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PESTS OF VEGETABLES BIONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

Dr. Nripendra Laskar, Dr. Hirak Chatterjee, Dr. Supriya Biswas
  • Country of Origin:

  • Imprint:

    NIPA

  • eISBN:

    9789389130980

  • Binding:

    EBook

  • Number Of Pages:

    582

  • Language:

    English

Individual Price: ₹ 3,850.00 ₹ 3,465.00 + Tax

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In the age of Hi-tech Agriculture and Horticulture, introduction of high yielding, hybrid, photo and therm-oinsensitive varieties of vegetables resulted in the paradigm shift in vegetable cultivation. In addition to that, the climatic changes and increment in cropping intensity reflected in a remarkable and rapid shift of vegetable ecosystem. Biotic stresses like insect, mite and nematode pests etc. have also been increasing day by day. These pest problems in vegetable cultivation are now changing in a dynamic fashion in close association with the change in cropping system and the environment. Considering the ill effects of hard-to-degrade synthetic chemical pesticides, integrated approaches are the only answer to combat such a complex problem that comprises host plant resistance, cultural, biological management strategies in association with safe pesticidal chemicals. Some pesticides have also been banned for using in vegetable, some are withdrawn. But information with regard to this phenomenon are scattered. In this compilation, an exhaustive effort has been undertaken to compile them. In addition to elaborating the host range, distribution, marks of identification, bionomics of the pests, protected cultivation, host plant resistance, biological control, pesticide residue problem and measures to mitigate it have been presented by the experts from different Institutes of repute from all over India. The book has been designed for the UG and PG students of horticulture, plant protection, acarology as well as nematology. This will also serve as guide to Professors and Teachers of Agricultural Universities, progressive farmers, extension workers, plant protection specialists as well as policy makers. It will be a treasure of information and must for the shelf of every library

0 Start Pages

Preface   Vegetables are the highly valuable sources of carbohydrates, proteins, minerals and vitamins and thus play an important role in balanced nutrition of human beings. Majority of Indian populations are vegetarian and they depend mainly upon vegetables to fulfil their dietary requirement. In addition to that, vegetables are the excellent choice for cash crop. These can be grown quickly, produce good yield and generate higher return even on a small piece of land and offer bright opportunity for quick rotation of investment. Production of vegetables thus, play a pivotal role in strengthening the agrarian Indian economy by way of creating greater employment opportunity vis-à-vis providing raw materials to the agro industries. Owing to the prevalence of almost all kinds of edaphic and climatic conditions, India makes its position very much important in the olericultural map of the world and become the second largest producer of vegetables only next to China. About 12 percent of the global output contributed by the country from about 2 percent cropped area. The existing area under vegetable cultivation in India is around 7.1 million hectare. Almost all kinds of vegetables are cultivated and there remain hardly any vegetables which is not cultivated in India. Successful cultivation of vegetables is hampered badly due to the incidence of several insect pests, mites and nematode parasites. Sustainable management of the pests of vegetables is really a complex issue in view of the tropical and sub-tropical climatic condition, intensive cultivation of high yielding and hybrid cultivars under high fertilisation and irrigated condition. Lack of adequate knowledge with regard to plant nutrition, protection and economic constraints added to the complexity of vegetable production. In the changing climatic condition the pest scenario is changing day by day. The invasive alien species (IAS) of pests are not uncommon under free trade and frequent travelling of peoples from one country to another. A considerable portion of both pre harvest and post harvest crop losses have been witnessed every year. To cope up with this dreaded problem, toxic synthetic pesticides have offered a simple solution to the growers as they are cheap, easy to apply and readily available. Farmers are using this tool indiscriminately even when it is not at all required. Rampant use of this ultimate weapon for managing the pests in vegetable cultivation creating a number of incurable problems like resistance, resurgence, secondary pest outbreak and human health hazards. These necessitated seeking scientific information on management of pests in vegetable cultivation and reevaluating the role of pesticides. A good number of sustainable IPM pest management strategies have also been developed using traps, bioagents, botanicals and safer pesticides. The information on the insect pests, mites and nematode parasites of vegetables and their sustainable management are scattered. There is scarcity of books having exhaustive and exclusive information on pests of vegetables and their eco-friendly management. This book deals comprehensively on the pests of vegetables along with their identification, biology, mode of feeding and symptoms of damage, economic threshold level (ETL) and integrated management. Pesticide residue, host plant resistance, biological control has also been elaborated by the experts of concerned disciplines in easy-to-understand language. Good quality photographs of some of the important pests have been accommodated. The book will be useful for the students, researchers, plant protection specialists, extension workers and the growers as well. Suggestions to improve the contents of the book are most welcome.

