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Ratan Kumar Saha
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Indigenous knowledge is the knowledge of the indigenous people inhabiting different geographical regions of the world with their own language, culture, tradition, belief, folklore, rites and rituals. Indigenous knowledge so developed is based on necessities, instinct, curiosity and observations of ethnic groups to mitigate the immediate situations. Eventually, this local knowledge in course of time gets socially accepted and validated which finally inters into the social life and subsequently become the Indigenous Traditional Knowledge (ITK) of the society as a whole. As such, scientist in this knowledge base economy who are in research of new ideas and innovations expect that indigenous knowledge may hold significant message which may be of use to remedy the deficiencies in modern agricultural and environment related issues. There is a need for studying and documenting traditional knowledge in different ecological and cultural environments. Several researchers are working on ITK in different fields of agriculture and allied sectors. There is a demand for a standard book on the overview of ITK. This book is designed in such a way that will give an overview of ITK, the differences between Science & ITK, different tools and techniques used in ITK, classification, importance & utilization of ITK, and recent ongoing researches on ITK in different parts of India. The objective of this book is to encourage the study of ethnic knowledge in different field of agriculture and allied sector. It is also an attempt to circulate amongst a larger group of readers regarding the importance of indigenous knowledge in scientific world. This book will, perhaps, be well received in all the Agricultural Universities, Animal Husbandry & Fisheries University, State Govt. Agri-allied Departments, Private and Public Sector Institutions where training, teaching, research and extension of agri-allied sector is undertaken.

0 Start Pages

Preface The book entitled “Ancestral Knowledge in Agri-Allied Science” is intended to be of vast application in the field of agriculture and it is hoped that it will prove of interest to numerous people working in the field of agri-allied sectors. The book is the compilation of several chapters contributed by different resource persons of the country working in the same field for several years.  This book is designed and covered several topics keeping in mind the background knowledge of the targeted reader of this book. The readers may be new in the field as well as the experienced professionals. The book has covered different Indigenous Traditional Knowledge (ITK) related to the agri-allied sector of the country. Another motto of this book is to document some of the knowledge of the indigenous people inhabiting in different geographical regions of the country with their own language, culture, tradition, belief, folklore, rites and rituals, which are eventually getting lost. Several researchers are working on ITK in different fields of agriculture and allied sectors. There is a demand on a standard book like this on the overview of ITKs of this sector. A foreseeable criticism of this book is that it is patchy in its coverage of the all the ITKs of the country in the concerned field- some are covered extensively and some are not. However, efforts were being done to cover major topics of all sectors. This book is designed in such a way that will give an overview of ITK, the differences between Science & ITK, different tools and techniques used in ITK, classification, importance & utilization of ITK, and recent ongoing researches on ITK in different parts of India.

1 An Overview of Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Relation to Agri-allied Sector
R.K. Saha, D. Nath and H. Saha

INTRODUCTION Indigenous knowledge is the knowledge of the indigenous people inhabiting different geographical regions of the world with their own language, culture, tradition, belief, folklore, rites and rituals. In course of their close interactions with nature and natural resources, they are to make a certain decisions as to solve their problems they encounter in their day to day life while managing the land and environmental resources for survival. Several researchers explained traditional knowledge as holistic, encompassing many fields of scientific knowledge, such as climate, hydrology, soils, plants and animals (Howes and Chambers, 1980, Jungerius, 1985, Wilken, 1987, Agrawal, 1995). Therefore, indigenous knowledge so developed is based on necessities, instinct, curiosity and observations of ethnic groups to mitigate the immediate problems. Several logical observation was used by them in the decision making process as to how, when and where to act depending on the situations.

