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D.K.Kishore, Satish K. Sharma, K. K. Pramanick
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Temperate horticulture is a very important component of  horticulture as it is only confined to the hilly regions of a country.  For fruit crops, it represents a group, which is physiologically diverse from the sub-tropical and tropical fruit crops grown in other regions.  For vegetables and floriculture it has immense potential for the keeping the nation well supplied with off-season and exotic vegetables and flowers all the year round.   This book, being published to mark the centenary year of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (1905 – 2005), strives to highlight the status of temperate horticulture in India.  Articles on biotechnological and bioinformatics, genetic resources and manipulation, cropping patterns, drip irrigation, hill horticulture and economics of temperate horticulture contributed by scientists from IARI, Dr. YS Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, NBPGR, CIPHET, CPRI and various RRS’s of IARI , NBPGR and ICAR Research Complex for Eastern and NEH Regions. The book will prove as a complete handbook of temperate horticulture as it will not only serve as a reference material for research workers in horticulture, but will also play a vital role in combating problems and planning future strategies in the field of horticulture.

0 Start Pages

Preface Established in 1905 the Indian Agricultural Research Institute turned a century in 2005. All through these years the Institute has served the nation as a premier national institute for innovative agricultural research, education and extension activities. The institute has eleven regional research stations specially set up to cater to regional requirements and also to provide a mechanism for testing technologies in varied agro-climatic situations. The purpose of this book, at this significant moment in the history of the institute is to take stock of the progress made in India in the development of temperate horticulture. This publication gives an overall view of the present day research that is being conducted in temperate horticulture. It also strives to point towards the future strategies required for the improvement of temperate horticulture. Though the publication has a heavy bias on the research input, the fruit grower has not been ignored. A complete section has been devoted to “innovations at farmers’ level”.

1 Temperate Horticulture Research and Development Issues and Priorities
Jagmohan Singh

I am happy to note that the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, a premier national institute for agricultural research is celebrating the 100th year of its establishment. It is indeed quite fitting that JARI has chosen to celebrate this occasion by organizing a seminar on current scenario in temperate horticulture in Himachal Pradesh which is the second highest producer of temperate fruits in the country, I, therefore consider myself to be privileged to be a key speaker, and express my appreciation and gratitude to the organizers for giving me this honour and opportunity in this very important event.   The varied climatic and soil conditions in India provide enormous scope for cultivation of wide range of tropical, sub-tropical and temperate horticultural crops, The production of tropical and sub-tropical horticultural crops is confined to the plains, coastal and root hills of Indian mountain~ whereas, the temperate horticulture is monopoly of the hilly regions of the country. The production of temperate fruits in the country is spread over some fifteen states and union territories situated in the following regions.

1 - 6 (6 Pages)
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2 Current Scenario of Temperate Fruits In Himachal Pradesh
R. P. Sharma

Abstract Himachal Pradesh has achieved a transformation in the horticulture sector during the last fifty years. The total area under fruits, which was only 793 hectares in 1950 has increased to 1.82 lakh Hectares during 2003-04, out of which temperate fruits alone cover an area of 1.20 lakh hectares. Fruit production has also increased from 1200 M.T. in 1950 to 6.92 lakh MT during 2004-05, with temperate fruits accounting for 5.92 lakh MT.  Around 4.64 lakh farmers are estimated to be involved in the fruit production programme and the fruit industry generates a gross domestic income of about Rs. 1000 crores annually. The existing problems and constraints have been identified and the remedial measures required to provide the desired impetus to the horticulture industry of the State, elaborated.

7 - 18 (12 Pages)
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3 Status of Temperate Fruits in Uttaranchal: Problems and Prospects
L.D. Bist, Anil Kumar Dixit and A.K. Sharma

Abstract The available data revealed that the area under temperate fruits in Uttaranchal was about 1.4 lakh ha, which was more than 60 per cent of total area under fruit crops, whereas the production per annum was to the tune of 44.50 per cent  of the total fruit production in the state. The productivity status of apple (1.38 t/ha) was very low as compared to national average productivity of 4.98 t/ha. Unfortunately, the prevailing constraints such as non-availability of elite planting material; lack of technical know how; dry land horticulture; high cost of production, lack of credit awareness and availability; small and fragmented land holding; old and senile orchard; lack of transport and communication facilities; poor mechanization; lack of efficient marketing system and post harvest infrastructure do not allow the farmers to take advantage of the emerging opportunities in temperate fruit production.

19 - 26 (8 Pages)
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4 Temperate Fruit Diversity Status and Prospects
S.D. Sharma and K. Kumar

Abstract Paradoxically, on one hand wild relatives of crop plants got utilized as donor parents in developing hybrids and on the other hand got lost due to lack of conservation of practices, thus genetic erosion. And temperate fruit genetic resources are no exception. Over dependence of growers/orchardists on modern high yielding cultivars and all round development led to neglect of valuable genetic resources of fruit crops. Yet, there are scores of examples where wild relatives have been exploited for genetic improvement of temperate fruits and nuts and still there exists a rich plethora of genetic diversity in the Himalayas which remains untapped and underutilized. Through the process of naturalization, several  elite genotypes, often referred to as geographical/ecological races and biotypes have emerged possessing unique characteristics valuable from horticultural point of view.

27 - 34 (8 Pages)
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5 Current Status and Future Thrust of Temperate Fruits in India
Room Singh, V.P. Patel and S.K. Singh

Abstract India has now become the largest producer of fruits after China by producing 45.2 million tones of fruits from 3.78 million hectare area (NHB, 2004). India is first in the production of mango, banana, sapota and acid lime. India has also recorded highest productivity in grapes, sapota and acid lime in the world. India produces about 40 fruits commercially; however, the major share is from tropical and subtropical fruits like mango (28.17%), banana (29.43%), citrus (15.56 %), guava (3.97%) and grapes (2.76 %). Among temperate fruits apple has maximum area and production and 2. 98 % share in total production. Temperate fruits growing in India spread over some 18 states. These states are categorized into 3 major regions, namely, Northern Western Himalayan Region (NWHR), North Eastern Himalayan Region (NEHR) and other hilly areas.

35 - 42 (8 Pages)
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6 Genetic Resources and Their Utilization  in Developing Potato Varieties for Diverse Cropping Systems in India
S.K. Pandey and K.C. Thakur

Abstract The potato research in India was started systematically after the establishment of Central Potato Research Institute (CPRI) in 1949. Forty-one potato varieties having attributes of early, medium and late maturity vis-à-vis resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses have already been developed indigenously for varied agro-ecoregions in the hills and sub-tropical plains. After the establishment of CPRI, collection of potato germplasm was made mandatory. Presently there are over 2,700 accessions including 133 wild species (related to potato) in the germplasm collection of CPRI. Despite the large collection of potato germplasm at the institute the genetic base of all 41 Indian potato varieties released so far can be traced to only about 50 parents and most of these represent tetraploid potato cultivars while only a few of the exotic diploid wild species have been used in improvement of potato varieties in India. Under utilization of wild species could be mainly due to the pre- and post zygotic crossability barriers inherent in many species of genus solanum. Nevertheless, about seven wild species have been used in potato breeding for introgression of resistance genes for various biotic and abiotic stresses in the improved Indian potato varieties.

43 - 56 (14 Pages)
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7 Some Potential Minor Temperate Fruit Crops in the North-West Himalaya
V.D. Verma, K. Pradheep and J.C. Rana

Abstract The North-West Himalaya is bestowed with rich genetic diversity of minor temperate fruits representing the genera viz. Malus, Prunus, Pyrus, Rubus, Ribes, Sorbus, Cotoneaster, Myrica, Corylus, Crataegus, Punica, Hippophae, Elaeagnus, Viburnum, Vitis, Ficus, Citrus, Ziziphus, Morus,, Olea, etc. These species are known for their hardiness, adaptability to wastelands and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Apart from their easy availability, they assure some sustained yield and make our diet more diverse. Some indigenous species having potential for diversifying temperate fruit production are Pyrus pyrifolia, Diospyros lotus, Rubus ellipticus , R. lasiocarpus, R.. fruiticosus, Corylus colurna, Citrus pseudolimon, Hippophae rhamnoides and Pinus gerardiana. Some of the exotic temperate fruits viz. pineapple guava (Feijoa sellowiana), Chinese ber (Ziziphus jujuba), Japanese persimmon (Diospyros kaki), Rubus spp., Ribes spp, quince (Cydonia oblonga), medlar (Mespilus spp.), pecan nut (Carya illinoensis), hazelnut (Corylus avellana), husk tomato (Physalis spp.) and tree tomato (Cyphomendra betacea) have shown good performance at National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources  Regional Station, Shimla.

57 - 68 (12 Pages)
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8 Role of Plant Genetic Resource,Collection, Evaluation and Maintenance in the Development of Hill Horticulture
Girish Sharma

Abstract Genetic resource or germplasm are considered to the be the major building block of new varieties. However, on account of excessive pressures of development, deforestation and increasing  population, the valuable resources are fast eroding and a number of type have already been lost. If this trend is not checked the losses will continue. The germplasm has a pivotal role in the development of the fruit industry, hence, it is very important to, conserve, characterize and utilize the existing genetic resources as genetic resources are the common heritage of mankind and must therefore be made available to those who need them and must be suitably conserved to fulfill today’s and tomorrow’s demand through a systematic and well defined co-operative exchange network.