 
1 Pest Management and Biosystematics
Nripendra Laskar

Taxonomy is the science of identifying (discovering), describing, naming and classifying organisms. It is a complex summing up of knowledge starting with thorough analysis to base the synthesis that will end up in the name of a taxon. Correct identification of biological taxa is a necessary prerequisite to all other enquiries about the biological world. Taxonomists attempt to divide the world of living things (biodiversity) into distinguishable entities (taxa-such as species, genera, and families), develop tools (e.g., identification keys) to allow others to recognize and identify these taxa, and organize the described taxa within a hierarchical classification system that reflects evolutionary relationships. The outcomes of taxonomy are, therefore, very practical in terms of providing tools to facilitate identification, an infrastructure for organizing biological information, and a universal language for communicating information about the identity and classification of biological entities. Thus, naming and ordering of objects into groups is probably the most fundamental step in the development of scientific principles. Taxonomy identifies and enumerates the components of biological diversity providing basic knowledge underpinning pest management (Ramaraju and Pratheep, 2008). 

1 - 10 (10 Pages)
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2 Pests of Brinjal (Eggplant) and Their Management
Rajesh Kumar and Avijit Kumar Dutta

Brinjal (Solanum melongena Linn.) is one of the widely used vegetable crops and is popular in many countries viz. Central, South and South-East Asia, some part of Africa and Central America (Gurubban, 1977). It is also known as the aubergine, eggplant, melongene, guinea squash etc. Various data indicate that from the several species that evolved in Africa, one (Solanum incanum), gave rise to a distinct species which spread to South-East Asia as the wild ancestor of Solanum melongena (Lester, 1998). It was domesticated in India from the species Solanum incanum and India or Indo-China region is recognized as the centre of the eggplant diversity (Vavilov, 1951). Solanum melongena is a delicate, tropical perennial often cultivated as an annual in temperate climates. The fruit is botanically classified as a berry and contains numerous small, soft seeds which are edible, but have a bitter taste because they contain nicotinoid alkaloids. This is unsurprising as it is a close relative of tobacco.

11 - 40 (30 Pages)
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3 Pests of Cucurbitaceous Vegetables and Their Management
Nripendra Laskar

‘Cucurbits’ is a term coined by Liberty Hyde Bailey for cultivated species of the family Cucurbitacae (Robinson and Decker-Walters, 2004). Presently, the term has been used not only for cultivated forms, but also for any species of the family Cucurbitacae. Among vegetables, the cucurbits form one of the largest groups with their wide adaptation from arid climates to the humid tropics. The family consists of about 118 genera and 825 species. In Asia, about 23 edible major and minor cucurbits are grown as vegetable. They are grown in summer and rainy seasons in India and even in winter in some parts of southern and western India as both annual and perennial crops. 

41 - 86 (46 Pages)
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4 Pests of Potato and Their Management
Amitava Konar

Potato is one of the major non cereal food crops in the world and ranks fourth after rice, wheat and maize. Due to its high production potential per unit area and time, the crop has been recorded for sustaining millions of lives during the times of war and hunger. Native of South America, this crop was introduced into India in early seventieth century. Currently India ranks 3rd for area and 2nd for production in the world [AICRP (Potato) Bulletin No. 2]. Potato is generally grown as rabi crop during October to December in gangetic plains of India but in hills it is grown almost throughout the year as commercial cultivation. In some states like Karnataka, it is generally grown during kharif season.

87 - 122 (36 Pages)
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5 Pests of Okra and Their Management
H. P. Misra

Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus Moench), otherwise known as Lady’s finger or Bhindi is an annual malvaceous plant and the sixth important vegetable crop cultivated throughout the country mostly in kharif and summer seasons. Though it is reported to be originated from tropical and sub-tropical Africa, but it has gained much importance in India as the secondary centre of origin. India ranked first in okra production in the World and major okra producing Indian states are Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Assam (Anonymous, 2011).

123 - 148 (26 Pages)
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6 Pests of Tomato and Their Management
Hirak Chatterjee

Tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is an important vegetable cultivated throughout the world; both outdoors and under protected structures for fresh market consumption and processing. In India this nutritive rich vegetable is grown over an area of 0.60 m ha with an estimated production of 11.9 mt. Productivity of tomato in India is lower (18.6 t/ha) than the world productivity (27 t/ha) (Anonymous 2009). Tomato is grown in a wide range of climatic conditions across states of Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. Tomato crop is highly sensitive to environmental stress caused by high temperature and low soil moisture. In fact, temperature is rising in the tomato growing locations and can cause reduced fruit set and lower the quality of fruits.