1 - 22 (22 Pages)
2 Basic Concept of Indigenous Knowledge and it’s Protection in India
Ajit Kumar Roy

INTRODUCTION Knowledge is a familiarity with someone or something, which can include facts, information, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience or education. It can refer to the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject. It can be implicit (as with practical skill or expertise) or explicit (as with the theoretical understanding of a subject); it can be more or less formal or systematic.While many would agree that one of the most universal and significant tools for the transfer of knowledge is writing (of many kinds), argument over the usefulness of the written word exists nonetheless, with some scholars skeptical of its impact on societies. People are often internalizing new information which they perceive to be knowledge but in reality fill their minds with false knowledge.

23 - 40 (18 Pages)
3 Traditional Ecological Knowledge:An Important Pillar in Fisheries Resource Management
Biswarup Saha, Tanmay Samajdar and P. K. Pal

Introduction Sustainable exploitation of fish stocks and conservation of fish habitat are matters of concern for fishery scientists and administrators all over the world. Worldwide there is a declining trend in natural fish catch (FAO, 2002) and India is no exception. Increasing harvest pressure, destructive fishing operations, introduction of exotics, are examples of factors from within the sector responsible for increasing pressure on fish stocks. The decline in open water catch has been a serious issue in fisheries as millions of rural households depend on fishing to maintain their livelihood incomes, and because fish is a major protein source in the globe. However, the government in several countries is addressing the issue in a number of ways, such as: (i) moving towards biological management from revenue-oriented management; (ii) involving resource users in capture fisheries management to maintain natural productivity; and (iii) starting programs such as rehabilitating of degraded habitats (FAO, 1999).

41 - 60 (20 Pages)
4 Indigenous Technical Knowledge for the Management of Major Pests of Field Crops in North East India
D. M. Firake, P. D. Firake, G. T. Behere, N.S. Azad Thakur and Dilip Nath

Introduction North East India, a mega-biodiversity centre and a hotspot (Myer et al., 2000) occupy 7.7% of India’s total geographical area supporting 50% of the flora (ca. 8000 species) (Rao, 1994), of which 31.58% (ca. 2526 species) are endemic (Nayar, 1996). It is a transitional zone between the Indo-China and Indo-Burma–Malaysian regions. This region is also a part of the vavilovian centre of biodiversity and origin of many important cultivated plant species and some domesticated animals (Agarwal, 1996). North Eastern Hilly (NEH) region of India supports a rich biodiversity spanning from tropical rainforests to alpine scrubs.  Takhtajan (1969) described the region as the “Cradle of Flowering Plants” because of its diversified angiosperms.  This rich biodiversity has a significant role to balance the ecosystem and has been used ethnologically by locals for various socio-economic and developmental purposes (Yumnam, 2008).

61 - 72 (12 Pages)
5 Traditional Practices for the Management of Major Pests of Horticultural Crops and Stored Produce in North East India
D.M. Firake, P.D. Firake, G.T. Behere, N.S. Azad Thakur and D. Nath

INTRODUCTION The North Eastern Hill (NEH) Region of India comprising the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim lies between 20º5’ to 29º30' latitude and 89º49' E to 97º3' E longitude. The region possesses a great diversity in soil and climate as influenced by varied altitudes ranging from 18m MSL to more than 3000m MSL. In the entire region due to high rainfall (1800 mm to 3000 mm/year) humidity is very high (50-100%). The average minimum and maximum temperature is also comparatively low and ranges from below 0°C to a maximum of 35ºC. This region is very rich in natural resources with diverse flora and fauna.

73 - 84 (12 Pages)
6 Indigenous Pest Management Practices in North East India - An Overview
Arunava Samanta, Archan Kanti Das and Sandip Patra

INTRODUCTION North East India is a rich storehouse of indigenous agricultural practices and local varieties of crops. The region comprising of the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, Mizoram, Nagaland and Sikkim can be physiographically categorized into the Eastern Himalayas, Northeast hills (Patkai-Naga Hills and Lushai Hills) and the Brahmaputra and Barak Valley plains. At the confluence of the Indo-Malayan, Indo-Chinese and Indian biogeographically realms, the NE region is unique in providing a profusion of habitats, which features diverse biota with a high level of endemism (Chatterjee et al., 2006). The northeastern region is rich in biological diversity and contains more than one-third of the country’s total biodiversity. This biodiversity and variability of the ecosystem are used and conserved by traditional communities through various informal institutions and using traditional ecological knowledge systems. Ethnic communities of the region practice their traditional cultivation practices of diverse crop suitable in different ecosystems solely on organic conditions without any external inputs to the system; and value the land and the environment for the sustainability of the system for future generations. There is no systematic record to describe what they are, what they do and how they do, how they can be changed, their operations, their boundaries and their applications.