69 - 78 (10 Pages)
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9 Variability in Flowering, Fruit Characters and Yield in Selfed and  Open Pollinated Progenies of Strawberry Cultivars
S.D. Sharma, Kirti Dhiman and D.P. Walia

Abstract The present studies were undertaken in selfed and open pollinated seedlings of 11 cultivars namely Belrubi, Blackmore, Catskill, Chandler, Fairfax,  Fern, Pajaro, Seascape, Selva, Tioga and Torrey during the years 2001 to 2003.  The days taken to 50%  flowering varied  from 43 to 64 days, flower number from 11.8 to 22.4 and pollen viability from 77.5 to 85.2%. The pollen germination was highest in 20% sucrose solution +  5 ppm boric acid in all the progenies.  The fruit length varied from 27.8 mm to 35.5 mm, breadth 21.3 to 27.9 mm, fruit weight 8.8 to 12.2 g, fruit firmness 0.23 to 0.33 lbs force, number of achenes per fruit 176.9 to 297.9, pedicel length 6.4 to 9.5 cm, TSS 8.1 to 12.3ºB, titratable acidity 0.58 to 1.24%, total sugars 5.1 to 7.3, reducing  sugars 4.8 to 6.8% and non-reducing sugars from 0.50 to 1.11%.  Fruit development period  varied from 32.8 to 53.6 days, total number of fruits per plant 7.2 to 17.9, fruit yield per plant 27.4 to 57.3 g and fruit yield per plot from 0.77 to 1.40 Kg in different progenies.

79 - 84 (6 Pages)
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10 Management of Genetic Resources of Temperate Horticultural Crops
J.C. Rana, V.D. Verma and K. Pradeep

Abstract Indian Himalaya supports wide range of native and introduced temperate horticultural crops and important among them are Malus, Prunus, Pyrus, Juglans, Actinidia, Rubus, Hippophae in fruits; Allium, Amaranthus, Chenopodium, Fagopyrum, Phaseolus in vegetables, Aconitum, Gentiana, Picrorrhiza, Artemisia, Ephedra, Polygonatum, Podophyllum, Taxus, in medicinal and aromatic plants and number of orchids, rhododendrons, Rosa, Begonia, Primula, Delphinium and Tulipa in ornamental plants. Effective utilization of this vast range of horticultural genetic resources thus require their proper deployment which may include (i) use as a breeding material and/ or rootstocks, (ii) directly as variety through introduction or after selection, and (iii) as new crop though domestication. Except few successful examples in crops like Pisum, Phaseolus, Capsicum, Allium, and some ornamental crops, the picture of using genes from wild relatives is not very rosy.

85 - 100 (16 Pages)
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11 A New Rootstock Suitable for High Density Orcharding in Apple
K.K. Pramanick, D.K. Kishore and Satish K. Sharma

Abstract Apple productivity is declining gradually. It is the high time to find out new rootstock for apple improvement. The crab apples can play a pivotal role for the improvement of apple through proper utilization of their potentiality. A number of crab apples have been found growing wild in the Himalayas. Apple accessions collected from Shillong (Meghalaya) i.e. Malus baccata (Shillong), was found completely resistant to woolly aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum) and the development of root rot (c.o. Dematophora necatrix) and powdery mildew (Podosphora leuchotricha) was significantly delayed as compared to well known source of resistance, Malus zumi.  It has shown field resistance to apple scab (c.o. Venturia inaequalis) also.  It has a very good propagation potential.

101 - 106 (6 Pages)
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12 Screening for Elite Germplasm of Myrica nagi Thunb-An Unexploited Sub-Temperate Fruit
O.C. Sharma, A.S. Kashyap, B.S.Thakur, K. Mehta and L.K. Sharma

Abstract Investigations were carried out during 2005 at Rajgarh area of District Sirmaur in Himachal Pradesh for screening elite germplasm of Kaphal ( Myrica nagi Thunb). A wide range of variability was noticed for 14 fruit characters. Maximum fruit weight (834 mg), fruit length (12.94 mm), pulp weight (5.96 mg), pulp percentage (83.21%) and seed : pulp ratio (1 : 5.96) were recorded in Tree No. 35. maximum TSS (14.40 oB) was recorded in Tree No. 37. maximum fruit diameter (10.71 mm), fruit volume (650 µl), seed weight (154 mg) and seed breadth (7.51 mm) were recorded against Tree No. 25. maximum coefficient of variability was noticed for pulp weight followed by fruit weight and minimum for pulp percentage. Keeping in view the importance of large fruit size two elite trees (Tree No. 25 and 35) were marked which has fruit weight greater than 700 mg for collecting seeds to raise seedlings of this unexploited sub-temperate fruit

107 - 110 (4 Pages)
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13 Performance of Some Strawberry Cultivars Under Subtropical Climate
R.R. Sharma and Room Singh

Abstract The runners of ten strawberry cultivars were procured from different research stations, planted in the last week of October every year and mulched with paddy straw.  The earliest flowering was observed in Chandler, which produced the largest sized fruits (13.20 g) followedby Dana.(3.6 g). Higher incidence of fruit rot was observed in Chandler (26.2%) and least in the Sweet Charlie (9.3%). Sweet Charlie produced medium sized (11.80 g), highly glossy and attractive fruits having high TSS (10.2%), and minimum fruit rot can be better substitute for Chandler in sub-tropical areas.

111 - 114 (4 Pages)
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14 Preliminary Observations on the Flowering Performance of a Wild Strain of Persimmon (Diospyros kaki L.)
B.S. Thakur, K. Mehta, A.S. Kashyap, L.K. Sharma and O.C. Sharma

Abstract A promising strain/seedling have been identified that produces only male flowers (small and pink tinged) on the ventral side of the current season’s shoot all along its length. As many as 24 flowers per shoot were observed. The seedling continued to flower for about one month which attracts large number of honey bees. The pollen is also produced in abundance that dehisces early in the morning. Preliminary observations on the flowering behaviour and pollen studies have revealed that it can be used as a suitable polliniser for persimmon cultivars in general and Hachiya cultivar in particular.

115 - 118 (4 Pages)
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15 Variability Studies in Seedling Population of Pistachionut (Pistacio vera L.) Grown in the Dry Temperate Areas of Kinnaur in Himachal Pradesh
B.S. Thakur, K. Mehta, A.S. Kashyap, A.S. Rehalia and K. K. Jindal

Abstract Considerable variation for different metric and non-metric characters was observed in seedling population of Pistachionut. The variation for non-metric characters was observed for precocity in flowering, colour of the kernel, shelling and splitting percentage. The studies have resulted in the identification of two pistillate and three staminate trees with desirable traits which can be exploited in breeding programme or used as elite planting material.

119 - 122 (4 Pages)
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16 Evaluation of Apple Cultivars on Emla 111 Rootstock Under High Density Plantations at PCDO Anu in Shimla District
B.K. Karkara and G.R. Jhobta

Abstract In order to solve the problems of irregular bearing, lower yields and less colour development in apple, plants of different improved spur types and standard cultivars of delicious and other cultivars on EMLA 111 rootstock were imported from USA. Plants of different cultivars namely, Real Mecoy Red Delicious, Red Chief, Oregon Spur II, Criterion and Mutsu on EMLA 111 rootstock were planted at a distance of 15’x12’ with a density of 598 plants per hectare, in RBD design with 6 replications during 1989-90 at progeny cum demonstration orchard (PCDO) Anu (Jubbal). The observations were recorded during 1999-2002.

123 - 126 (4 Pages)
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17 Performance of Apple Cultivars on Different Rootstocks in Valley Area of Shimla District in Himachal Pradesh
B.K. Karkara, R.P. Sharma and G.R. Jhobta

Abstract In Himachal Pradesh, apple plantations have been made on seedling rootstock. The valley and comparatively warmer areas leads to the problems of irregular bearing and lower yields, besides less colour development in delicious varieties. Non uniformity in tree growth and yield is observed. To solve these problems, efforts have been made and plants of different cultivars of delicious and other prominent cultivars on different virus free clonal rootstocks have been introduced and planted at progeny-cum-demonstration orchard (PCDO) at anu situated at 1375m a.m.s.l. in Shimla district during 1989-90. Plant of three cultivars viz., Real Mecoy Red Delicious, Mutsu and Criterion on EMLA 26, EMLA 7a and EMLA 106 rootstock have been planted with a density of 1280 plants per hectare. The observations on yield were recorded during 1999-2002.

127 - 132 (6 Pages)
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18 Biodiversity in Seedling Trees of Aonla (Emblica Officinalis L.) for Various Fruit Characters in Himachal Pradesh
A.S. Kashyap, O.C. Sharma, K. Mehta, B.S. Thakur and L.K. Sharma

Abstract Studies were carried out on 110 seedling trees of aonla growing at Tikker area of district Sirmaur, Ghanatti area of district Shimla and Kandaghat & Arki areas of district Solan to know the extent of divergence for various fruit characters by using non-hierarchical cluster analysis. Maximum co-efficient of variability was observed for fruit volume (38.63 %). First component gave maximum Eigen root value (7.286) and maximum percent variation (45.54 %). All 110 genotypes got clustered into eight clusters and the distribution of genotypes from different location was random. Maximum genotypes (30) entered in cluster 3 and minimum (5) in cluster 8. Intra-cluster distance varied between 1.877 (Cluster 5) to 3.137 (Cluster 8). The inter-cluster distance ranged between 3.006 (Cluster 3 & 4) to 11.677(Cluster 5 & 8). Wider genetic base is the prerequisite for breeding to get better recombinants and segregants. So, genotypes of Cluster 5 & 8 can be used for future aonla breeding programmes.

133 - 138 (6 Pages)
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19 Swarna Mukti: A Powdery Mildew Resistant and High Yielding Garden Pea Variety
R.S. Pan, A.K. Singh, S. Kumar, Bikash Das, J.P. Sharma and Mathura Rai

Abstract In the hybridization programme, the horticulturally desirable female line HC-17- 11(susceptible) was crossed with powdery mildew resistant male line FC-1.  Over the years, the variety CHP-2 proved its stable resistance (average disease score 1.58 on 1-5 scale) to powdery mildew under natural epiphytotic conditions as well as supremacy in yield performance (11.7-28.0 t/ ha) over the check variety (10.3-16.5 t/ha) in different testing centers of AICRP(Vegetable Crops) and farmers’ fields (20-26 t/ha).Additionally, the pods are medium long (9.25 cm),light green,7-8 seeded with 48-52 per cent recovery of light green, sweet and tasteful  shelled peas. The shelled peas contain 1.4 per cent soluble protein and 9.5 mg ascorbic acid/100g of fresh shelled peas.

