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Professor K V Peter
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The present book has 17 chapters authored by 30 working scientist's covers basic and applied sciences of vegetables, fruits, flowers, spices and value added products. One of the rare books carrying detailed information not only production but also cover methods and management techniques on how to protect and ensure proper and nutritional growth of the horticultural crops.

0 Start Pages

Preface Government of India issued a policy statement of “doubling farmers income through horticulture” by 2020 a stupendous task but achievable by all means. “There is a horticultural remedy for every nutritional malady” so says Prof. M S Swaminathan. “Hidden hunger and malnutrition” so prevalent in India are to be tackled by making available fruits and vegetables to common man. India has the largest research infrastructure-22 Central Research Institutes, 2 Deemed Universities, 3 Central Agricultural Universities, 12 ICAR-AICRPs and 56 State Agricultural Universities with facilities for education and research on horticultural sciences and a vast pool of scientific man power. The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research(CSIR), New Delhi has also research institutes on medicinal and aromatic plants. The Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Department of Science and Technology (DST) and Ministry of AYUSH also fund research projects on horticulture. ICMR-National Institute of Nutrition(NIN) Hyderabad conducts pioneering research on nutritional value of horticultural crops. Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Bengaluru, Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) Thiruvananthapuram and Baba Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai have also research programmes on horticultural crops. Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh; Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Viswa-Bharati University, Shantiniketan, Nagaland University, Dunheboto and Dr B R Ambedkar Central University, Lucknow have major departments on horticultural sciences.

1 Molecular Biology of Flowering in Plants
Deepu Mathew

The shift from vegetative to reproductive phase in plants is the result of multiple gene cascades in response to photoperiodic and temperature dependent pathways, gibberellic acid pathway, vernalization pathway and autonomous pathway. The environmental cues are initially detected in the leaves and the mRNA of the flowering signal integrator FT gene, moving to the shoot apical meristem, acts as a long-distance signal for floral meristem identity. At SAM, FT-FD protein complex, based on signals from above said pathways in association with the signals from age-dependent and miRNA pathways, leads to the activation of master regulator gene of flowering AP1. The activation of genes involved in ABCDE model of floral organ differentiation, based on the directions of various cadastral genes lead to the development of floral organs. Thus, the sequential action of floral meristem identity genes, floral organ developmental genes, floral meristem size and organ number genes, floral organ pattern genes and cadastral genes leads to the flower development. This chapter sums up the gene interactions happening in leaf and SAM, leading to the development of a complete flower.

1 - 22 (22 Pages)
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2 Beneficial Endophytes in Horticultural Crops
Pious Thomas

Endophytic Microorganisms Endophytes (‘endo’, inside; ‘phyte’, plant) include microorganisms that thrive inside the plant tissues without any obvious adverse effects on the host, and they include mainly bacteria and fungi (Hallmann et al., 1997; Bacon et al., 2002; Hardoim, 2015). Endophytic microorganisms share an intimate association with the host adding essential and functional capabilities. Therefore, plant may be considered as a superorganism composed of an amalgam of both selected symbiont microbiota and host cells (Hardoim, 2015) with the new concept of holobiome, i.e., plant together with the associated microorganisms collectively governing the plant activities (Hardoim et al., 2015; Vandenkoornhuys et al., 2015).

23 - 44 (22 Pages)
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3 Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Manage Insect Pests
Rajkumar and M Sujithra

The scientific community working in the field of crop protection is experiencing an increasing academic and industrial interest in the discovery and development of new bio-insecticides as environmentally friendly pest control tools to be integrated, in combination or rotation, with chemicals in pest management programmes. In this context, Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) as a bio-control agent have proven successful and are now commercially mass produced in six of the seven continents to treat pest problem in agriculture, horticulture and forest crops. They actively search for the host, including those in cryptic habitat stages of insect pests in soil environment. They can be considered as good candidates for integrated pest management in ustainable agriculture due to plants and mammals which are not adversely affected and have ease of mass production. We present a general overview on the current state of knowledge of EPN and their mutualistically associated bacteria and their utilization as biological control agent against insect pests in world and India are briefly presented in this chapter.

