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FOREST SEED SCIENCE AND MANAGEMENT

Gopal Shukla, Nazir A. Pala, Sumit Chakravarty
  • Country of Origin:

  • Imprint:

    NIPA

  • eISBN:

    9789389130881

  • Binding:

    EBook

  • Number Of Pages:

    268

  • Language:

    English

Individual Price: ₹ 2,600.00 ₹ 2,340.00 + Tax

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Seed is the primary input for productive forestry and for any afforestation program. In propagation and conservation of a species, seeds play a vital role. In recent years owing to greater emphasis on community forestry, wasteland development and to support the National, Mission for a Green India as a part of the “National Action Plan on Climate Change” the requirement of seed has multiplied manifold. Large quantities of seed are needed every year to raise the nursery stock for propagating the desired plant species. A plentiful supply of quality seed i.e., high in viability and vigour, is therefore one of the prerequisites to make such activities successful. Presently requirement of forest seeds has not been properly documented though some estimation has been arrived at quantifying the seed demand of various forestry species based on utilization of seed in the past. Seeds are the most suitable form to conserve and also a means to distribute the plant germplasm. The quality of seed depends on choice of seed collection stand, seed crop abundance, time of collection, handling and storage. The duration of the viability of the seeds in nature vary widely among species due to their varied maturation time and storage physiology. In view of the increasing importance of seed quality in forestry and the numerous challenges in handling, testing and storage of forest seed, present book is very important for the benefit of forest seed industry. In the significant advances that India made in forest science in the last four decades, the role of the seed sector has been substantial. The present volume ‘Forest Seed Science and Management’ deals with various aspects of seeds and is comprised of 14 chapters highlighting aspects on historical perspective, recent research trends, insect, pest and disease management, physiological, biotechnological and molecular aspects, collection to processing and storage, testing, industrial approach, seed policy & legislation, IPRs and rural extension.

0 Start Pages

Preface Seed is the primary input for productive forestry and for any afforestation program. In propagation and conservation of a species, seeds play a vital role. In recent years owing to greater emphasis on community forestry, wasteland development and to support the National, Mission for a Green India as a part of the “National Action Plan on Climate Change” the requirement of seed has multiplied manifold. Large quantities of seed are needed every year to raise the nursery stock for propagating the desired plant species. A plentiful supply of quality seed i.e., high in viability and vigour, is therefore one of the prerequisites to make such activities successful. Presently in India, requirement of forest seeds for various programmes has not been properly documented though some estimation has been arrived at quantifying the seed demand of various forestry species based on utilization of seed in the past. Seeds are the most suitable form to conserve and also a means to distribute the plant germplasm. The quality of seed depends on choice of seed collection stand, seed crop abundance, time of collection, handling and storage. The duration of the viability of the seeds in nature vary widely among species due to their varied maturation time and storage physiology. In view of the increasing importance of seed quality in forestry and the numerous challenges in handling, testing and storage of forest seed, present book is very important for the benefit of forest seed industry. In the significant advances that India made in forest science in the last four decades, the role of the seed sector has been substantial. The present volume ‘Forest Seed Science and Management’ deals with various aspects of seeds and is comprised of 14 chapters highlighting aspects on historical perspective, recent research trends, insect, pest and disease management, physiological, biotechnological and molecular aspects, collection to processing and storage, testing, industrial approach, seed policy & legislation, IPRs and rural extension.

 
1 Forest Seed Science- Necessity for the Present Day Forestry
Gopal Shukla, Nazir A Pala, Vineeta and Sumit Chakravarty

Abstract Knowledge of  seed biology is crucial for proper management of  seed sources as well as the handling of seeds. In broadest sense seed technology includes the development of superior crop plant varieties, their evaluation and release, seed production, seed processing, seed storage, seed testing, seed certification, seed quality  control, seed marketing and distribution and research on various aspects. Vegetative propagation has also become popular for the propagation of some tree species, but seed propagation remains the principal mode of propagation in both the temperate and the tropical region. Forest plantations are a powerful tool in the continuing efforts of foresters to increase productivity per unit area apart from mitigating the climate change and global warming issues. Hence to improve the existing stock in terms of yield, quality, disease resistant and desired traits, seed technology can play a major role in providing quality genetic material.

1 - 12 (12 Pages)
₹186.00 ₹168.00 + Tax
 
2 Forest Seed Technology and its Overview
M.M. Rather, M.A. Dar, Kalpana Kukreja, Reyaz A. Bhat and Monika Panwar

Abstract Better seed production technology is vital to furnish quality seed of improved varieties. Trees are generally propagated from seeds and the suitability and quality of the seeds have a big effect on the success of the plantations, afforestation and reforestation programmes raised from them. It must be stressed that good seed implies seed which is both of high viability and vigour and is genetically well suited to the site and to the purpose for which it is planted. The use of sound seed from stands of high inherent quality is widely recognized as the best means of ensuring fast-grown and healthy plantations capable of yielding high quality wood. Quantity, as well as quality, of seed production is important. Seed quality depends on factors like source, time and techniques of harvest, processing and storage practices. Unlike agriculture, the forestry seeds have great variation in size, shape, dormancy, viability, moisture content, etc.