139 - 142 (4 Pages)
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20 Heterosis Breeding in Bell Pepper
H.R. Sharma and A.K. Thakur

Abstract The analysis of variance showed significant differences for all the traits studied. The best two combinations out of the 28 F1s produced by crossing eight diverse lines of capsicum in diallel fashion (excluding reciprocals) with respect to most of the traits were Osh Region x EC-119058 and California Wonder x Bonali. Keywords: Heterosis, Capsicum annuum L. Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) also known as Sweet pepper or Spanish pepper is an important vegetable used in various delicacies and salads, the world over. The crop originated in New World tropics and subtropics (Greenleaf, 1986), and introduced in India by the British. Because of its excellent quality as obtained under Shimla hills conditions, it came to be called as Shimla Mirch. Its most notable feature is flavour and hence is appreciated worldwide. It is also an excellent source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin C. Bell pepper assumes a special significance in the mid hills of Himachal Pradesh as it is grown as an off season crop during summer and rainy seasons, which brings lucrative returns to the growers. 

143 - 148 (6 Pages)
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21 Genetic Analysis of Yield in Fresh Market Tomato
A.K. Thakur and H.R. Sharma

Abstract Genetic analysis of yield and yield components in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was worked out by using half diallel mating design. The good general combiners observed were Solan Vajr, FT-5 and UHF-265 for plant height; UHF-107 and UHF-260 for days to first picking; Solan Vajr for number of fruits per cluster; FT-5, EC-191536 and UHF-120 for average fruit weight; Solan Vajr, UHF-265 and FT-5 for harvest duration and FT-5 and Solan Vajr for marketable yield per plant. The best three specific combiners for marketable yield per plant were EC-191536 x Solan Vajr, BL-342-1 x FT-5 and UHF-107 x EC-191536. Hayman’s approach revealed non-allelic interaction in the expression of number of fruits per cluster, number of fruits per plant and marketable yield per plant. Preponderance of non-additive gene action was observed with dominance towards tallness, delayed first picking, more fruits per cluster, longer harvest duration and higher marketable yield, while involvement of complimentary epistasis was indicated in the inheritance of average fruit weight and number of fruits per plant.

149 - 156 (8 Pages)
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22 Primer Designing in Horticulture Species Using Bioinformatics Tools
S.V. Bhardwaj, Praguna Singh Sambyal and Anju Sharma

Abstract It is essential that care is taken in the design of primers for PCR. Several parameters including the length of the primer, percentage of GC content and the 3' sequence need to be optimized for successful  PCR. Some of these parameters can be easily manually optimized while others are best done with commercial computer programs. In any event, careful observance of the general rules of primer designing will help ensure successful experiments. Keywords: Bioinformatic tools, primer designing

157 - 162 (6 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
23 Bioinformatics in Temperate Horticulture Bioresources Management
Anju Sharma, S.V. Bhardwaj, Praguna Singh Sambyal and D.R. Sharma

Abstract Bioinformatics, an integrated science of biology and informatics is a repository of new emerging dimensions like proteome, genome, drug discovery etc, whose concepts have varied applications in various sciences/areas including agricultural/horticultural sciences. Bioinformatics tools are employed to investigate interactions between different biological systems i.e. gene-gene, protein-protein, gene-protein interactions and this information has tremenduous application in agricultural/horticultural sciences. It is the computer aided  data handling approach to understand the life process precisely. Biological problem require innovative database prospective for gene sequencing (management and alignment), recognition of genes and regulatory elements, protein structure prediction, evolution and phylogenetic studies, etc.

163 - 170 (8 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
24 Studies on the Variability in Respect of Chemical Characters of Fruits in F1 Progenies of Peach
S.D. Sharma and Y. Indrani

Abstract Seven different parents viz. July Elberta, Alton, J.H. Hale, Kanto-5, Saharanpuri, Quetta as female and Kateroo as male were used in the present crosses.  The crosses were made in the year 1997 and 76 hybrid seedlings under different crosses were raised  for these studies. The variability in respect of chemical characters, the mean values for titratable acidity for each cross varied between 0.50 to 0.75%, TSS 11.53 to 12.90oB,  reducing sugars from 2.33 to 2.88%, non-reducing sugars from 6.27 to 6.83%, total sugars from 9.24 to 10.05% and TSS/acid ratio between 14.47 to 23.90. The coefficient of variability varied 11.07 to 31.55% for titratable acidity, 0.00 to 23.02% for TSS, 5.24  to 18.53% for reducing sugars, 2.09 to 15.14% for non-reducing sugars, 0.00 to 6.80% for total sugars and 18.23 to 156.51% for TSS/acid ratio in these crosses.

171 - 176 (6 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
25 Breeding Plums for Improved Quality and Better Shelf-Life
Girish Sharma

Abstract Plum breeding work has been in progress since 1991-92 and continued upto 1996- 97.  The hybrid seedlings thus obtained after one year of growth in nursery were planted in test rows for the selection of types that had improved quality and better shelf life. Cultivar Santa Rosa, the mainstay of plum industry in Himachal Pradesh though performing well from production and adaptation point of view but lacked in uniform fruit ripening, very acidic at seed and low shelf life or transportation ability. After detailed evaluation and characterization for various pomological traits, two-way hybridization in seven different cultivars belonging to Japanese and European plum were made. In test rows the hybrid seedlings were assessed for number of horticultural characters i.e. morphological, flower and fruit. On the basis of detailed analysis some promising types have been selected which are briefly described, however yield potential is being evaluated as most of  the seedling have started fruiting regularly only two to three years back.

177 - 180 (4 Pages)
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26 Notes on Some Lean Season Ornamentals of Shimla
K. Pradheep, J.C. Rana and V.D. Verma

Abstract Lean season ornamentals of Shimla are observed for two years. Out of them, the flowering plants include those blooming more or less throughout the year, those having extended flowering up to early winter i.e. November, those begins to flower well before their actual flowering season i.e. spring and those which yield flowers mostly in winter. Some plants having good stalk length, keeping quality and attractive flower such as Reinwardtia indica, Asclepias curassavica and Spermadictyon suaveolens can be tried as cut flower. Some of foliage plants during spring produce beautiful flowers. Planting of these dual purpose plants will have the advantage of beautifying these temperate hills all the year round. Others are evergreen foliage plants with insignificant flower value. All the above plants belong to various utilitarian groups viz. annuals, herbaceous perennials, trees, climbers etc. and can be put into different uses. Some are potential multipurpose economic plants. This preliminary treatise reveals that there are adequate plants available within the premises of Shimla for lean season beautification. The ways to proceed further are also detailed.

181 - 186 (6 Pages)
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27 Evaluation of Open-Pollinated Seedlings of Seed Setting Cultivars of Chrysanthemum Under Solan-Nauni Conditions of Himachal Pradesh
Pariksha Vaidya, S.R. Dhiman, Y.C. Gupta and Subha Luxmi

Abstract Open pollinated seedlings of chrysanthemum offer opportunity of large variations for different attributes, such as seed setting, growth and flowering parameters. The desirable seedlings selected from the germplasm collection of Department revealed that only few cultivars set seeds under Solan, Nauni condition  of Himachal Pradesh. Out of 1368 seedlings raised of different seed setting cultivars, 111 were found promising for various attributes concerning to uses of chrysanthemum.

187 - 192 (6 Pages)
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28 Strategies for Improving Productivity of Temperate Fruit Crops in India
R.P. Awasthi

The agroclimatic conditions of Indian Himalayan region are suitable for growing temperate fruit crops like apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot, almond, walnut, pecan nut, kiwi, strawberry, hazelnuts, pistachio nuts and other small fruits. The region is extended over the states of Jammu and Kashmir (J & K), Himachal Pradesh (H.P.)  and Uttaranchal (U.A.) in the north-western Himalayan region and Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, hilly areas of Assam, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya and West Bengal in the north -eastern Himalayan region. Other areas are ooty, Kodai Kanal and Nilgiri hills in Tamil Nadu. Mount Abu in Rajasthan and hilly areas of Punjab. Although, temperate fruit growing areas in India do not fall in the temperate zone, yet the prevailing temperate climatic conditions due to high altitude and nearness to snow covered Himalayas has made the temperate fruit cultivation possible.

193 - 200 (8 Pages)
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29 Horticulture in Cold Desert Conditions with Particular Reference to Spiti Valley of Himachal Pradesh
A. S. Kashyap

Abstract Deserts cover about one fifth of the earth’s land surface. Most of hot and dry deserts are near the Tropics of Cancer or the Tropics of Capricorn. Cold deserts are near the Arctic part of the word. Deserts are of two types: Hot and Cold. Some of the important among them are given in Table 1. Spread over an approximate area of 74,809sq km, the cold desert area in India covers 12 out of 131 desert blocks. Leh and Kargil districts of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir and Lahual and Spiti along with some part of Chamba and Kinnaur districts of Himachal Pradesh comprise this cold desert area (Fig 1). Similarly, their physiographic location and the consequent geomorphic processes shall unfolding in the region lend to this entire region a largely similar texture. In terms of area, the cold desert of Spiti may be too tiny as compared to the seven major cold deserts of the world (Table 1), but in terms of its high mountains, extreme climate and poor economic conditions of the people, it is one of the most scourged areas on the earth. Located in the interior of continents, away from any source of moisture, cold desert manifest resemble ecological verity and biological diversity. Their geographic remoteness and unfriendly climatic conductions greatly constrain economic growth and development. Envirmental degradation, which is on increase, is an additional cause of concern.