45 - 70 (26 Pages)
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4 Principles of Standardization and Certification
A. Govindan

“Standards are to Industry as Culture is to Society” said Shri C. Rajagopalachari, the first Governor General of India. Shri C. Rajagopalachari was inaugurating a conference on Standardization and Quality Control in February 1948. The great statesman has beautifully summed up the importance of standardization. The basic principles on which procedures and practices are based had their origin in the United Kingdom, where the first national standardization movement started as early as 1901. Thereafter, procedures have been continuously developed, modified and improved till considerable similarity is achieved.

71 - 88 (18 Pages)
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5 Hydroponics for Enhanced Vegetable Production
M.A. Deepa

Every research in agriculture aims at developing a promising new technology or refines an age old technology that can help addressing the improvement in crop yield. This is a worldwide scenario to meet up with the food needs of the growing population and reducing agricultural land resources. Many traditions in the world are associated with vast knowledge of cultivating the food crops, vegetables, fruits etc using selected methods that are modified based on the needs, climatic conditions and the resources available in the place of settlements. Soil based agriculture is the most popular method of growing plants since soil is considered as the main source of nutrients and water required for the healthy growth of crops. Generally it includes 3 major steps, ploughing, sowing and harvesting.

89 - 102 (14 Pages)
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6 Mechanization in Vegetable Farming
K.R.M. Swamy

Labour is one of the biggest input costs for vegetable growers. Vegetable farming is labor intensive and time consuming. Frequently, it is associated with low yield and poor quality production. The constraints are high labor requirements for land clearing, ploughing, bed forming, mulch laying, seeding, transplanting, harvesting and transporting. Mechanization is interjection of improved tools, implements, machines and other equipments between man and materials (soil, water, environment, seed, fertilizer, pesticides, growth regulators, irrigation water, agricultural produce and by-products such as fruits, vegetables, and seeds, etc.)

103 - 110 (8 Pages)
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7 Management of Major Pests and Diseases of Vegetables and Fruits Progress in Using Plant-derived Products in India
R.T. Gahukar

The vegetables and fruits are largely consumed fresh and day by day, their market demand is increasing due to nutritious quality. However, market supply is not sufficient to meet public demand throughout the year as production is inadequate because crop production has not increased substantially in recent years due to climatic changes. Another important reason for low production is the economic losses incurred due to damages of insect pests and plant diseases. Since ancient times, reduction in pest and disease incidence is sought by spraying of pesticides including conventional preparations such as tobacco decoction, Bordeaux mixture, neem leaf extract etc. During the green revolution years, the synthetic pesticides were greatly recommended for pest and disease control and thereby increasing crop yields many-fold. Having experienced the spectacular improvement in both yield and quality of marketable produce, farmers were solely dependent on synthetics and ultimately abandoned other control measures.

111 - 140 (30 Pages)
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8 Pesticide Residue Analysis in Vegetables
Gagan Jyot, Sanjay K Sahoo and Balwinder Singh

Pesticides are an undeniable part of modern life, used to protect everything from flower gardens to agricultural crops from specific pests. Pesticides have contributed significantly to improving quality of life and safeguarding the environment. Some 20 to 40 percent of the world’s potential crop production is already lost annually because of the effects of weeds, pests and diseases (according to the FAO reports) (www.CropLifeAmerica.mht). In addition to increasing crop yields, crop protection products used in stored products can also prolong the viable life of products, prevent huge post-harvest losses from pests and diseases and protect food safety for eating.