85 - 100 (16 Pages)
7 Notes on the Ethno-Veterinary Practices Used for Treatment of Different Ailments in Tripura State, India
Partha Pratim Bhattacharjee, J. Majumder, R. Lodh and B. K. Agarwala

INTRODUCTION Ethno-Veterinary Medicine (EVM) or Veterinary Anthropology refers to holistic and interdisciplinary study of traditional knowledge, skills, methods, practices and folk beliefs of the people about the health care of animal husbandry and production of livestock (McCorkle, 1986). It encompasses information on diseases and their control; remedies and clinical practices for treatment and prevention; management, feeding and breeding strategies; spiritual elements; and the use of human resources that hold the information and experience (Mathias, 2004).

101 - 114 (14 Pages)
8 Indigenous Traditional Knowledge Associated with Fermented Fish Products of North East India
A.U. Muzaddadi

INTRODUCTION The fermented products probably came into existence at least before the British Era in Northeastern states of India [before 1824, The Yandabu Agreement between British Govt. and Burma (now Myanmar)] when the British first introduced salt in the region. Interestingly, in all the fermented fish products of this region no salt is used as ingredient which is a major difference with the other fish based fermented fish products of Southeast Asian countries such as Nuac-mum of Vietnam, Budu of Malaysia, Patis of the Philippines etc. Even after the British Era, people used to treat salt as a highly valued and scarce commodity and they used to take an alternative commodity, for example khar in Assam, made from banana plant or papaya. Hence, they could not afford spending salt in fish preservation and they were bound to preserve fish in their own cheaper and easier way.

115 - 128 (14 Pages)
9 Traditional Ethnic Jewellery of Kashmiri Fisherwomen
Rizwana, T. H. Bhat, M. H. Balkhi and Poonam Sharma

INTRODUCTION Jewellery has been a favorite form of adornment since time immemorial in all parts of the worlds and Indian is not an exception. The significance of jewellery in the country is evident from the fact that on many auspicious occasions, jewellery forms a part of gifts. Jewellery has not only been considered for the purpose of adoration, but it can also be sold to overcome the economic crisis. This way, jewellery also serves the purpose of insurance, which can be depended upon. To accentuate their feminine beauty, women use jewellery made of gold, silver and diamonds. Traditionally, jewellery has always been linked with wealth, power and status.

129 - 136 (8 Pages)
10 Documentation of Ethno-Entomophagy Practices in Ethnic Communities of Manipur, North East India
T. Shantibala, R.K. Lokeshwari, B.K. Agarwala and Gusheinzed Waikhom

INTRODUCTION Ethno-entomophagy is the term used to describe the practice of consumption of insects as food by native human populations. Insects are an important source of protein for humans, either through direct consumption or as food supplements for livestock (DeFoliart, 1989). They are nutritious in terms of protein (40–75 g/100g dry weight) and minerals. Their protein is of high quality and has high digestibility (77–98%) with good concentration of essential amino acids (46–96% of the nutritional profile) (Verkerk et al., 2007). The biochemical composition and chemical analysis have revealed that they are comparable with other foods enriched with high proteins, fats, lipids, vitamins and mineral salts (Prasad, 2007). Insects generally have higher food conversion efficiency than other animals. They show a food conversion efficiency of about twice as efficient as pig and boiler chick and more than five times as efficient as beef cattle (Durst and Shono, 2010). Some of the important edible insects include grasshoppers, caterpillars, beetle grubs, adult winged termites, bees, wasps, winged ants, cicadas and a variety of aquatic insects.