201 - 208 (8 Pages)
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30 Effective use of Micro Irrigation and Fertigation in Apple Orchards
D.K. Kishore, K.K. Pramanick, Satish K. Sharma and Rameshwar Singh

Abstract Experiments on micro irrigation and fertigation system were conducted under four agronomic conditions viz. pot culture, a young conventionally planted apple experimental block, a high density experimental block and a conventionally planted bearing apple orchard. Direct correlation was observed between growth and micro irrigation treatments of 40% and 60% depletion of soil moisture at field capacity (FC); allowing depletion up to 80% of FC was found to be detrimental causing permanent damage and mortality.  Two doses (low and high applied at 10 weekly intervals) of fertigation were tried and were found at par with each other.  In fact, accumulation of N in soil was observed when applied at high dose after the third application whereas in case of applications at low dose a steady high N level was maintained throughout the growing season.  Observations on physiological parameters revealed better performance by the micro irrigated and fertigated trees.  Powdery mildew in apple could also be affective controlled by pesticide delivery through the fertigation system; however, some pesticides were found to affect the growth of the apple trees.  Fertigation has found to reduce fertilizer application by 95% in apple orchards opening further possibilities of reduced chemical pollution in cultivated soils and agricultural produce.

209 - 216 (8 Pages)
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31 Pollination: A Decisive Factor in Apple Productivity
Girish Sharma, Roshan Anand and O.C. Sharma

Abstract Pollination studies in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) were carried out in ten apple cultivars with three pollinizers. Flowering pattern of all cultivars was observed to be same. Flower number per bud ranged from 5.00 to 5.80. All the cultivars started flowering in the second to third week of March. Full bloom was recorded in 4th week of April and flowering period ranged from 16 to 19 days. Maximum percentage of anthesis was observed in the afternoon (12.00 Noon to 2.00 PM). Maximum percentage of anthesis was found in cv. ‘Hardeman’ (33.91%). Dehiscence was recorded to be highest between 10.0 AM to 12.00 Noon. Cultivar ‘Spurtype Red Delicious’ showed maximum percentage of dehiscence (35.59 %). Pollen viability ranged from 85.13 (Spartan) to 89.24 per cent (Jonadel) in two per cent acetocarmine. Best pollen germination was recorded in 15 per cent sucrose solution after 72 hours. Stigma attained receptivity two days prior to anthesis and remained receptive up to two days after anthesis with peak receptivity on the day of anthesis. Under different modes of pollination, the maximum percentage (over all mean) of fruit set was recorded in open pollination (41.98 %) followed by cross pollination (39.12 %), hand self pollination (0.66 %) and selfing by bagging (0.23 %). Maximum average fruit set was obtained when ‘Jonadel’ was used as pollinizer which was closely followed by ‘Ruspippin’. Cultivar ‘Gala’ and pollinizer ‘Spartan’ set fruit on selfing. Cultivar ‘Arlet’ had maximum fruit retention both under open as well as cross pollination in comparison to other cultivars.

217 - 224 (8 Pages)
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32 Present Status and Scope of Horto-Pastoral Systems in Temperate West Zone of Himachal Pradesh A Case Study
Janak Raj Sharma and P.S. Chauhan

Abstract Asurvey was conducted in wet temperate zone (Agro climatic Zone III) of Himachal Pradesh at an elevation of 1670-2290 m above mean sea level, falling in Kumarsain, Thanedhar, Jubbal and Kotkhai areas of Shimla district: a potential apple growing area. The average land holding size varies from 0.74 to 6.50 hectares with the predominance of small and marginal farmers. The area under apple increased with the increase in the size of holdings from 0.44ha to 2.10 ha in case of marginal and large farmers respectively. Average number of animals varied from 2.54 to 3.20 per house hold with Jersey cow component varying from 0.71 to 1.40. Grass availability was 13.18 per ha against their requirement of 49.05 for 200 days and 89.51 qt. for 365 days in an year and the carrying capacity was 0.36 and 0.20 respectively. Thus, there is a need to adopt improved horto-pastoral mode of agro forestry to sustain the present livestock population.

225 - 230 (6 Pages)
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33 Effect of Different Amendments on Phosphorus Availability in Apple Based Farming System
D.D. Sharma and I.P. Sharma

Abstract   Different sources of phosphorus along with various amendments were applied with an objective to enhance the availability of P. Maximum yield during 2001 and 2002 was obtained in the trees supplied with super phosphate (SSP), whereas in 2003, the highest yield was recorded in rock phosphate (RP) + phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) treated plants. Pooled values for three years showed highest yield per plant (54.17 kg) in SSP which was statistically at par with RP+PSB treated plants. Fruit weight was maximum in RP+PSB treated plants followed by SSP. Annual shoot growth and fruit set were observed to be maximum in plants supplied with SSP in 2002, whereas in 2003, RP+PSB treated plants recorded the highest shoot growth and fruit set. As regards leaf nutrient content, leaf P was found to be maximum in SSP supplied trees in 2002, however in 2003, RP+PSB treated plants recorded the highest leaf P content. Highest cost benefit ratio of 1:2.09 was recorded in plants supplied with SSP which was closely followed by RP+PSB showing cost benefit ratio of 1:200.

231 - 236 (6 Pages)
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34 Studies on the Effect of NPK Fertigation Levels on Growth, Fruiting, Fruit Quality and Leaf Nutrient Status of Red Fuji and Scarlet Gala Apple Cultivars in High Density Plantation
P.S. Chauhan, L.K. Sharma and S.S. Rana

Abstract The experimental results indicated that the treatments, cultivars and root stocks had expressed significant influence on growth, fruiting, fruit quality and leaf nutrient status of apple. The highest trunk girth (21.22 cm), shoot extension growth (22.77 cm), tree height (223.60 cm) and tree spread (184.20 cm) were recorded under the 2/3 dose of NPK  fertigation during 2003 and 2004.  The maximum yield (12.82 kg/tree), productivity (14.24 MT/ha) and fruit set (64.84%) were recorded in fertigation treatment of 2/3 dose of NPK which was significantly higher than other treatments during 2004 and similar trend was observed in the year 2003.

237 - 244 (8 Pages)
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35 Role of Honey Bees in the Pollination and Fruit set in Enhancing Apple Production in Himachal Pradesh
K.L. Kakar

Abstract Studies conducted on the role of honey bees in the pollination and fruit set in apple revealed that Apis mellifera played a significant role along with pollinizer cultivars and favourable weather. Due to the paucity of pollen sources in the orchard, it is desirable to plant atleast three pollinizers like Golden Delicious, Red Gold, Tydeman Early Worcestor, Granny Smith, Lord Lambourene, Mc Intosh and James Grieve. In orchards with low population of native pollinators, introduce A. mellifera colonies at flowering for adequate fruit set (more than 5%) and yield.

245 - 248 (4 Pages)
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36 Role of Promalin (GA4+7+BA) Application on Fruiting and Quality of Delicious Apples
M.S. Mankotia, P.S. Chauhan and A. Sud

Abstract Promalin treatments significantly influenced the fruit set. Maximum per cent fruit set was observed under the split application of promailn 7+7 ppm. Promalin at 10+10 and 15+15 ppm concentrations and single application of 60 ppm also increased the fruit set. Yield efficiency (g/cm2) also increased to the maximum extent by promalin 7+7 ppm treatment. The average fruit length  increased significantly in 30 and 60 ppm promalin treatments, whereas maximum fruit diameter was recorded under 15 ppm treatment. The most striking effect of promalin was in improving fruit shape measured in terms of length/ diameter ratio(L/D ratio) and calyx lobe length. The maximum increase was observed under 60 ppm treatment closely followed by 30 ppm and 15+15 ppm split application of promalin. No significant effects of promalin treatments were observed on the return bloom in the following year of application. It can be concluded from the present investigations that promalin application at 60 ppm as a single dose or 15+15 ppm as split dose is useful in improving the fruiting and production of ‘typey’ fruits of Delicious apples when applied at king bloom stage. Promalin treatment is beneficial in improving fruit quality of Delicious apples in the marginal low lying and warmer apple production areas producing flattened fruits instead of oblong conical apple fruits.

249 - 256 (8 Pages)
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37 Economic Analysis of Temperate Fruits Production Technology in Himachal Pradesh - India
A.K. Randev

Abstract Himachal Pradesh is spread over the altitudinal range varying from 352-6975 m amsl. Horticulture in upper reaches and cereals in valley areas form the major components of land use. Temperate fruits amongst the different fruits grown in the state occupy a major share  with respect to area (68%) and production (90%). About 92 per cent of the total geographical area of the state is directly and indirectly influenced by fruits farming through changes in socio-economic structure. This paper has been prepared to highlight the socio-economic issues, technological issues, growth in the states economy and efficiency of the social indicators. This study shows that majority of the total population (80%) in the state has been affected positively by the apple farming business. The role of women has been considered equally important due to strong interaction between orchard and household management activities majority of the orchardists have been found to be marginal and small covering about 47.1per cent of the total area. Amongst all the temperate fruits grown, apple growers enjoy comparatively a better performance with respect to socio- economic indicators. A tremendous increase in area and production under apple has been found during the previous years.

257 - 266 (10 Pages)
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38 Influence of Orchard Floor Management Practices on Soil Moisture and Temperature in a Plum Orchard Grown Under Mid-hill Zone Conditions
J.S. Chauhan and B. Shylla

Abstract Different orchard floor management practices had a significant effect on percent soil moisture content at a soil depth of 0-22.5 cm and 22.5-45 cm and soil temperature at a depth of 22.5 cm and 45 cm. Black polythene mulch recorded significantly higher soil moisture content than other treatments at both depths while clean cultivation recorded the minimum soil moisture content throughout the studies. Similar to the soil moisture content, black polythene mulch recorded the maximum soil temperature while hay mulch recorded the minimum soil temperature.