141 - 170 (30 Pages)
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9 Soybean Based Food Products for Health and Wellness
S.D. Kulkarni

Soybean, a source of 40 per cent good quality protein, 20 per cent oil and other nutrients has great potential in meeting nutritional requirements and extending health benefits through soy based food products to Indian population. Soy foods are nutritious, economical and good for health. Regular food use of about 10 per cent processed soybean flour with cereal flours or 25-30 g properly processed soybean per day in a diet entitles the consumer to derive maximum nutritional and health benefits at a relatively low-price. Soy food products like fullfatsoyflour, soy-based bakery products and dairy analogs (soy milk, soy paneer (tofu), curd (dahi), soyshrikhand, soy amrakhand), being the products of acceptable type to Indian population, have good scope. Different organizations have given input in R&D work on soybean processing. SPU Centre at ICAR-CIAE, Bhopal has been involved in development of number of soybased food products, technology and equipment for preparation of those. To make available the properly processed soy food products to our population, the centre is actively engaged in capacity building of upcoming entrepreneurs and entreprise development for soybean processing for food uses. Around 500 cottage scale soy food enterprises have been established in different states of the country.

171 - 200 (30 Pages)
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10 Production and Processing of Spices
Minoo Divakaran, Jayasree, K Nirmal Babu and KV Peter

Centuries before Greece and Rome were discovered, sailing ships carried Indian spices, perfumes and textiles to Mesopotamia, Arabia and Egypt. It was the lure of these that brought many seafarers to the shores of India. Emperors, kings, senators and the aristocracy transformed spices into the mostly highly prized commodities of ancient trade routes The story of Indian Spices is more than 7000 years old. By the 1400s, when navigational equipment had improved to the point that long-haul sailing became possible, European rulers set out to change the balance of world trade by funding spice-hunting missions of their own. Christopher Columbus who, in searching for a quick route to India, reached the Americas. Vasco de Gama was the first to surround Africa, and with a crew led by Ferdinand Magellan, fully circumnavigated the globe.

201 - 218 (18 Pages)
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11 Propagation Through Tissue Culture in Spice Crops
K.V. Peter and K. Nirmal Babu

Spices play important roles in daily life and India is a rich repository of spices. Various biotechnological approaches like micropropagation, somaclonal variation, in vitro conservation, synseed technology, protoplast fusion, production of flavor and coloring components, and development of novel transgenics have great significance in conservation, utilization and increasing the production and productivity of spices. Protocols for micropropagation and production of disease free planting materials are available for many spices. Efficient plant regeneration protocols are also available for exploiting somaclonal variation ,where the available natural variability is relatively low. Technologies for isolation and culture of protoplasts were reported in a few spices. Development of transgenics for disease resistance is gaining momentum. Synseed and Micro-rhizome technology are also available for many spices for safe propagation, conservation, movement, and exchange of germplasm. In vitro and cryo preservation technologies for conservation of spices germplasm are available for many spices.

219 - 230 (12 Pages)
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12 Ultra High Density Planting (UHDP) in Mango:Standardization of Fertigation
Sandip Makhmale

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most important tropical fruits of the world and is commonly known as the ‘King of fruits’ for its high quality fruits which are very popular among the Indians (Sharma et al., 2008). It is the oldest and extensively cultivated fruit crop in India having high socio-economic significance. India is the home of more than 1000 mango varieties, which originated in the Indo-Burma region (Mukherjee, 1958). India is the largest producer of mango, grown in about 2.3 million hectares with an annual production of 15.02 million tones. However, its productivity is only 6.5 tones per ha against 30 tones per ha in Israel (Bijay Jumar, 2010). Improvement of productivity in mango continues to be the foremost issue in mango production (Sauco, 1993). Of late, all the mango importing countries are considering the India as a source of quality mangoes due to its varietal wealth and availability. Hence, it is imperative to improve the productivity and quality of Indian mangoes to meet the global need (Balamohan et al., 2014).

231 - 246 (16 Pages)
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13 Advances in Propagation of Orchids-Cymbidium
Rampal, M. Dayamma and D. R. Singh

The word Cymbidium has been derived from a Greek word ‘Kumbos’ meaning ‘hole or cavity’ referring to the structure of the base of the lip. The genus consists of 44 known evergreen species in the family Orchidaceae, subfamily Vandoideae, tribe Cymbidieae and sub-tribe Cryptopodiinae. It is distributed from northwestern India to China, Japan, south through the Malay Archipelago to the north and east Australia. (DuPuy and Cribb, 1988). Cymbidiums have been for over hundred years one of the most famous orchids in commerce.