149 - 180 (32 Pages)
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7 Pests of Cruciferous Vegetables and Their Management
S. M. Abdullah Mandal

Members of the family Cruciferae commonly used as vegetable include Cabbage, Cauliflower, Broccoli, Brussels sprouts and mustard etc. The genus Brassica is known for its important agricultural and horticultural crops. A dislike for cabbage or broccoli can result from the fact that these plants contain a compound similar to phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), which is bitter or tasteless to some people depending on their ‘taste buds’ (Theresa, 1995). Almost all parts of some species or other have been developed for food, including the root (turnips), stems (kohlrabi), leaves (cabbage), flowers (cauliflower, broccoli), buds (Brussels sprouts, cabbage), and seeds (many, including mustard seed, and oil-producing rapeseed). Some forms with white or purple foliage or flowerheads are also sometimes grown for ornamental purpose.

181 - 214 (34 Pages)
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8 Pests of Chillies and Their Management
Sunil Kumar Ghosh

The green pepper or chilli is reported to be the native of tropical America (Thompson and Kelly, 1957). This was widely cultivated in Central and South America in early times and was unknown in Europe prior to the discovery of America. The chilli belongs to the family Solanaceae and genus Capsicum. Only four species are under cultivation, out of which the cultivation of the two, Capsicum pendulum and Capsicum pubescens, are restricted to South and Central America. The other two, Capsicum annuum and Capsicum fruitescens are commercially cultivated throughout the world. Capsicum annuum is the most commonly cultivated species and all green chillies in the market and most dry chillies belong to this group. Most of the small and highly pungent chillies belong to Capsicum fruitescens.

215 - 232 (18 Pages)
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9 Pests of Leguminous Vegetables and Their Management
Tamoghna Saha

In countries like India where majority of the population are vegetarians, leguminous vegetables serve as the major source of protein in the diet. In the developing third world countries, especially for the poor, the major protein source in the diet are vegetable legumes. Most leguminous vegetables are rich in phosphorus, calcium, iron and a number of essential vitamins. Crops like soybean, groundnut and Bamabara groundnut are also rich in fats which are needed by the body to absorb vitamin A.

233 - 260 (28 Pages)
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10 Pests of Sweet Potato and Their Management
Nripendra Laskar

Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (Linn.) originated in northwestern South America around 8000 - 6000 BC. The plant is a dicotyledonous, herbaceous, trailing vine which is the only economically important member of the family Convolvulaceae. The plant is generally characterised by starchy, succulent and tuberous storage roots; alternating palmately lobed leaves and medium sized sympetalous flowers which grow individually and vary in colour from white to varying degrees of purple (Austin et al., 1991). It is a perennial plant but is grown as an annual by vegetative propagation usually through vine cuttings and sometimes using either storage roots. Its growth habit is predominantly prostrate with a vine system that rapidly expands horizontally on the ground. The types of growth habit of sweet potatoes are erect, semi-erect, spreading and very spreading.

261 - 282 (22 Pages)
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11 Pests of Drumstick (Moringa) and Their Management
Nithya Chandran, Tamoghna Saha and Roshna Gazmer

Moringa oleifera Linn. belongs to the family Moringaceae, that consists of only one genus with about 13 species of deciduous trees (Keay, 1989). It is believed to be the native of India-Pakistan-Nepal borders, but now is becoming widely distributed and grown in several countries, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions (Satti et al., 2013). Besides some other species, M. oleifera is recently being the most widely cultivated in numerous countries in Asia, including the Arabian Peninsula, central and south America and in most African countries like Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameron, Senegal, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya and Sudan (Nasir and Ali, 1972; Ramachandran et al., 1980 and Parrotta, 2001).

283 - 298 (16 Pages)
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12 Pests of Curry Leaf and Their Management
Nithya Chandran

Curry leaf, Murraya koenigii (Linn.) is one of the most important plants exclusively known for its culinary and medicinal value. Leaves of the plant are widely used for flavouring food in Indian cookery. Leaves are also used in many Indian Ayurvedic and Unani prescriptions (Joseph and Peter, 1985). The whole plant including leaves, stems, flower, fruits and roots are used as tonic, stimulant, anti-flatulent, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant (Khan et al., 1997) and anti-carcinogenic (Khanum et al., 2000). The plant is also used in curing digestive disorder, kidney disorder, burns and bruises, improving animal fertility, increasing shelf life of meat products, prevention of premature graying of hair and strengthening gums and teeths (Tara and Sharma, 2010). The plant is most widespread all over India and in some places it is grown wild. 

