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WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT FOR ENHANCING WATER PRODUCTIVITY

N.K. Gontia, H.D. Rank
  • Country of Origin:

  • Imprint:

    NIPA

  • eISBN:

    9789389547313

  • Binding:

    EBook

  • Number Of Pages:

    252

  • Language:

    English

Individual Price: ₹ 2,195.00 ₹ 1,975.50 + Tax

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The adoption of the scientific approach on water management to enhance the water productivity requires the knowledge on water resources development and management. The knowledge of rainwater management, groundwater recharge, groundwater development and management, agricultural drainage and soil reclamations, canal water management, modern irrigation systems, mulching technology, soil water management, land development and management, watershed development and management on peoples' participatory approach are the needs of the today for the academician, engineers, field workers and extension officers. This book contains the chapters written by experts and trained scientists working in different disciplines of soil and water conservation, irrigation and drainage, agronomy, soil science, remote sensing and GIS, groundwater and horticulture and will be useful for people working in academics and environment.

0 Start Pages

Preface The adoption of the scientific approach on water management to enhance the water productivity requires the knowledge on water resources development and management. The knowledge of rainwater management, groundwater recharge, groundwater development and management, agricultural drainage and soil reclamations, canal water management, modern irrigation systems, mulching technology, soil water management, land development and management, watershed development and management on peoples’ participatory approach are the needs of the today for the academician, engineers, field workers and extension officers.  This book contains the chapters written by experts and trained scientists working in different disciplines of soil and water conservation, irrigation and drainage, agronomy, soil science, remote sensing and GIS, groundwater and horticulture working in academic and field environment.  We are very thankful to Dr. A.R. Pathak, Honorable Vice Chancellor and  Dr. N.C. Patel, Ex. Honorable Vice Chancellor JAU, Junagadh for their encouragements, supports and guidance.

 
1 Water Resources Management for Enhancing Water Productivity An Overview
N. K. Gontia

Introduction Water is a precious natural resource vital, for sustaining all life on the earth. It is in a continuous circulatory movement - hydrologic cycle. It is not uniformly distributed in time and space. Due to its multiple benefits and the problems created by its excesses, shortages and quality deterioration, water as a resource requires special attention. On a global scale, total quantity of water available is about 1600 million cubic km. The hydrological cycle moves enormous quantities of water about the globe. However, much of the world’s water has little potential for human use because 97.5% of all water on earth is saline water. Out of remaining 2.5% fresh water, most of which lies deep and frozen in Antarctica and Greenland, only about 0.26% flows in rivers, lakes and in the soils and shallow aquifers which can be readily used. Sustainable water management in India is fast becoming a necessity, with the looming crisis over water resources in the country threatening the security and livelihood of the population and the environment over the coming decades. Managing water resources, river catchments, and coastal zones are outstanding challenges of today and tomorrow’s. Global changes ask for a comprehensive scientific approach, an international multi-disciplinary orientation and require a new mind-set towards water and coastal management problems.

1 - 26 (26 Pages)
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2 Development of Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) of Wheat Crop for Scheduling Irrigation Using Infrared Thermometry
N.K. Gontia

Introduction The globally growing demand for water has ushered the need for its efficient and judicial utilizations in all fields, and agriculture in particular being a single largest consumer of water. The majority of irrigation projects in India perform at a very low efficiency, which calls for application of efficient water management technologies for meeting the increasing water demands. Estimation of soil moisture or crop evapotranspiration from climatic parameters provides objective criteria for irrigation management. Methods to estimate evapotranspiration require huge climatic data, which are seldom available and not applied by common crop growers. Determining crop water requirement through soil moisture measurement at several locations is time consuming, destructive exercise, and may not give proper assessment of crop water need. The plant based indicator approach considers the plant water status for scheduling irrigation. This might be considered as the ideal criterion because the plant water is a good integrator of the soil, water and climatic parameters.