247 - 270 (24 Pages)
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14 Insect Pests of Orchids and Their Management
N. K. Meena and Rampal

The orchids are commercially important group of flowering plants and their flowers are affluent in uniqueness in their shape, size and colour, exquisitely attractive, remain fresh condition for long period of time in comparison to other flowers. Orchidaceae is the second largest family among floriculture; about 25000 to 35000 species of orchids have been reported over the world (Rampal and Nagrare, 2006). India accounts for nearly 7 per cent of world’s orchids genetic diversity contributed 1300 species under 184 genera (Arora, 1983; Rampal and Nagrare, 2006) and 1150 species belonging to 164 genera (Satish Kumar, 1994) of which about 800 species are found in the North Eastern region of the country (Nagaraju et al., 2006) and many more are discovered year after year because of the prevailing congenial climatic conditions, diverse terrain and altitudinal variations, which provide suitable habitat for orchids.

271 - 286 (16 Pages)
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15 Methylene-Cyclo-Propyl Glycine in Sapindaceae Family
S. Asthana, A. Tripathi, P.D. Dwivedi, A. Kumar and M. Das

Methylene-cyclo-propyl-glycine (MCPG), is a cyclopropyl derivative, grouped into the amino acids that have been isolated from the higher plants (Fowden, 1960). MCPG was identified to be closely related to two other cyclopropyl derivatives (Fig. 1), 1-aminocyclopropane – 1 – carboxylic acid from Vacciniumvitis-idaea and perry pears (Vahatalo and Viertanen, 1957; Burroughs, 1957) and â- methylenecyclopropyl alanine (MCPA or Hypoglycin A) from Blighia sapida (Hassall and Rayle, 1955; Anderson et al., 1958; Ellington, Hassall and Plimmer, 1958).

287 - 300 (14 Pages)
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16 Mango Malformation
K. Usha and Ashok Yadav

Mango (Mangifera indica L), the king of fruits, is cultivated throughout a wide range of frost-free climates (Litz 1998). It is commercially the most important fruit crop of India, accounting for more than 54% of the total mango production worldwide. The fruit of mango (Mangifera indica L.) is exceptional for its juicy, succulent, thick fruit pulp and nutrient abundance in terms of wide range of amino acids, sugars, organic acids, minerals including Ca, P, Fe, and K and vitamins. Out of several diseases which attack mango crop, mango malformation disease is a serious threat to its cultivation since it causes gross deformation of the vegetative and floral tissues (Ploetz et al., 2002; Kumar et al., 2011). Floral malformation is a major problem in mango, rendering mango cultivation unproductive in northern India and other regions of the world (Pandey et al., 1977; Ram, 1991).

301 - 326 (26 Pages)
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17 Development of Tomato Hybrids - Arka Samrat and Arka Rakshak with Triple Disease Resistance to ToLCV, Bacterial wilt and Early blight
A.T. Sadashiva, Peter Hanson, M. Krishna Reddy, K. Madhavi Reddy C. Gopalakrishnan, Shankar Hebbar, K.V. Ravishankar, T.H. Singh and Girija Ganeshan

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops cultivated in the world. It is used as raw in salads and also used as cooked vegetable in the preparation of curries. Processed items such as tomato puree, ketchup, pickle, chutney, whole peeled tomatoes and tomato powder are also consumed considerably. It is a rich source of Vitamins A & C. Lycopene and other flavonoids in tomato serve as good source of antioxidants. Tomato occupies 5 million hectares with a productivity of 34t/ha. in the world. In India it is cultivated in an area of 0.88 million hectares with productivity of 21 t/ha.

327 - 340 (14 Pages)
₹159.00 ₹144.00 + Tax
18 End Pages

Colour Plates Chapter 2: Beneficial Endophytes in Horticultural Crops

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