137 - 164 (28 Pages)
11 Traditionally Used Fish Feed Ingredients and Manure in Aquaculture in the North Eastern State of Tripura
M.K. Datta

INTRODUCTION Over the past decades, as concerns about declines in local habitats, species, and livelihoods related to agriculture and allied sectors have increased, the potential contributions of local and traditional knowledge (LTK) to ecosystem research and management have been increasingly recognized (Thornton and Scheer, 2012). North Eastern region is well known as one of the 18 hotspot areas of the world and hence is blessed with rich biodiversity and fish fisheries resources. With more than 90% of population being fish eaters, there is heavy demand of fish but a wide gap exists between supply and demand. The region produces over 0.214 million tonnes of fish annually, with almost 50% coming from aquaculture.

165 - 176 (12 Pages)
12 Identification of Indigenous Resource and its Managements for Livelihood by Tribal Women Fishers of Dooars Region of West Bengal Using PRA Technique: A Case Study
Ambalika Ghosh

INTRODUCTION Fishing is one of the oldest professions of humans. As the day went by, the fish farmers carry out their own indigenous technology as a common practice through natural resource management. In this line, different traditional fishing communities of West Bengal gained a vast experience in every sphere of aquaculture. Their innovation is based on their own knowledge derived from their day to day effort of solving problems. Actually this indigenous knowledge is the accumulated information, skill and technology of the local farmers derived from the close interaction with the nature. The intimate interaction of the farmers with aquatic ecosystems through their age old practices has developed huge expertise which is essential to be documented and disseminated. It will be helpful for aqua resource management as they can be shared in a, cost effective, eco-friendly as well as socio economically viable proposition.

177 - 188 (12 Pages)
13 Selected Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) on Fisheries in Tripura State
Sagar C. Mandal, Pampa Bhattacharjee and Debtanu Barman

INTRODUCTION The origin of fish culture in India probably dates back to 2000 years. Possibly, fishery activity started when the human settlement moved away from the riverbanks to the hinterland. As the days went by, the Indian fish farmers practice their own indigenous technology as a common practice through natural resource management (National Commission on Agriculture, Gov. of India, 1976). The close and intimate observation of farmers through their age-old practices has developed the expertise of acquiring knowledge in aquatic ecosystem in particular. Admittedly, the multifarious knowledge and skill possessed by local people can substantially contribute to productive efforts and endeavors (Dasgupta, 1993).

189 - 202 (14 Pages)
14 Indigenous Disease Management Practices in Traditional Farming Systems in India
A. Chakraborty and Subham Dey

INTRODUCTION The enemies of plants have been harming the organized agriculture ever since man started depending on plants for food. Fossil evidence indicates that plants were affected by disease since 250 million years ago. Conditions of food shortage and famines have been created by these enemies of plants. Naturally, the man had been obvious of their presence and proposed explanations and methods of combating them according to the knowledge available at that time all over the world. It is not true that attention to plant diseases was first given in the western countries. In the ancient Indian literature many plant diseases and their remedies were mentioned.

203 - 214 (12 Pages)
15 Highly Effective Fishing Methods in Central Assam as Perceived by Fishers
Rajita Devi and Biswarup Saha

INTRODUCTION Assam is a heartland of indigenous groups. Since hundreds of years, many indigenous groups have been living in the state, maintaining their originalities in every sphere of life with difficulties. The tribal-indigenous groups constitute almost 12.4% of the total population of Assam. ( Fishing is one of the major livelihood option of many indigenous fishers as the state is blessed with huge water resources with about 3.91 lakh hectare of water area in the form of rivers, beel, derelict water bodies and ponds and tanks. Besides swamps and low-lying areas, two major rivers and their tributaries have a high growth potential for fishing and could play a pivotal role in the socio-economic development and employment generation in the state. Indigenous fishers have developed a close and unique connection with the water resources and its environment in which they are depended for generation to generation for their livelihood. They have generated unique system of knowledge, innovation and skills relating to the uses and management of fishing activities. Over centuries, people have learnt how to get food and to survive in different environment. Farmers are very keen to observe the problems arising during fishing and seek solutions to adjust to their local environmental conditions. They continuously adapt and manage their fishing systems and in this way, they develop a rich storehouse of practical knowledge on their situation.