299 - 310 (12 Pages)
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13 Pests of Coriander and Their Management
Supriya Biswas

Coriander, Coriandrum sativum L. is an erect annual herb belongs to the family Apiaceae. Coriander may also be referred to as Cilantro, Chinese parsley or Dhania. In India it is cultivated in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Uttar Praesh etc. The leaves of the plant are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant. Leaves are slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems. It is a soft, hairless annual plant, surviving only one growing season. Except root all parts of the coriander plant are edible, but the fresh leaves and the dried seeds are most commonly used. It is also used as a condiment for its medicinal properties. Green leaves of coriander are extensively used for culinary purposes for a sweet aroma in cooking.

311 - 318 (8 Pages)
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14 Pests of Leafy Vegetables and Their Management
Sudeshna Karmakar

Leafy vegetables are the herbs that are grown for their edible greens (leaves). Leafy vegetables are also called pot-herbs, greens, vegetable greens, and leafy greens are plant leaves eaten as a vegetable, sometimes accompanied by tender petioles and shoots. They come from a very wide variety of plants. As per Singh and Arora (1978), about 220 species belonging to the families, Amaranthaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Araceae, Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Malvaceae, Nymphalaceae, Papilionaceae etc. occur in India. Although most of them are grown wild, a few are regularly cultivated and consumed as cooked vegetables.

319 - 336 (18 Pages)
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15 Pests of Elephant Foot Yam and Their Management
Sudarshan Chakraborty

Elephant foot yam, Amorphophallus campanutatus Blume (= Arum campanulatum Roxb.) belongs to the family Araceae. It is also known as elephant yam, Elephant bread, Suran, Sweet yam etc. It is a native to Tropical Asia and is found throughout the plains of the Indian sub-continent and some other parts of South East Asia and Africa growing both wild as well as cultivated. It is a robust herbaceous plant, with an erect solitary stem usually 1-2.5 m in height and bearing at the top one or two tripartite leaves, each part of which is deeply dissected into numerous segments. Towards the end of the plant’s cycle (usually 4-6 years) a large terminal inflorescence is produced, consisting of a short stalk and spathe and a spadix, which emits a malodorous smell, reminiscent of rotten meat.

337 - 350 (14 Pages)
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16 Pest Management of Vegetables under Protected Cultivation Practices
Tamoghna Saha, Nithya Chandran and S.N. Rai

Protected cultivation practices can be defined as a cropping technique wherein the micro environment surrounding the plant body is controlled partially or fully as per plant need during their period of growth to maximize the yield and resource saving. Cultivation of vegetables under protective structures such as net houses has become popular in recent years (Kaur et al., 2004; Cheema et al., 2004; Singh et al., 2004). This enables, farmers to produce vegetables in the off-season, when fresh produce usually fetches higher price in the market.

351 - 370 (20 Pages)
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17 Integrated Pest Management Technologies for Vegetable Crops
Umasankar Nayak and Nripendra Laskar

Endowed with varied agro-climatic situations, topography and soil type, India has been a leading vegetable producing country in the world occupying the second position in vegetable production after China with an annual production of 87.53 million tonnes from 5.86 million hectares having a share of 14.4 per cent to the world production. With commercial cultivation of as many as 61 annual and 4 perennial vegetables, India is the most diverse vegetable growing country in the world (Prakash et al., 2006). It is quite encouraging to know that our country occupies first position in cauliflower production and second in onion production. In India vegetables are grown both as mono-cropping (vegetable-vegetable cropping system) and sequential cropping after cereals, oil seeds and pulses. Besides, intercropping of vegetables with upland rice, maize, sugarcane, mango, papaya, banana and other fruit crops are also being encouraged in many areas. Vegetable based farming is rapidly emerging as one of the important  production systems in India  as this enterprise produces  a much higher income than any other type of farming in a shorter period of time. 