13 - 28 (16 Pages)
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3 Seed Orchards and Seed Stand
Afaq Majid Wani, S. B. Lal, Sheshan Shrivastava and Gunjan Kumari

Abstract Although  people have harvested seeds and fruit from trees for centuries, only after World War II, the science and theories of forest genetics begin to be seriously applied to and practiced in operational forestry around the world. The genetic improvements, or gains, need to be captured, packaged, and mass produced so that these gains could be deployed in operational forestry systems. This can be accomplished through seed orchards which is a link between tree breeding and silvicultural activities. Seed orchards are by far the most frequently used sexually reproducing forestry production populations in the world. Apart from the genetic improvement, seed orchards are also used for the production of seed that is well adapted to specific environments. Seed orchards can be categorized according to the generation of breeding or the type of plant material used.

29 - 40 (12 Pages)
₹186.00 ₹168.00 + Tax
 
4 Physiology of Forest Seeds
Lakshmi Hijam and Tulsi Saran Ghimiray

Abstract The availability of the quality seed is the first and the most important requirement which is of great relevance in tree improvement programme. Unlike agriculture, the forestry seeds have great variation in size, shape, dormancy, viability, moisture content, etc. It needs special techniques for collection, handling, processing and storage of the seeds of the large number of forest species. A strong commitment to improving tree seed technology is required for full utilization of seed supplies with the help of recent advances in seed physiology. Substantial improvements have occurred as a result of seed technology research offering the potential for major advances in traditional seed production and distribution systems.

41 - 56 (16 Pages)
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5 Seed Storage and Testing of Forest Seeds
Bobbymoore Konsam

Abstract The drive of planting trees is increasing because the values of trees and forest are being appreciated in all over the world. In most of the countries good quality tree seed is not readily available for a number of reasons especially in forestry sector. Though providing the best conditions for crop growth and health is the foundation of seed quality, the factors that can have the most important effect on seed viability and vigor are harvesting, extraction, cleaning, transportation, and storage because it is easy for seed to become damaged at any of these stages. Ex situ conservation through long-term storage of seed is possible for a significant proportion of higher plants. Long-term seed storage serves as a safe and relatively inexpensive method of plant genetic resources conservation.

57 - 78 (22 Pages)
₹186.00 ₹168.00 + Tax
 
6 Sources, Testing and Management of  Forest Seed Pathogens
Natalya Krishnambika

Abstract On average 13 million hectares of the world’s forests disappear every year due to different reasons. Among them forest diseases is one of the prominent factor. Seeds of soft wood and hardwood trees are attacked by fungi and other microbes.  Seed-borne pathogens of wood trees affect nursery seedlings and reduce seed germination and seedling vigor. The micro-organisms that are mostly associated with tree seeds are fungi, bacteria and to a lesser extent viruses. There are many mechanisms by which tree seeds acquire pathogens. Indeed, both the occurrence and severity of many seed-borne fungi, is often traced to the mishandling of fruits, cones or seeds. The majority of pathogens associated with forest tree seeds are fungi, producing only or predominantly the asexual (anamorph) stage (Deuteromycetes).

79 - 84 (6 Pages)
₹186.00 ₹168.00 + Tax
 
7 Insect Pests of Forest Seeds and Their Management in Natural and Storage Environment
Suprakash Pal, Supriyo Biswas, Gopal Shukla, Nazir A. Pala and Sumit Chakravarty

Abstract Insect pests, fungi, bacteria and other injuries are found in all types of environment and affect the growth, production and survival of both plants and animal species in one way or other. Similarly a large number of insects belonging to different orders, families and genera feed on pods and seeds in natural/ during storage and cause injuries. Regeneration failure in several broad leaved and conifers in India and other countries by heavy insect attack in the natural stands at the time of inflorescence and seed formation and on the ground after seed shedding causes heavy loss to number of afforestation programmes. Several methods like chemical, cultural, natural and biological are available for reduction in loss caused to seeds by insects. Generally, earlier the control measure, the smaller the destruction. Forest seeds can be stored safely by taking some precautions before their final storage, viz. inspection of the seeds for their moisture content, visual examination of cleaning method, scanning through soft X-ray technique, thermotherapy or treatments with chemicals, etc. The present chapter has covered review regarding damage caused to seeds by different insect pests and their management options.