215 - 222 (8 Pages)
16 Nu Ta: An Indigenous Fish Catching Gear of Arunachal Pradesh, India
Pema Chotten Wangja, Olik Jomang, Krishna Prasad Sharma and Yumlembam Jackie Singh

INTRODUCTION Northeast India comprises the contiguous seven sister states.viz., Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura and the Himalayan state of Sikkim. The Northeastern states of India are blessed with diversified fish fauna which assumes special interest due to the fact that the region is grained by two important drainages viz., Brahamaputra-Barak and Chindwin Irrawaddy. (Gurumayum and Choudhury, 2009). Riverine fisheries resources of Northeastern States comprise of 19,150 km of streams and rivers. Except the Brahmaputra and Barak Valleys in Assam and Imphal Valley in Manipur, the Northeast mainly comprises of Hills and Mountains which form 65% of its territory (Suguman, 1998).

223 - 228 (6 Pages)
17 Shifting Responses of Tadpole Larvae and Frog From Fish Pond in Presence of Hypoxia, Obnoxious Gases and Predators
Ramanuj Chakraborty, Subrata Shib and Himadri Saha

INTRODUCTION Fish is a dependable source of animal protein in developing countries like India. In recent years, with the rapid development of the aquaculture enterprises, the infectious diseases caused by fungus, bacteria, virus and parasites became more severe, resulting in huge economic losses. Due to certain unavoidable problems for diagnosing and treating diseases, losses are being born by the poor fish farmers of the country. The issue is more relevant to rural area like north-east India, where soil and water are highly acidic due to the high content of ferrous ions and high rainfall and their management needs high inputs. The situation gets shoddier when the farmers do not get the access to water and soil laboratory to test their pond samples. It is very hard for the rural farmers to monitor their culture pond condition without any scientific tools and technical knowledge. Moreover, stresses due to over-crowding, wide temperature fluctuations, cold stress, global warming, microorganism, pesticides, insecticides, chemicals, contaminants etc.

229 - 232 (4 Pages)
18 Application of Indigenous Technical Knowledge for Treating Ectoparasitic Infestations in Animals
W. Ramdas Singh, Debasish Behera, Hijam S. Devi and P. H. Patra

INTRODUCTION The medicinal values of plants are known since prehistoric times. Interestingly, 13000 BC old drawing on Lascaux caves in France suggests that humans were using plants for medicinal purposes. Ancient Egyptians chewed willow bark to relieve fever and headaches; and thousands of years later, scientists discovered that the bark contains salicylic acid- the active ingredient in aspirin. History reveals that in most of the countries natural products including plants, animals and minerals have been the basis of treatment of diseases both in human and veterinary medicines.   Plants as a source of medicine has been an ancient practice and is an important component of the health care system in India. The health management of people and domestic animals is based partially on the exploitation of natural resources, which needs proper documentation and research.

233 - 240 (8 Pages)
19 Traditional Fermented Fish Products of North Eastern States of India
Yumlembam Jackie Singh, Huirem Bharati and Pema Chotten Wangja

INTRODUCTION The North Eastern Region of India comprises of eight states, viz., Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Tripura, Nagaland, Mizoram and Sikkim. These north eastern states are home to myriad tribals and several ethnic groups. Most of the people of the north-eastern region of India belong to the Mongolian race and the food habit of the region is fairly similar with that of South-East Asian countries. Fermented foods form an intrinsic part of the diet of these people. Fermentation has been an age long traditional practice of preserving various food products in the region. These fermented products are used as condiments in the preparation of various traditional sauces, strews and dishes (Saisithi, 1994).