27 - 46 (20 Pages)
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3 Water Management in Coastal Areas for Horticultural Crops
A.V. Barad and D.K. Varu

Introduction Indian agriculture was contributing 70% to total GDP of the country at pre-independent time, but it decreased drastically year by year and contributed 66.8% in 1960, 55.6% in 1994, 27.1% in 1997 and now a days, it reached only to 25% in 2001. With the advancement of civilization our population is increased, whereas, the cultivable lands is decreased side by side, thus, on an average income of agriculture is decreased. Gujarat is the leading state to concern with the productivity, production and the area of the some crops like Groundnut, Castor, Cotton, etc. in India. The major part of the state is surrounded by sea coast border, which is 1600 km. Gujarat is popular for production of oilseed crops like groundnut, cotton ; horticultural crops like mango, chiku, coconut, banana, papaya, citrus; spices crops like chili, cumin, funnel etc.

47 - 56 (10 Pages)
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4 Water Management for Vegetable and Fruit Crops
R.G., Patil, B.M. Solia, S.L. Pawar and J.M. Patel

The coastal agro ecosystem is very important among the different agro ecosystems of our country both economically and environmentally. It spans over a length of 8129 sq. km. covering 9 states and 2 Island ecosystems. Agriculture and allied activities constitute the single largest component of India’s economy, contributing nearly 27 per cent of the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the year 1999-2000 (TERI, 2002). Agriculture exports accounts for 13 to 18 per cent of total annual exports of the country (MoF, 2002). However, given that 62 per cent of the cropped area is still dependent on rainfall (MoEF, 2002). Coastal agricultural region comprises of hinterland, which has a varied geometric and topographical features of mountains valley, coastal plains, riverine systems, climatic conditions, different soils and water bodies, vegetation ranging from rich tropical rain forests to coastal mangroves and a wide range of crops that are cultivated in this region (Table 1). The agro climatic conditions of the coastal zones are congenial for growing various field and horticultural crops.

57 - 70 (14 Pages)
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5 Statistical Design for Experiments of Water Management Research
H.R. Pandya

Experiment An experiment is a planned inquiry to obtain new facts or confirm or deny the result of previous experiment. Such inquiry can aid in an administrative decision, such as recommending a variety, a feed, a cultural practices, a fertilizer, a pesticide or a fungicide etc. Type of Experiments     1.     Preliminary experiments : Here investigator tries out large number of treatments in order to obtain leads for future work. Here replications are not taken for such treatments tried e.g. number of pesticides for control of diseases - take single observation for each treatment and take decision that some of them worth trying for use.

71 - 90 (20 Pages)
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6 Groundwater Management Under High Water Table Conditions
P.K. Shrivastava

Groundwater is a precious renewable resource which gets replenishment from the precipitation. Total water resources of the world are estimated at 1.37 x 108 million ha-m. Of these, about 97.2% is salt water, mainly in oceans, and only 2.8% is available as fresh water. And, out of this 2.8%, about 2.2% is available as surface water (2.1% is fresh water in glaciers and icecaps, 0.1% is available in lakes and reservoirs, 0.0001% in streams) and 0.6% is available as groundwater. Only 50% of groundwater resource is economically extracted with available technology. Presently, 1.3 x 104 million ha-m fresh water in reservoirs and 41.1x104 million ha-m groundwater is theoretically available to provide usable water for drinking, domestic use, irrigation, etc., to mankind. Groundwater is the largest source of fresh water excluding the polar icecaps and glaciers. The amount of groundwater within 800 m from the ground surface is over 30 times the amount in all fresh water lakes and reservoirs, and about 3000 times the amount in stream channels, at any one time.

91 - 98 (8 Pages)
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7 Water Quality Management in Inland Aqua-farming in Coastal Areas
A.A. Vyas

Aquaculture is the cultivation of fish, molluscs, crustaceans (shell fish) and aquatic plants in controlled conditions, provides an increasingly significant proportion of food production globally. The sector has represented the greatest growth of all food production systems in the last two decades and an estimated 10% yearly increase in output is likely to bring productivity to a predicted 47 million tonnes in the year 2010 (Pedini and Shehadeh, 1997). Significantly, the greatest contribution to total production and the greatest rate of uptake of aquaculture activity is in the developing world. More than 82% of the total global yield in 1999 was produced by developing countries (GESAMP, 2000) and growth rates between 1984 and 1995 were six times higher than that from developed countries (Rana, 1997; Tacon, 1996).