267 - 272 (6 Pages)
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39 Manipulation of Fruit Size, Yield and Fruit Quality of Kiwifruit with Thinning and Growth Regulators
R.K. Rana and J.S. Chandel

Abstract Among the different hand thinning treatments, thinning of lateral flower buds resulted in maximum yield of ‘A’ grade fruits (42.30 kg/vine) without affecting the total yield (86.34 kg/vine). The fruit size and weight was significantly increased with increase in the intensity of thinning. The maximum fruit size (length and breadth) and weight were recorded when only two flower buds or flowers, or fruitlets/fruiting shoot were retained, but the total yield was significantly reduced as compared to other treatments. In the second experiment, hand thinning treatment was integrated with the plant growth regulators i.e. CPPU and cytokinin. The results revealed that 5 ppm CPPU in combination with hand thinning (thinning of lateral flower buds to 2 flower buds/fruiting shoot) significantly increased fruit size, yield and percentage of ‘A’ grade fruits. This treatment produced 75 per cent ‘A’ grade fruits as compared to only 19 per cent under control.

273 - 278 (6 Pages)
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40 Effect of P and Phosphorus Solublizing Microbes (PSM) on Growth, Total Microbial Count of Soil and Leaf Nutrient Status of Walnut cv. Govind
C.S. Tomar, J.S. Cheena and Sunil Dutt Sharma

Abstract The study with different inorganic phosphorus doses and their combination with phosphorus solublizing microbes (PSM) had significant effect on growth, total microbial population of the soil and leaf nutrient status of Walnut cv. Govind. The treatment T11 consisting of 84.37g P2O5 + PSM (80g culture) had maximum growth (16.87 cm) and also have a significant improvement in total microbial count (12,126) of the soil and leaf nutrient status of Walnut cv Govind.

279 - 284 (6 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
41 Effect of Different Planting Distances on Growth, Yield and Quality of Appricot cv. New Castle
K. Mehta, B.S. Thakur, A.S. Kashyap, L.K. Sharma and O.C. Sharma

Abstract The improvement in the productivity of fruits greatly lies with the use of high density orcharding and successfully practiced in various temperate fruits. This study was carried out to increase fruit yield per unit area in apricot Cv. New Castle. Maximum yield per plant was recorded in planting distance of 5 x 5m while lowest being in 3 x2m plantings. However, calculated yield per hectare basis was maximum in 3 x 2m spacing (1666 plants/ha.) followed by3 x3 m. The girth and spread was maximum under 5 x 5m spacing. Regarding quality parameters the size, weight and volume of fruits were significantly higher under 5 x5 m spacing as compared to fruits under other planting distances. Other parameters were not affected by any of the treatment significantly.

285 - 288 (4 Pages)
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42 Effect of Sowing Dates and Spacing on Growth and Curd Yield of Sprouting Broccoli
S. Narayan, N. Ahmed, Shahnaz Mufti

Abstract The treatments showed significant differences for the characters under study in all the years. The maximum curd yield of 186.91, 180.24 and 192.83 q/ha (Av.186.66 q/ha) was recorded during the year 2002,2003 and 2004, respectively with early planting (30th Aug) and closer spacing (45x30 cm)  found significantly superior to other treatments. Similarly, maximum plant height of 75.06, 69.53 and 60.67 cm (Av. 61.47 cm) during the years 2002, 2003 and 2004, respectively was also recorded in the same treatment. Whereas maximum plant spread of 59.13, 78.97 and 65.45 cm (Av. 67.85 cm) was recorded during the year 2002, 2003 and 2004. respectively with second date of transplanting (15th Sept) and wider plant spacing of 45x45 cm. From the results of three year study it can be inferred that the early planting (30th Aug) and closer plant spacing (45x30 cm) is most suitable for obtaining higher curd yield of broccoli under Kashmir conditions.

289 - 292 (4 Pages)
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43 Conjoint Application of Organics and Inorganic Fertilizers on Dry Matter and Leaf Nutrient Contents in French Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)
S.K. Bhardwaj, R. Kaushal and Yoginder Sharma

Abstract Dual inoculation of Rhizobium + VAM coupled with recommended NPK doses was found to produce the highest bean pod (6.38, 6.40 qha-1) and straw (35.11,35.35 qha-1) dry matter production and resulted in higher macro and micronutrient contents in bean leaves which were to the tune of 4.05, 4.06%N,0.44, 0.49 %P, 2.65, 2.66 %K, 2.65, 2.67%Ca, 64.67, 64.59 ppm Zn, 242, 242.2 ppm Fe, and 36, 36.33 ppm Mn. Under this treatment increase in bean pod and straw dry matter production during the years 2002 and 2003 was to the tune of 130, 131 and 81, 83 per cent, respectively over control.

293 - 300 (8 Pages)
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44 Performance of Rose cv. ‘First Red’ Under Naturally Ventilated Polyhouse Conditions in the Mid Hills of Himachal Pradesh
Rajesh Thakur, Y.C. Gupta, S.R. Dhiman, R. Bhalla and Ritu Jain

Abstract Studies were conducted to investigate the effect of growing media and fertilizers on growth and flowering of rose cultivar ‘First Red’ under naturally ventilated polyhouse. During first flush, it was observed that growing medium containing soil, FYM, sawdust (2:1:1) gave maximum flower yield (5.58 cut stems) per square meter per month when fertilized with water soluble fertilizers (N-150 ppm and K-200 ppm) whereas, maximum number of ‘A’ and ‘C’ grade cut stems were recorded from plants grown in soil: FYM: sand which were fed with straight fertilizers (N-150 ppm and K-200 ppm).

301 - 306 (6 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
45 Effect of Benzyl Adenine and Gibberellic Acid on Growth and Flowering of African Violets (Saintpaulia ionantha Wendl.)
Bharati Kashyap, Y.D. Sharma and S.R. Dhiman

Abstract The experiment was carried out to study the effect of  BA and GA3 on in-vitro raised plants of African violets. The studies revealed that BA 150 ppm spray increased the number of leaves and duration of flowering, whereas, GA3100 ppm increased leaf area, plant spread and resulted in earliest flowering. Number of flowers was maximum in GA3 100 ppm treated plants and was at par with BA 150 ppm. Maximum pot presentability (82.85 days) was found with BA 150ppm which was at par with GA3 100 and 50 ppm treated plants.

307 - 312 (6 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
46 Effect of Different Mulches and Herbicides on Growth, yield and quality of Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) cv. Chandler
C.L. Sharma and U.U. Khokhar

Abstract Field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different mulches and herbicides (oxadiazon, metribuzin, alachlor, oxyfluorfen, atrazine, pendimethalin) on growth, yield and quality of strawberry. Black polythene mulch significantly increased plant height (23.39 and 25.53 cm), number of leaves (23.67 and 25.00), leaf area (119.33 and 125.16 cm2), number of runners (17.67 and 19.33) and number of crowns (4.67 and 5.00) followed by bicoloured polythene mulch, grass mulch, pine needles and pendimethalin 2.0 kg ha-1 as compared to hand weeding during both the years of study. Black polythene mulch produced significantly higher yield (62.19 and 77.16 q ha-1) having large size fruits with lower acidity and higher TSS, sugars, ascorbic acid, soluble proteins, total phenols and anthocyanin content. 

313 - 320 (8 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
47 Periodical Changes in Foliar Macronutrient Status of Olive
Sunil Dutt Sharma, R.P. Singh and C.L. Sharma

Abstract Foliar N and P content of olive trees have shown a gradual increase from the month of October till May. But gradual decrease in leaf K content occurred between the months of October to February, where after a gradual but continuous increase in its content was noted till the month of May. However, foliar Ca and Mg contents also registered an increase between the months of October to January, but thereafter, a continuous decrease in their content was evident till the month of May. Relatively higher N, P and K contents were estimated during non- cropped year as compared to the cropped year. But converse was true for Ca and Mg content. Among different cultivars maximum values of foliar N, P, K, Ca and Mg were found in Frantoio, followed by Leccino, while minimum values of leaf macronutrients were recorded in Ascolano. Thus maximum values of leaf N, P, K, Ca, Mg ensured regular bearing behaviour of the cultivar whereas deficiencies of these nutrients tended to induce erratic bearing behavior of the cultivar.

321 - 328 (8 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
48 Mulching Material Influences the Albinism Disorder in Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa)
R.R. Sharma and Rajbir Singh

Abstract Three mulch materials (black polyethylene, white polyethylene, and paddy straw) were evaluated to reduce albinism  in five cultivars of strawberry.  The incidence of albinism was the highest (38.60%), with black polyethylene and the lowest with paddy straw (22.45%). Among cultivars, Etna had the highest incidence of albinism (50.60%), followed by Chandler (41.60%), where as  Sweet Charlie had the least (22.50%).

329 - 332 (4 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
49 Effects of Drip Irrigation and Rootstocks on Apple under High Density Plantation
A.S. Rehalia, S.K. Banyal and V.S. Rana

Abstract The present study of effect of drip irrigation and rootstocks on apple cvs Red Fuji and scarlet Gala under high density plantation was taken up at Horticultural Research Station, Seobagh, Kullu (HP) during 2002-2004. Six year old plants grafted on clonal rootstocks viz., EMLA-106, EMLA-7 and EMLA-111 planted at 3x3m were taken for studies. Five levels of irrigation at 100% ETC, 80% ETC, 60% ETC, 40% ETC and basin irrigation at 100 ETc levels were applied through drips starting from March to fruit maturity. Each treatment was replicated four times with one tree in each in a split plot design. Fertilizer application and cultural practices were carried out as per the recommendations of the university. The data on yield, fruit quality and water use efficiency were collected and subjected to statistical analysis. The fruit firmness, TSS, titratable acidity, reducing sugars, total sugar and non-reducing sugars content decreased with increase in the volume applied through drip. There is a little difference among the varieties and rootstocks for biochemical parameters. Various physical quality parameters were significantly improved by drip irrigation over basin irrigation. The fruits of both the varieties had maximum length, diameter and weight on the rootstock EMLA-106. Similarly yield was also influenced by various levels of irrigation.  Drip irrigation at 40% ETC resulted in maximum water use efficiency (0.022 to 0.023 kg / plant/liter) in Red Fuji during both the years under study.