241 - 246 (6 Pages)
20 Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) in Animal Husbandry Practices
Avijit Haldar, Chintu Deb Barma and Rajkumari Sanjukta

INTRODUCTION In the emerging global knowledge economy, a country’s ability to build and mobilize knowledge capital is equally important for sustainable development like the physical and financial capital (World Bank, 1997). The basic component of any country’s knowledge capital is its indigenous technical knowledge (ITK). ITK is the social capital of the local people, their main asset to invest in the struggle for survival, to produce food, to provide for shelter or to achieve control of their own lives. It is the unique, traditional, local knowledge existing within and developed around specific condition of men and women indigenous to a particular geographical area (Ghosh and Sahoo, 2011). It helps to increase the sustainability of development efforts because of its integration process with mutual learning and adaptation, which in turn contributes to the empowerment of local communities.

247 - 264 (18 Pages)
21 Traditional Fishing Practices in North Eastern Region of India
Anil Datt Upadhyay

INTRODUCTION Fish are one of the main exploitable resources of the aquatic ecosystems that provide a cheap source of protein which help solving the problem nutritional security particularly NE region of the country. The rapid development of fishing technology in India during the recent years has paved the way for increased production availability of new synthetic materials, evolution of new designs of fishing crafts and gears and avoidance of ignorant harmful fishing techniques etc. It is to be taken into account that any developmental activity adopted should also be base rooted in the objective of uplifting the economy of the fishing communities. This implies that the improvisation of the existing tools and techniques and introduction of new ones to enhance fishing efficiency need a careful study of the traditional infra-technologies. Further selection of fishing methods and gear are influenced by various factors such as physiographic of the water body, nature of fish stock, characteristics of the material from which gear are fabricated and standard of living. Therefore, variation in application of fishing devices can be observed in different type of water bodies, which have characteristic of their own due to unique nature of the water resources of the region.

265 - 292 (28 Pages)
22 Use of Black Drongo for Pest Management in Rice: A Traditional Agricultural Practice by the Rural Farmers of Tripura
Partha Pratim Bhattacharjee, Joydeb Majumder and Pranabjit Bardhan Roy

Introduction North East India constitutes the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim which reflects ecological and cultural contrasts between the hills and the plains. It is one of the most biodiversity regions in the world, with more than a hundred and fifty tribes forming a melting pot of variegated cultural mosaic of people and races constitute a vital component in this region (Dutta and Dutta, 2005).   More than 70% people of the region are engaged in agriculture while rice is the staple food crop (Bhattacharjee and Ray, 2010). The farmers from different ethnic diversity of the region have developed their own systems of cultivation of various crops (Islam et al. 2004). These indigenous traditional knowledge systems are quite endemic to this region (Deka et al. 2006).

293 - 298 (6 Pages)
23 On Some Aspects of Sampling Methodology with Reference to Indigenous Traditional Knowledge
Prasenjit Pal

INTRODUCTION Traditional knowledge is the knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities around the world. Developed from experience gained over centuries and adapted to the local culture and environment, it is transmitted orally from generation to generation. It tends to be collectively owned and takes the form of stories, songs, folklore, proverbs, cultural values, beliefs, rituals, community laws, local language. Sometimes it is referred to as an oral tradition for it is practiced, sung, danced, painted, carved, chanted and performed down through millennia. Traditional knowledge is mainly of a practical nature, particularly in such fields as fisheries, health, horticulture, forestry and environmental management in general. Appreciation of the value of traditional knowledge is growing. This knowledge is valuable not only to those who depend on it in their daily lives, but to modern industry and farming as well. Many widely used products, such as plant-based medicines, health products and cosmetics, are derived from traditional knowledge. Other such valuable products include agricultural and non-wood forest products as well as handicraft. Traditional knowledge can make a significant contribution to sustainable development.

299 - 304 (6 Pages)

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