99 - 116 (18 Pages)
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8 Prevailing Status, Modeling and Managerial Approaches of Soil Erosion With Specific Emphasis on Indian Coastal Regions
M.L. Gaur

Soil Erosion As a Process   Soil erosion is a three stage process, namely (1) detachment, (2) transport, and (3) deposition of soil. Different energy source agents determine different types of erosion. There are four principal sources of energy: physical, such as wind and water, gravity, chemical reactions and anthropogenic, such as tillage. Soil erosion begins with detachment, which is caused by break down of aggregates by raindrop impact, sheering or drag force of water and wind. Detached particles are transported by flowing water (over-land flow and inter-flow) and wind, and deposited when the velocity of water or wind decreases by the effect of slope or ground cover. Processes like dispersion, compaction and crusting, accelerate the natural rate of soil erosion. These processes decrease structural stability, reduce soil strength, exacerbate erodibility and accentuate susceptibility to transport by overland flow, interflow, wind or gravity. These processes are accentuated by soil disturbance (by tillage, vehicular traffic), lack of ground cover (bare fallow, residue removal or burning) and harsh climate (high rainfall intensity and wind velocity).

117 - 138 (22 Pages)
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9 Management of Salt Affected Soil
N. B. Babariya

Introduction Salinity in India is a major issue affecting the sustainability of irrigated as well as non-irrigated areas particularly in the states of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and Orissa. Salt affected soils are unproductive unless excess salts are reduced or removed. These soils occur most extensively in arid and semi-arid climates, but these soils are also found in coastal sea areas where soils are unundated by ocean or sea water. Soils are said to be saline if they contain an excess of soluble salts and sodic or alkali if they contain an excess of sodium salts. Again soils are said to be saline-sodic or saline-alkali if they contain appreciable amounts of both soluble salts and sodium. The impact of salinity manifests itself in several ways. As the salinity increases, not only does the productivity decline but sensitive crops also go out of cultivation and are replaced by salt-tolerant, low value crops and other plant species.

139 - 146 (8 Pages)
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10 Applications of Plastic for Moisture Conservations in Saline Soil
R.A. Gupta and V.R. Vagadiya

Mulching The technique of covering the soil with plastic films or natural crop left over (residues) for soil and water conservations is called mulching. This technique was practiced by farmers using dry leaves straw, trash, stones etc to conserve water. Presently plastic film have come into use for the purpose of mulching due to inherent advantages.

147 - 156 (10 Pages)
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11 Moisture Conservation Through Sub-soiling
Pramod Mohnot and V.R. Gagadiya

India is an agricultural country. The geographical area of India is about 328 mha out of which 147 mha of land under cultivation and 84-mha land is under irrigation. The population is increasing at an alarming rate that requires producing more food for the growing population. This problem can be solved either by increasing the land under irrigation or using different soil water conservation techniques. It is well known fact that during rainfall a considerable amount of water goes to sea due to high rate of runoff. It is highly needed to trap as much as water falling in the form of rainfall and recharge the groundwater so that it is made available for irrigation purposes.

157 - 170 (14 Pages)
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12 Drainage of Waterlogged Clay Soils
P.K. Shrivastava

Agricultural land drainage is adopted for removal of excess surface and subsurface water, either from irrigation or rainfall in order to improve the profitability of land use.  Drainage also plays a role in removal of salts from the root zone. Therefore, land drainage is closely linked to irrigation in arid and semi arid regions. India has a long history of practicing irrigation and drainage in its semi arid irrigated regions. During the ancient times in the Indus Valley dams and drainage system were built for cultivation of different crops. The earlier experience of drainage was more concerned with surface drainage because from time immemorial India has been experiencing floods of varying magnitudes.

