genetically variable populations by providing information on indirect selection for yield. These methods are discussed in the following content.

67 - 78 (12 Pages)
₹258.00 ₹233.00 + Tax
 
6 Choice of Parents and Breeding Procedures

Hybridization is a potent technique to create variability for selection and breaking yield barriers, evolve varieties having built in high potential. The selection of suitable parents for hybridization is one of the most important step in hybridization program. Selection of parents on the basis of phenotypic performance alone is not a sound procedure since phenotypically superior lines may yield poor recombinations in the segregating generations. It is therefore essential that parents are chosen on the basis of their genetic value. Some of the commonly utilized techniques for assessing the genetic value of a genotype are:

79 - 138 (60 Pages)
₹258.00 ₹233.00 + Tax
 
7 Varietal Adaptation

When a variety is grown under different environmental conditions, phenotype is the result of genotype+environment+genotype×environment interaction. Genotype×environment refers to the interaction effect of the genotype with different environments. Presence of this interaction leads to overestimation of genetical and biometrical parameters and thus may yield misleading results. This interaction also influences the varietal adaptation of new improved genotypes. Adaptation refers to certain varietal features (morphological and physiological) which promote survival under that environment. In production and breeding programmes adaptability is related to economic yield i.e. genotypes producing higher economic yield under different environmental conditions are comparatively more adaptive than those which produce low yield. Varietal adaptability refers to the capability of a genotype to grow normally and perform well in an environment or different environments. Adaptation of genotypes depends upon certain characters i.e. both morphological and physiological which promote survival under an environment. In natural conditions adaptation is brought by natural selection, but in artificial breeding, adaptation is induced by the breeders.

139 - 152 (14 Pages)
₹258.00 ₹233.00 + Tax
 
8 End Pages

Bibliography Afifi, AA and Azen, SP. 1972. Statistical Analysis. A Computer Oriented Approach. Academic Press Inc. New York. Anderson, E. 1957. A semigraphic method for the analysis of complex problems. Proc. Nat. Aca. Sci. Wash. 43:923-927. Arunachalam, V and Ram, J. 1967. Geographical diversity in relation to genetic divergence in cultivated Sorghum. Ind. J. Gent. 27:369-380. Bishop, YM, Fienberg, SE and Holland, PW. 1975. Discrete Multivariate Analysis. Theory and Practice. The MIT Press, Cambridge. Blommers, PJ and Forsyth, RA. 1977. Elementary Statistical Methods in Psychology and Education, 2nd Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston. Cattell, RB. 1966. The Scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioural Research. 1(2):245-276. Cochran, WG. 1977. Sampling Technique. John Wiley & Sons. New York, USA. Comrey, AL. 1973. A First Course in Factor Analysis. Academic Press Inc. New York, USA. Comstock, RE and Robinson, HF. 1948. The components of genetic variance in populations of biparental progenies and their use in estimating average degree of dominance. Biometrics, 4:254-266. Comstock, RE and Robinson, HF. 1962. Estimation of average dominance of genes. In: Heterosis. IOWA State College Press, Ames. pp. 494-516. Comstock, RE and Robinson, HF. (1952). Genetic parameters, their estimation and significance. Proc. Sixth Intern. Grasslands Congr. 284-291. Crocker, L and Algina, J. 1986. Introduction to classical and modern test theory. Rinehart and Winston, New York, USA. Dewey, DR and Lu, KH. 1959. A correlation and path coefficient analysis of components of crested wheat grass seed production. Agron. J. 51:515-518. Dobzhansky, 1951. Genetics and the origin of species. Columbia Uni. Press. New York, USA. Eberhart, SA and Russell, WA. 1966. Stability parameters for comparing varieties. Crop Sci. 6: 36-40. Falconer, DS, 1960. Introduction to quantitative genetics. Oliver and Boyd. Edinberg. 362p. Finley, KW and Wilkinson, GN 1963. The analysis of adaptation in plant breeding programme. Aust. J. Agri. Res. 14:742-757. Fisher, RA 1918. The correlation among relatives on the supposition of Mandellian inheritance. Trns. Royal Soc. 52:399-433.

 
9cjbsk
Payment Methods