333 - 340 (8 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
50 Diversification of Temperate Fruit Production Through Floriculture
R.L. Misra and Pragya

Abstract The various options available with the fruit growers in temperate areas through floriculture are i) Growing traditional flowers such flowers are honeysuckle, hydrangea, roses of many sorts including Rosa banksiae ( vars alba, lutea), R. moschala, R. wichuriana, R. laevigata, bush roses, Jasminum humile, J. officinale, J. auriculatum, J. mesnyi, spiroea, Passiflora, Fuchsia, Wisteria chinensis, Hibiscus syriacus, Viburnum, Camellia  japonica, Cestrum, etc. ii) Growing cut flowers, iii) Growing annuals. The hardy annuals include Alyssum, Antirrhinum, Anchusa, Brachycome, Calendula, Candytuft, Centaurea, Chrysanthemum (annual), Clarkia, Cornflower, Eschscholtzia, Godetia, Helichrysum, Lathyrus, Larkspur, Linaria, Linum, Lobelia, Lupinus, Matthiola, Nasturtium, Nemesia, Nemophila, Nigella, Phacelia, Poppy, Reseda, Salpiglossis, Saponaria, Vaccaria, Venidium, Viola, etc.  Shade loving annuals are Salvia, Cineraria, Tropaeolum majus, etc. iv) Production of flower seeds and bulbs v) Growing herbaceous annuals vi) Plant rentals. The space between the trees and other plants can be utilized for potted plants, hanging baskets, making bonsai etc. vii) Dried flowers and floral crafts etc.

341 - 346 (6 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
51 Economic Aspect of Diversification of Temperate Fruits Industry in Himachal Pradesh
A.K. Randev

Abstract The temperate fruits have shown a remarkable progress as about 68 per cent of the total area under fruits and about 91 per cent of the total production of the fruits in the State is contributed by these fruits. The economic analysis of secondary data shows the increasing trend of area under fruits, vegetables as well as production of these crops in the State over a period of time.  Although maximum increase has been found during the last about 5 decades in case of fruits (about 236 times) yet production of vegetables has shown an increase of about 83 per cent  during the last about ½ decade. Similarly flower crops cultivation has also been increasing in the State which has been clear from the increasing number of flowers growing cooperative societies (48 in no.) in the State along with area  (129 ha) under different flower crops (Anon., 2004-05). More emphasis has been laid on diversification of crops so as to make proper use of limited land and other critical inputs. Economic analysis of primary data has shown benefit-cost ratios of fruits, vegetables and flower crops almost in the same range, i.e. maximum Rs. 4.50:1 to minimum 1.53:1, so with meager holding size, vegetable crops and floriculture have been found to be the best option of diversifying crops along with fruits growing so as to reap better remuneration from use of scarce resources.

347 - 354 (8 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
52 Performance of Okra as an Intercrop in the Young Apricot Orchards
Y.R. Shukla

Abstract A field experiment was  carried out in the young orchard of Apricot cv. New Castle using Okra. cv. P-7 as an intercrop  to study the economics of growing intercrop in the newly planted orchards which has practically no output for the first three years. It was concluded that one can not only save the input expenditure of Rs.66,258 (for the maintenance of orchard plants during the first three years), an additional income of Rs. 2,41,858, with a net return of Rs. 1,23,800 can also be generated. There was neither any adverse effect of apricot plant canopy on the yield and performance of okra, nor was there any effect of cultivating okra on the growth and performance of apricot plants.

355 - 358 (4 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
53 Growing Persimmon as Diversified Fruit Crop in the Mid-Hills of Himachal Pradesh
K. Mehta, B.S. Thakur, A.S. Kashyap, L.K. Sharma and O.C. Sharma, K. Mehta and A.S. Kashyap

Abstract Himachal Pradesh is endowed with varied type of climate providing conditions to grow temperate and sub  tropical fruits. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) appears to be readily adapted to wide range of climatic conditions and offer a good potential for diversification of fruit culture. Though it was introduced in Himachal Pradesh in early nineties by the European missionaries but it could not be established as commercial fruit crop. Persimmon cultivation suffers from lack of organized plantings, inadequate vegetatively propagated plant material, non-availability of suitable cultivars and standardization of various orchard management practices. Besides, problems of poor fruit set, heavy fruit drop, astringent nature and lack of sufficient knowledge regarding fruit maturity and marketing mired its cultivation. The efforts made in recent years to overcome the problems the fruit seems to be on the thresh hold of popularity and with diversification in the fruit culture this fruit has great future.

359 - 364 (6 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
54 Diversification in Temperate Fruit Orchards Through the Introduction of Commercially Important Temperate Ornamental Germplasm
J.S. Wazir and Y.D. Sharma

Abstract Temperate ornamental plants, owing to their special functions, are always in great demand due to their possible uses in temperate landscape plantings (both outdoor and indoor). This ever increasing demand has led to urgent need for their mass-scale multiplication on commercial scale. At present, most of these plants are being multiplied and supplied on a limited scale by concerned Government and private agencies but this is not sufficient. Progressive orchardists of temperate zone and particularly those inhabiting marginal lands which no longer yield regular income, can specially incorporate the element of commercial floriculture in the vacant places in their orchards or through establishment of small polyhouses. Introduction, multiplication and production on large scale of commercially important ornamental trees, shrubs, climbers, bulbous plants, herbaceous perennials, cut flowers, potted plants and seed production of important annuals and perennials by the progressive orchardists in their orchard will yield fruitful returns through their sale and will narrow the constant demand for these plants in the urban and rural areas and will definitely improve the fragile ecology of the hills in the long run. The interested orchardists can collect germplasm of these plants from various Govt. and private agencies. Such an intervention in the existing orchard cropping system will definitely increase the income of the farmers from the same available area and will be a right step towards diversification.

365 - 378 (14 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
55 Influence of Changing Climatic Variables on Apple Productivity Trends
M.S. Mankotia

Abstract Apple productivity of Himachal Pradesh with effect from 1995 to 2004 varied from 6.99 t/ha to 0.82 t/ha.  Climatic variables such as effective chill units (ECU) and growing degree hours (GDHoC) were estimated at different stages of dormancy and their relationships with productivity was studied. The duration of rest period had negative correlation (r = -0.716) indicating that the increase in the rest period duration decreased the productivity in the corresponding year.  ECU accumulations during peak winters had significant positive correlation (r =+0.642).  However, the GDHoC accumulations during rest period  (r = -0.679) and peak winters (r = -0.771) had significant negative correlation. During the period of rest completion to full bloom, the GDHoC accumulations showed significant positive correlation with productivity (r =+0.645). Total snowfall recorded during winters was also significantly correlated. However, no significant correlations were observed with respect to rains and productivity of apple

379 - 388 (10 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
56 Effect of Changing Weather Parameters on the Epidemic of Apple Powdery Mildew
V.S. Thakur, Shalini Verma and Nirupma Sharma

Abstract The relationship between development of P. leucotricha with different weather parameters (i.e. temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) was ascertained by computing multiple regression equations between these factors along with coefficient of determination (R2). Multiple regression analysis revealed that weather parameters altogether accounted for 31.88 to 94.45 per cent variations in Shimla district (Himachal Pradesh) during 2002-03. The accumulated variation due to weather parameters during the years accounted to different levels of primary inoculum and infection conditions under the field conditions.

389 - 392 (4 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
57 Propagation of Walnut Through Summer Budding
J.S. Chandel, R.K. Rana and D.D. Sharma

Abstract The studies were conducted during the years 2002 and 2003, to standardize the best method and time for summer budding in walnut. Four methods of summer budding viz. chip, annular, patch and shield were performed at 10 days interval from 15th May to 24th July. The results revealed that among the four methods of summer budding, chip budding was found to be highly superior to other methods of budding and gave 92% bud take success on 25th May and 87 per cent on 15th May also. Annular budding performed on 14th June was found next superior method and time of budding for walnut propagation when it resulted in 81% bud take success. Chip budded plants attained maximum height and radial growth as compared to annular and patch budded plants. The period from mid of May to first week of June was considered as optimum time for chip budding and mid June to end of June for annular and patch budding for walnut propagation under mid hill conditions of North-western Himalayas.

393 - 396 (4 Pages)
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58 Effect of Phloroglucinol and Auxins on in vitro Rooting Behaviour of Five Pyrus Genotypes
Anirudh Thakur and J.S. Kanwar

Abstract In the present study, effect of phloroglucinol on the rooting behaviour of three Pyrus rootstocks viz. wild pear [P. pyrifolia (Burm F.) Nakai], kainth (P. pashia Buch. Ham.), shiara (P. serotina  Rehd.) and two scion cultivars viz. Patharnakh (P. pyrifolia (Burm F.) Nakai) and Punjab Beauty (P. pyrifolia x P. communis?) was studied. Supplementation of rooting medium (solid or liquid) with phloroglucinol (PG) had a stimulatory effect on the rooting response of wild pear, but on liquid medium the plants were vitrified with very small roots.  However, in solid medium fortified with NAA + IBA (0.25 mg l-1 each) and PG (160 mg l-1), 86.29 per cent rooting was obtained.  In kainth, Punjab Beauty and shiara supplementation of solid medium with PG had inhibitory effect on root induction.  In liquid medium, PG stimulated root initiation in kainth at 40 and 80 mg l-1, but at 160 mg l-1, it was ineffective.  In Punjab Beauty and shaira, liquid medium fortified with 40 mg l-1 PG was ineffective, whereas, at higher levels (80 and 160 mg l-1), it inhibited root induction.  Patharnakh failed to root at any of the PG level. One week culture of kainth microshoots on ½ MS solid medium supplemented with IBA (0.5 mg l-1) and PG (160 mg l-1) in dark followed by transfer to ½ MS basal liquid medium for three weeks in light resulted in 76 per cent rooting.  While, 58.70 per cent rooting was obtained in Patharnakh with similar treatment, except when IBA (0.5 mg l-1) was replaced by NAA (0.5 mg l-1).