85 - 102 (18 Pages)
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8 Forest Seed, Trade and its Certification
Dhiman Mukherjee

Abstract Seed is the most important input component for productive forestry. Large quantities of quality seed are needed every year to raise the nursery stock for propagating the desired plant species.  Commercially important species like Dalbergia sissoo, Eucalyptus tereticornis, Pinus roxburghii and Populus deltoides have become more important. Superior genetic qualities of seed have profound positive impact on growth rates and productivity of plantations and quality of the produce. To save and multiply the entire lot of valuable forest plants it is very essential to preserve and multiply those plants for which special type of nurseries are to be established. There is necessity to have special techniques and methods to meet the demand of seed and only hi-tech nurseries can satisfy this type of demand.

103 - 128 (26 Pages)
₹186.00 ₹168.00 + Tax
 
9 Trends in Forest Tree Seed Germination Research
Sanjeev K. Chauhan, H.V. Srinidhi, R. Sharma, Jagdish Chander and H.S. Saralch

Abstract In afforestation and reforestation programs, seed has become a valuable commodity and its collection, identification, handling, processing, testing, storage and certification requires prudent planning. The research and development in seed science and technology have made significant progress in recent years. The quality of seed has been the subject of increasing interest among Forest Managers and the Scientists. Not every seed is suitable for sowing. Sometimes, the seeds do not develop into normal plants or the plants produced do not produce the expected harvest. This manuscript reviews, the progress made to-date in the forest tree seed germination and highlights future line of action.

129 - 154 (26 Pages)
₹186.00 ₹168.00 + Tax
 
10 Exploring Biotechnology for Quality Forest Planting Material
Hossain Ali Mondal and Puspendu Dutta

Abstract The forest cover has declined at an estimated rate of 3-3.5% per annum due to huge deforestation in many countries during last decades. Being the prime necessity for forest regeneration, importance of quality seed management and its handling procedures have been genuinely recognized for greater interest of the environmental stability throughout the world. Growing of new trees and forests would play a major role to save the future world particularly under the present scenario of climatic change and this implies an increased demand of quality forest reproductive materials.

155 - 168 (14 Pages)
₹186.00 ₹168.00 + Tax
 
11 Molecular Markers in Forest Seeds
Sandip Debnath

Abstract People dealing with forest tree seeds are very much concern with the collection and supply of pure and quality seed. Assessing genetic purity of tree seed is always a challenge. Besides, studying tree diversity and tree improvement are also the key components of forestry. With the discovery of DNA based molecular markers these tasks have been made easier and authentic. So, the basic concepts behind different molecular markers were the principal concerns of this chapter. It has been focused here about the pros and cons of the markers along with their applicability. The application may be expanded towards hybrid seed testing and even to clonal forestry.

169 - 176 (8 Pages)
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12 Forest Reproductive Material Legislation
Manmohan J R Dobriyal

Abstract Forests are the second largest land use after agriculture in India covers around 24% of the geographical area. The key tree species like Teak, Sal, Shisham etc are commonly used for timber purposes however the species like Eucalypts, Acacias, Poplar, Melia and Leucaena are mainly used under agroforestry system in India. The most of the genetic material (seed/planting stock material) used in forestry sector in India is obtained from unspecified sources, from stands, natural or planted, which are neither classified nor managed specifically for seed or planting stock material production.

177 - 208 (32 Pages)
₹186.00 ₹168.00 + Tax
 
13 Intellectual Property Rights with Particular Orientation to Forestry
Bidhan Roy, Dinesh Tulsiram Surje, Swarnajit Debbarma

Abstract Intellectual property has increasingly assumed a vital role that we are witnessing today with the rapid pace of technological, scientific and medical innovation. Moreover, changes in the global economic environment have influenced the development of business models where intellectual property is a central element establishing value and potential growth. In India several new legislations for the protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) have been passed to meet the international obligations under the WTO Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS). Forest seed of economic importance and the non-timber forest products (NTFPs) play a very important role in the country’s economy.

209 - 240 (32 Pages)
₹186.00 ₹168.00 + Tax
 
14 Entrepreneurship Development Through Forest Seed Marketing
Litan Das, P. K. Pal and Pampi Paul

Abstract Forestry in India is very important for its wood, fuel and many non-wood products which were being used from ancient times by our forefathers for different personal and commercial use. Farmers face lots of problem in forestry because of its long gestation period, dependence on nature, bulkiness of outputs, season oriented production, perishable in nature, lack of processing centres for value addition at farm and intermediate levels, price fluctuation of forestry products, forced sale/distress sale of tree growers, low wage rate to workers in forestry activities and farmers in sufficient knowledge on market information. Establishment of institutional setup to promote forestry is urgent in the recent times.

241 - 254 (14 Pages)
₹186.00 ₹168.00 + Tax
 
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