371 - 400 (30 Pages)
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18 Nematode Parasites of Vegetable Crops and Their Management
Kusal Roy and Shimpy Sarkar

Vegetables are the largest important constituent of our daily diet as well as high value cash crops for small, marginal and large scale growers. These are rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre which are essential for our normal body functions, prevention of malnutrition and deficiency diseases. Vegetables also play key role in neutralizing the acids produced during digestion of fatty foods and also provide valuable roughages which help in movement of food in intestine. Some of the vegetables are good sources of carbohydrates (leguminous vegetables, sweet potato, potato, onion, garlic and fenugreek) proteins (peas, beans, leafy vegetables and garlic) vitamin A (carrot, tomato, drumstick, leafy vegetables), Vitamin B (peas, garlic and tomato), vitamin C (green chillies, drumstick leaves, cole crops, leafy vegetables and leaves of radish) and minerals (leafy vegetables, drumstick pods etc.). As per dietician recommendation, our daily requirement is 75-125g of green leafy vegetables, 85g of other vegetables and 85 g of roots and tubers with other food (http://AgriInfo.in).

401 - 450 (50 Pages)
₹175.00 ₹158.00 + Tax
 
19 Mite Pests of Vegetables and Their Management
Supriya Biswas and Moulita Chatterjee

Mites are small arthropods belonging to the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina) and the class Arachnida. The scientific discipline devoted to the study of ticks and mites is called acarology. In soil ecosystems, mites are favored by high organic matter content and by moist conditions, wherein they actively engage in the fragmentation and mixing of organic matter (Nyle and Ray, 2009). Mites are among the most diverse and successful of all the invertebrate groups. They have exploited an incredible array of habitats, and because of their small size (most are microscopic), go largely unnoticed. Many live freely in the soil or water, but there are also a large number of species that live as parasites on plants, animals, and some that feed on mold. It is estimated that 48,200 species of mites have been described (Halliday et al., 2000).

451 - 464 (14 Pages)
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20 Biological Control in Vegetable Pest Management
Bharathi T. Meena

Biological control is a strategy which employs utilization of natural enemies to reduce the damage caused by noxious organisms to tolerable levels (De Bach and Rosen, 1991). This is the most benign method for reducing pest population in vegetable ecosystem. It opens an amicable platform for production of organic vegetables with good export value. Since the late 1950s, much of the insect control in vegetables has been based on the use of synthetic chemical insecticides. Insecticides are relatively easy to use and have generally provided effective pest control. It is likely that they will always be a component of pest management programs. But, insecticides have some undesirable attributes. They usually present some degree of hazard to the applicator and other people who may come in contact with them, they can leave residues that some find unacceptable; they can contaminate soil and water and affect wildlife, aquatic life and other non-target organisms, they can interfere with beneficial organisms, such as pollinating insects and the natural enemies of pests. The insects also can develop resistance to insecticide. For these reasons, there is growing interest among farmers, entomologists and gardeners to explore and adopt methods that reduce pesticide use. 

465 - 484 (20 Pages)
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21 Insecticide Residues in Vegetables
Partha Pratim Choudhury

Fresh vegetables are essential part of a healthy diet as it is an important source of vitamins, minerals and fibers. The nutritional content of vegetables varies considerably, though generally they contain little protein, fat and varying proportions of vitamins such as Vitamin A, Vitamin K and Vitamin B6, pro-vitamins, dietary minerals and carbohydrates (Woodruff, 1995; Whitaker, 2001). Vegetables contain multifarious other phytochemicals, some of which have been claimed to have antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and anti-carcinogenic properties (Steinmetz and Potter, 1996; Gruda, 2005). A balanced diet should contain 250 - 325 g of vegetables and the average human requirement for vegetable is 285 g per person per day (Attavar, 2000). This perception of nutrition makes vegetables as a valued farm output.

485 - 526 (42 Pages)
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22 Host Plant Resistance in Integrated Pest Management of Vegetables
Nripendra Laskar and Rajesh Kumar

To reduce the dependence on hazardous pesticides in modern agriculture, one of the most promising ways is to use insect-resistant cultivars. When available, planting resistant cultivars is one of our most effective, economically viable and environmentally sound tactics. The underlying concept of using host resistance to our advantage comes from the knowledge that most plants and animals are resistant to most potential insect attackers. Certain physiological, morphological, and/or behavioural characteristics inherited by organisms form a core of defense against species that would otherwise attack them (Pedigo, 2002).

527 - 540 (14 Pages)
₹175.00 ₹158.00 + Tax
 
23 End Pages

ANNEXURES I-IX Critical Plant Protection Inputs ANNEXURE - I : Botanicals

 
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