397 - 406 (10 Pages)
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59 Propagation of Apple Rootstock Malling 7 Through in vitro Culture
Manju Moudgil and Rajnish Sharma

Abstract Propagation in vitro using shoot tips / axillary buds has been applied successfully for production of  clonal apple rootstock  Malling 7 of EMLA series. For surface sterilization, HgCl2 was found to be a good disinfectant as compared to sodium hypochlorite. Shoot tips were established best in MS medium supplemented with 2 mg/l  BA, 0.5 mg/l GA3 and  0.1 mg/l IBA. Antioxidants were added to overcome phenol exudation. Shoot multiplication was influenced by cytokinin type and concentration. Of the cytokinins tested, BA (0.5 mg/l) was found superior to kinetin. Addition of phloroglucinol improved multiplication rate and shoot growth. Among the auxins tested, IBA was found better and roots were readily induced with 1 mg/l IBA. 90-95 per cent plantlets were established successfully in peat containing pots as well as in the field.

407 - 414 (8 Pages)
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60 Standardization of Chip Budding Technique for Top Working of old Walnut Seedling Plants
D.d. sharma, Dharmesh Gupta and P.L. Sharma

Abstract Old walnut seedlings in the age of up to twenty years were top worked using chip budding technique. In the seedling plants up to ten years of age, budding was done on older branches. But in the seedlings between 10-20 years of age, main branches were first dehorned during winters and the budding was performed on newly emerged branches in the month of May and June. Best results in the seedlings up to 10 years of age was obtained when budding was done in the second week of June with 89 and 97 per cent success in the year 2002 and 2003, respectively. The lowest success, however, was recorded in the plants between 10-20 years of age when budding was performed in the third week of May. Budding success in the plants between 10-20 years of age was slightly lower but they grew very fast as compared to those below ten years of age. Therefore, chip budding can be successfully utilized for the top working of old walnut seeding plants during second week of June when the buds become fully developed. For other areas this date may be different depending upon the maturity of the buds.

415 - 418 (4 Pages)
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61 Incidence of Premature Leaf Fall Disease of Apple and Its Management
J.N. Sharma

Abstract Apple plantations in Himachal Pradesh have been ravaged by a unique hitherto unknown problem of premature leaf fall for the last one decade. In this study, the disease survey revealed 21.3 per cent disease incidence of premature leaf fall in July, 2001 which increased to 63.6 per cent by the month of September. Whereas in 2002, this disease appeared in August and the disease severity was 30 per cent in the September month. The pathogenic fungus Marssonina coronaria was isolated in pure culture and its pathogenicity was proved. Considerable number of conidia were formed in over wintered apple leaf litter with 22.7 per cent germinability. Ascosporic stage Diplocarpon mali was also encountered in the infected over-wintered leaves collected from Charna locality in Sirmour district. The sour tasting pollinizer cultivars Rus Pippin, Granny Smith, Tydeman’s Early Worcestor and King Pippin were rated tolerant in the field. Protective sprays of mancozeb, propineb, carbendazim, thiophanate methyl etc. were effective in controlling the disease. An integrated spray schedule was recommended to the growers.

419 - 428 (10 Pages)
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62 Soil Solarization for the Control of Fusarium Wilt Pathogen of Gladiolus
Harender Raj, Suneel Anand and Sachin Upmanyu

Abstract Wilt of gladiolus caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. gladioli is a serious disease in Himachal Pradesh and disease incidence ranged between 19.0 to 50.5 at different gladiolus growing areas of the state during 2002 and 2003. Soil solarization of the infected field by covering it with transparent  polyethylene mulch (25 µm) for 40 days in summer months (March-April) was found effective to control the pathogen in soil.  Soil solarization resulted in average maximum temperature of 39.9oC in 2002 and 41.4oC in 2003 with an increase of 11.9 and 9.8ºC, respectively in comparison to unsolarized soil. Increase in the average maximum soil temperature was found lethal to the Fusarium wilt pathogen of gladiolus. Soil solarization for 40 days resulted in significant reduction (84.6 %) in the colony forming units of the pathogen at 5 cm soil depth in comparison to unsolarized control. Soil solarization also resulted in 63 per cent reduction in disease incidence, recorded increase in different growth parameter of crop and also resulted in early flowering of the spikes.

429 - 436 (8 Pages)
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63 Preliminary Investigations on Ampelomyces quisqualis, A Hyper parasite on Powdery Mildew of Apple (Podosphaera leucotricha)
S.K. Sharma, Meenu Gupta and Swarn Singh

Abstract Powdery mildew infected leaves of apple hyperparasitized by Ampelomyces quisqualis were collected from field and examined for the presence of the dark brown pycnidia of  hyperparasite. The hyperparasite was isolated on potato dextrose agar medium by standard isolation technique. The morphological characters of the hyperparasite such as size and shape of pycnidia and pycnidiospores were studied. Six systemic fungicides were evaluated for their compatibility with A. quisqualis under in vitro conditions. Dinocap was least inhibitory giving 65.56 per cent growth inhibition of A. quisqualis followed by mancozeb (66.67%). Effect of these fungicides was also seen on conidial germination and germ tube length of A. quisqualis. Maximum conidial germination and germ tube length was observed in mancozeb followed by benomyl and dinocap.

437 - 442 (6 Pages)
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64 Delivery of Pesticides Through Micro-Irrigation System for the Management of Insect Pests and Diseases in Apple
Satish k. Sharma, D.K. Kishore, K.K. Pramanic and Rameshwer Singh

Abstract Apple orchardist’s are adopting micro irrigation system for irrigation and application of  fertilizers. The feasibility of delivery of pesticides through micro irrigation for the management of diseases and insect pests was evaluated. The minimum root rot incidence (30.55%) was recorded at low fertigation dose + aureofungin (100ppm)+ copper sulphate (100ppm) at two-week intervals as compared to control (61.10%) and it also delayed the symptom appearance by one month. At higher fertigation dose + aureofungin (100ppm) + copper sulphate (100ppm) there was increase in disease incidence as compared to the control (without fertigation). Continuous maintenance of soil moisture at field capacity (FC) enhanced the disease incidence where the overall disease incidence was 63.88 per cent as compared to 27.77 per cent in irrigation at 40 per cent FC. Fungicides applied at bi-weekly interval recorded less disease incidence. The fertigation levels did not affect powdery mildew severity; however, irrigation levels influenced it.  Plants maintained at 40 per cent FC showed less disease severity as compared to those maintained at 100 and 60 per cent FC.  Plants receiving hexaconazole dose at weekly interval depicted less disease than 2 or 4-week interval. The number of colonies and population of woolly aphid were  less on the plants treated with chlorpyriphos.

443 - 452 (10 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
65 Population Dynamics of Vam Fungi in Green Amended Soil and its Effect on White Root Rot of Apple Caused by Dematophora necatrix
Nirupma Sharma, L.N. Bhardwaj and V.S. Thakur

Abstract Amongst various soil-borne diseases of apple, white root rot (Dematophora necatrix) causes severe losses both in nursery as well as in grown up orchards and is a limiting factor in raising healthy nursery of apple. Seedlings are killed within a short period depending upon the age of the host and environmental factors. The present investigations were, therefore, undertaken to study the population dynamics of VAM fungi in rhizosphere soil  of apple plant alone and in combination with green amendments and its role in disease suppression. The study revealed that there was variation in population dynamics of VAM fungi alone and in combination with green amendments. It was observed that apple seedlings grown in VAM inoculated fungi (Glomus sp. and Glomus heterosporum) and green amended   soils had more VAM population and colonization in roots than non-amended (minus crop residue) soils after pathogen inoculation. The population of Glomus sp.(350/100gm soil) was maximum in soybean+ Glomus sp. inoculated soil and it was observed that VAM fungi and crop residues in combination suppresses the disease to maximum extent as compared to their alone effect and only 8.7 per cent disease index was recorded in apple seedlings inoculated with mungbean+ Glomus sp. followed by 16.03% in soybean+ Glomus sp. inoculated seedlings.

447 - 452 (6 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
66 Evaluation of Strawberry Germplasm for Resistance Against Leaf Spot
Dharam Pal and S.D. Sharma

Abstract Twenty seven genotypes including two wild relatives of strawberry were evaluated for resistance against leaf spot caused by various fungal species viz.,Phyllosticta, Pestalotia, Hainesia lythri and Phyllosticta fragaricola under natural conditions. None of the genotypes was found to be resistant against leaf spot. However, the cultivar ‘Fern’ showed moderately susceptible reaction whereas the remaining genotypes were either susceptible or highly susceptible, suggesting the need for diversifying the germplasm either through open pollinated seedling selection or through hybridizing genotypes of divergent origin for resistance against leaf spot.

453 - 454 (2 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
67 Phytoplasma Infecting Lilium in Himachal Pradesh
Ashutosh Bhaik, Anil Handa, P.D. Thakur, Usha Sharma and Kumud Jarial

Abstract During inspection of several lily plantations under cover in different districts of Himachal Pradesh plants with severe disease symptoms were observed. The affected plants showed a progressive loss of vigor, were stunted and had a severely malformed leaves. These symptoms were observed on large scale mainly in oriental lily hybrids ‘Acapulaco’. The plants were suspected to be infected with phytoplasma, the presence of which was demonstrated with fluorescent microscopy (DAPI stain). The phytoplasma etiology was further confirmed by conducting nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using universal primer pairs P1/P7 followed by R16F2n/R16R2, which amplified a fragment of phytoplasma 16SrDNA. This is the first report of phytoplasma infection in lilies identified by molecular assays from India.

455 - 458 (4 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
68 Identification and Characterization of a Carlavirus Infecting Lilium
Anil Handa, P.D. Thakur and Ashutosh Bhaik

Abstract Survey conducted in different Lilium growing areas of Himachal Pradesh revealed the incidence of virus diseases between 15 and 95 per cent in different localities. Mild mottling, curling and necrosis of leaves, deformation and virescence of floral bulbs and flowers and reduction in bulb size were the most prominent symptoms observed. The virus isolate was transmissible through sap, bulb and aphid vectors and had a narrow host range. Electron microscopic studies revealed the presence of filamentous flexuous virus particles measuring 640×17-18nm in size.