171 - 182 (12 Pages)
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13 Irrigation Water Quality Analysis in Relation to Soil and Crops
P.G. Vadher and H.D. Rank

For better yield irrigation water must be free from soluble salts and from concentration of specific chemical substances that may hazard to soil with respect to salinity, sodicity, alkalinity and toxicity. Water analytical data which helpful to predict the magnitude of the effect of irrigation water on soil and plant growth under specific environmental circumstances so irrigation water must be analyzed for EC, pH, Na+, Ca++, Mg++, Cl-, CO3–, HCO3-  and SO4.– 

183 - 194 (12 Pages)
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14 Drought Analysis for Watershed Planning in Rainfed Areas
B.S. Deora, H.D. Rank and R.J. Patel

Importance Drought is a climatic anomaly characterized by deficient supply of moisture, which may result from sub-normal, untimely and unevenly distributed rainfall. Among the various hazards of nature, drought is one of the major disasters because it brings innumerable miseries to the mankind. Almost every year some part or the other of the country suffers from such calamities. Drought is a recurring phenomena and its occurrence cannot be avoided. However, its impact can be minimized through application of science and technology by developing drought management plans.

195 - 202 (8 Pages)
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15 Rainfall Analysis for Crop Planning
D.D. Sahu, M.C. Chopada and H.L. Kacha

The Gujarat state is located on the north-west of India between 20o6' N and 24o42' N latitude and 60o24' E to 74o24' longitude. The climate of Gujarat is semi-arid tropical . the summers are very hot, the winter season is uncertain and irregular. The Arabian sea and Gulf of cambay have a moderating effect on the climate of the coastal areas of the state. The state has a coastline of 1600 km (27% of the country) out of which Saurashtra and Kutch has about 1125 km long coastal line. The total coastal cropped area of the state is 8.75 lakh ha (9.11% of total cultivated area) spread over three agro-climatic regions of the state, out of which 91% comes under arid and semiarid climate type (Table 1). The important crops of the region are groundnut, bajara, sorghum, cotton, and wheat. The ground water availability is also scare. In the state recently the soil degradation through salinity has caught hold over 1.2 m ha of land, of which, about 0.3 m ha occurs in the coastal area. About 1125 km long coastal line is in Saurashtra and Kutch which comprises about 0.1079 m ha of saline land which needs to be treated for salinity reduction.  

203 - 214 (12 Pages)
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16 Watershed Gauging
G.R. Sharma, H.D. Rank and R.J. Patel

Agriculture is world’s single largest employer and probably the most weather dependent of all human activities.  Climate and its variability have been and continue to be, the principal source of fluctuations in global food production. Throughout history, extreames of heat and cold, droughts and floods, and various form of violent weather have wretched havoc on the global agricultural production. With the unprecedented increase in population over past few decades, clearly the mankind faces undertaking task to ensure food and nutritional security for all, considering reduced per capita land, reduced availability of water, depleting biodiversity and need to preserve ecology and environment. In India, of the total geographical area of 328 m ha, about 175 m ha (53 % of total) are categorized as degraded land, of which 150 m ha are subjected to serious water and wind erosion (Singh et al. 1981). Crops are sown in about 180 m ha annually. Since it seems very much impossible to bring more area under cultivation we need to achieve greater efficiency in the natural resources use while conserving the environment by placing greater emphasis on understanding and exploiting climatic resources for the benefits of agriculture.

215 - 222 (8 Pages)
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17 Meaning and Concept of People’s Participation
P. R. Kanani

Participation means different things to different people. They way participant is defined largely depends upon the context and back ground in which participation is applied. While the Economic Commission for Latin America (1973) considers contribution by the people to public programmes to the complete exclusion of any involvement in the decision making process as participation. Cohem and Uphoff (1977) maintain that participation tools includes the peoples involvement in the entire decision making process. Like Cohem & Uphoff, FAO (1982) emphasizes participation in all the decision making processes but by the people’s organization and through self organized action. Paul (1987) introduces the concept of enhancement of well-being in terms of values cherished by the communities as being the ultimate objective of participation.

223 - 236 (14 Pages)
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