459 - 466 (8 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
69 A Geminivirus Infecting Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) in Himachal Pradesh
Praguna Singh Sambyal, S.V. Bhardwaj, V.G. Malathi, P.D. Thakur and S.K. Chakrabarti

Abstract On the basis of symptoms, samples from seven localities within Solan district (H.P.) at varying altitudes ranging from 600-1650mts comprising Nalagarh (600-750m), Badghal (850m), Dilchab (950-1000m), Shaya (1200m), Solan (1300-1450m), Bajhyana (1520m) and Tikari Pajahali (1650m), were collected and used for serological detection by DAS ELISA. It was found that all the isolates except Nalagarh, reacted positively with the antisera to ToLCV, thus substantiating the results on the identity of the present isolates. Out of the seven isolates under study, Dilchab and Shaya isolates did not show any PCR amplification for Rep gene indicating the variability in the regions flanking the Rep gene. Likewise, no amplification result in case of Nalagarh sample proposes the attack of some other pathogen producing similar symptoms.

467 - 470 (4 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
70 Population Dynamics in Phytoparasitic Nematodes of Persimmon (Diospyros kaki)
G.C. Sharma and A.S. Kashyap

Abstract Population dynamics studies of phytoparasitic nematodes (mainly 2nd stage juveniles of root-knot nematode; Meloidogyne incognita) in the rhizosphere of persimmon (Diospyros kaki ) orchard, were carried out, in relation to seasonal fluctuations. There was recorded remarkable impact of temperature on the nematode population.  Highest nematode populations (7148/ 200 cc soil) were recorded during May, when temperature was maximum; 22.9ºC (15.7- 30.0ºC). Least population density of the nematode were extracted during January when temperature remained minimum; 7.9ºC (2.4-13.3ºC). However, relative humidity during entire course of investigation did not show any considerable impact on the population fluctuation of the nematode. With the fall in temperature from July onwards up to January (22.6- 7.9 ºC) there was gradual decline in the nematode population (3813- 468/ 200 cc soil), showing thereby that nematode populations in the rhizosphere is directly affected by the prevailing temperature and thereby soil temperature.

471 - 474 (4 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
71 Pest Compex of Strawberry and its Management in Foot-Hills of Shivaliks
Rajpal Singh, S.C. Lakhanpal and B.K. Karkara

Abstract Ten pests belonging to six insect and mite orders were recorded infesting strawberry cv. Chandler in Paonta and Doon Valleys of North Indian during 2001-04. Out of these Heliothis armigera Hubner, Spodoptera litura F., Thrips tabaci  Kheg, Holotrichia insularis Brenke, Odontotermes obesus Ramb and Tetranychus telarius L were of primary significance. Two fortnightly application of endosulfan (0.05%) from mid April proved effective in containing the attack of first two most devastating pests.

475 - 480 (6 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
72 Relative Efficacy of Some New Acaricides Against European Red Mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch)
P.L. Sharma

Abstract Among different acaricides evaluated, propargite (0.0285%) provided maximum control (98.6%) followed by fenzaquin (0.0025%) with 97.2 per cent control. Both propargite and fenzaquin were effective even 14 days after spray giving 71.0 to 80.6 per cent control. Horticultural mineral oils (1.0 %) were also effective and provided 87.7 to 93.8 per cent mortality of the pest after 24 hours of spray, however, their efficacy declined after 14 days of spray to 43.2 to 60.1 per cent. It was concluded that propargite (0.0285 % and 0.057%) and fenzaquin (0.001% and 0.0025%) provided effective control beyond 15 days of spray. Horticultural mineral oil treated plants, however, needed to be retreated in about 15 days.

481 - 484 (4 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
73 Efficacy of New Acaricides Against European Red Mite Panonychus ulmi (Koch) on Apple
Sushma Bhardwaj and S.P. Bhardwaj

Abstract European red mite is a  serious pest of apple in Himachal Pradesh. Recent survey has shown that 80 per cent apple orchards are infested with this pest. As a result of continuous feeding fruit remained undersized, poor coloured and sour in taste. New acaricides fenazaquin (0.001%) and propergite (0.057%) proved highly effective Standard acaricides dicofol ( 0.037%) and insecticide endosulfan (0.07%) remained effective upto 15 days only.

485 - 488 (4 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
74 Standardization of Holding Solutions to Increase the Vase Life of Greenhouse Grown Rose cv. ‘First Red’
Ritu Jain, Y.C. Gupta, Rajesh Bhalla, S.R. Dhiman and Rajesh Thakur

Abstract Cut flowers of rose cv. ‘First Red’, with uniform stem length of 45 cm, harvested during different times of the year i.e. March, May and October, were used for standardization of holding solutions to increase the vase life. Harvest-wise pooled averages of two years data (2003-04) revealed that the cut flowers of March and May harvests gave increased flower diameter, more volume of solution consumed, maximum vase-life, reducing sugar and protein content with minimum weight loss when these were held in a solution containing 100 ppm 8-HQC (8-hydroxy quinoline citrate) +1.5 per cent sucrose. For getting similar results of October harvested flowers lower concentration of 8-HQC (50 ppm) with same level of sucrose was found most suitable

489 - 496 (8 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
75 Effect of Packaging Materials, Temperature and Dressers on Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Seed Germination and Vigour
A.k. joshi, Chameli Kumari, Nandita Pathania, S.K. Sharma and S.C. Verma

Abstract The effects of packaging materials, temperature and dressers on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum, L.) seed storage, at the end of 24 months, revealed maximum test weight (5.15 g) in poly jar x refrigerator x cow dung. Maximum seed germination was observed in polythene bag x refrigerator x thiram. This combination resulted in slow but gradual decrease in germination from 3rd month (95.33%) to 24th month (75.33%). The same combination of treatments also extrapolated maximum SV-I (15-24 months) and  (Seed Vigour)SV-II (18-24 months). Stress test was maximum (50.01%) in poly jar x refrigerator x thiram. Thus, it was inferred that bell-pepper seed germination and vigour can be maintained for 24 months after treating the seeds with thiram, packing in polythene bag and then storing in refrigerator, after harvesting the crop.

497 - 504 (8 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
76 Effect of Packaging Materials Temperature and Dressers on Onion (Allium cepa L.) Seed Germination and Vigour
A.K. joshi, Chameli Kumari, Nandita Pathania, S.K. Sharma and S.C. Verma

Abstract The effects of packaging materials, temperature and dressers on onion (Allium cepa, L.) seed storage, at the end of 24 months, revealed maximum test weight (3.67 g) in poly jar x refrigerator x cow dung. Maximum seed germination was observed in cloth bag x refrigerator x thiram. Maximum germination of 87.33 per cent at the end of 21 months was recorded in poly bag x room temperature x thiram which declind to 77.33 per cent by the end of 24 months. Similarly (seed vigour) SV-I, SV-II (up to 21 months) and stress test (up to 18 months) were maximum which showed a declining trend after this period. It can be inferred that the onion seed germination and vigour can be maintained for 21 months when packed in poly jar, stored in deep freezer (-20°C) after treating with thiram (0.3%).

505 - 512 (8 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
77 Gap Analysis in the Cultivation of Commercially Grown Vegetables
Y.R. Shukla and A.S. Kashyap

Abstract A considerable difference of gap has been observed between the generated technology and the technology available with the farmers. In order to find the possible causes or low production, a comprehensive bench mark survey of four Panchayats of Kandaghat block namely Sirinagar, Mahi, Kawarag and Bisha involving 500 farm families was done using PRA technique to ascertain the extent and gap in the generated technology and the technology adopted by the farmers. All the important components of the technology were assessed and the gap in adoption as well as the approximate cost of the gaps was estimated. In tomato and capsicum, it was observed that the farmers prepared their fields well, transplanted at the right time, performed the required intercultural operations and harvested the fruits at proper time. They however, did not treat the seed and the seed bed, applied sub-optimal/excess doses of fertilizes and adopted excessive plant protection measures against pests and diseases. In case of Cauliflower, the farmers used the recommended variety, prepared their fields well, transplanted at optimum time, adopted all cultural operations from time to time but they did not pay attention for protecting the crop against pest and diseases.They also applied ample quantity of fertilizers but did not follow proper spacing. If the farmers adopt the recommended practices, they are likely to gain around Rs 62,688/ha in tomato, Rs.55,563/ha in capsicum and Rs.54,188/ha in cauliflower.

513 - 522 (10 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
78 Activities and Important Issues in Temperate Horticulture
Ravinder Chauhan

Abstract Temperate fruit production in India is mainly confined to the Himalayan region particularly in north-west states namely J&K, HP and Uttaranchal and to the east in Arunachal Pradesh.Though these areas are sparsely populated, yet are the main centers for production of these fruits. Apple is the leading cash fruit among these fruits occupying nearly 85.0 per cent of the total area 90 per cent production under these temperate fruits. The apple cultivation in these states is more than 100 years old where the English settlers planted acidic types varieties in Kullu, Shimla, Chaubattia and Kodikonal hills. Quality Delicious apples which were introduced by an American Missionary Samuel N.Sokes in 1917 at Kotgarh, form the today’s commercial apple production in H.P. exception Kashmir valley, temperate fruit production in India is in temperate type of climate available in these states due to higher hills experiencing adequate winter cold and snowfall.

523 - 526 (4 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
79 National Perspective - Need for Future Hill Horticulture
Ravinder Chauhan

Horticulture in the hills has special significance and specific requirements to sustain it for the improvement of the lot of the people living in the hills. The national policy on horticulture has to be so oriented so that it recognizes the varied agro climatic and soil conditions. The dynamic process of development and extension has to be specifically designed to cater to the requirements of the hill states; which, because of the difficult terrain, are by and large under-developed as compared to the rest of the country. The new national policy on horticulture should take into account the following points in order to make temperate horticulture a self sustaining enterprise.

527 - 530 (4 Pages)
₹35.00 ₹32.00 + Tax
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