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K. Narayana Gowda
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K. Narayana Gowda
K. Narayana Gowda: Vice-Chancellor, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore – 560 065, Karnataka

During last one decade, rural India witnessed the continuous migration of rural youth to urban areas. This situation is very serious and alarming and the migration of rural youth created a vacuum in the villages. It has been observed and expressed by many enlightened persons that villages are becoming old age homes draining away the talented farm youth to stay away from farming. The contents of book covers the issues like youth-concept, characteristics, interests, aspirations; youth in natural resource management; ICT and rural youth; Extension approaches and strategies; SHGs and Group approaches; Mobilization of Rural Youth; Gender issues and women empowerment and successful case studies on farm youth. The major sub heads of the book are: FARM YOUTH IN AGRICULTURE, CAPACITY BUILDING OF RURAL YOUTH, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AMONG RURAL YOUTH, RURAL YOUTH AND INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY, WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE, RURAL YOUTH IN INTEGRATED FARMING, LEISURE TIME UTILIZATION BY RURAL YOUTH, CASE STUDIES ON RURAL YOUTH

0 Start Pages

Preface The progress and prosperity of a nation depends to a large extent on the quality of human resource the country has more so the youth. The youth of today are the adults of tomorrow and farm families of the future. Youth represent around one fifth of the global population and they are a major human resource for growth and development of any country. Having tremendous energy, imagination, dedication, enthusiasm and creativity; youth can be effective change agents. During his recent visit, President Barak Obama pointed out that India is fortunate to have a youthful population with over half of the total population of 1.21 billion being under the age of 30 years of which over 60 percent live in villages. Rural youth are the human capital of mankind and has limitless energy and enthusiasm. The proper channelization of this energy for constructive work can make India one of the most developed and prosperous nations of the world. Rural youth are deprived of many basic facilities, needed opportunities and encouragement over the years. In addition in the recent years farming is considered to be less profitable venture.  As a result, there is exodus of rural young men and women from villages to towns and cities adversely affecting the rural development in general and agricultural development in particular. Great visionary like Mahatma Gandhi considered the migration of educated youth from villages to towns and cities as the most serious form of brain drain affecting adversely rural India’s development.

1 Farm Youth Caught in Cross Winds
R. Dwarakinath

India is on the move, but in part.   For, the farm sector is lagging behind. It may soon become a drag on the economy. Hence, farm development requires renewed efforts, Farm youth must get critical attention. Matter brooks no delay. Farming is still the only source of human subsistence. No alternative is in sight. This ancient family occupation has survived over the ages through a process of transfer from father to son, generation to generation. But, in recent times, with an unprecedented externalization of farming, and under the pervasive influence of Liberalisation, Privatisation and Globalisation, this process of transfer of occupational knowledge within the community is seriously dislocated. Also, the earlier institutional arrangements for formal education in farming like district agricultural schools, gramsevaks training units and farmers training centres have now disappeared. In the meantime, even as more rural youth are becoming literate, formal education system is seen to have shed all aspects of agricultural education. Thus, the rural drop-outs are missing both formal and informal orientation in farming since a comprehension of ‘modern’ farming is beyond the middle level farmers. As such, farm youth today are neither here nor there, with regard to farming.

1 - 10 (10 Pages)
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2 Sustaining Agriculture through Rural Youth
A.G. Sawant

There appears a general consensus that agriculture sector in India requires to be revitalized to enable it to respond effectively to the multitude of challenges that it now faces, and include assuring food security and environmental sustainability against the background of declining natural resources, changing climate and needs to become increasingly competitive. Sustainable agricultural practices cover a whole range of improving sustainability: raising soil fertility, improving water storage capacity, increasing water quality, diversification, raising people’s capability to cope with risks and withstand natural calamities, reducing energy consumption, minimizing risk, and so on. It is impossible to achieve sustainable development without applying sustainable agriculture on a large scale. The relationship between agricultural production and eradication of extreme poverty and hunger is very strong: agriculture is the very basis for food security. Together with fisheries, it provides practically all of the world’s food.

11 - 18 (8 Pages)
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3 Natural Resource Management – An Experience of Rural Bio-Resource Complex Project
K. Narayana Gowda, K.C. Narayanaswamy, Babu R.M. Ray, H.C. Girisha and B.V. Manjula

Agricultural production systems depend on natural resources viz. land, water, biodiversity, forests, pastures and wildlife. Farm activities can also have major impacts on the quality and availability of these resources well beyond the boundaries of the production system. Although natural resources are critical to agricultural production, farm households also frequently depend on them to meet other needs, such as fuel, construction materials and supplemental foods. Thus rural livelihoods are intricately linked to the condition of natural resources. Over the last 40 years as food production has doubled, agricultural production systems have expanded, with significant impacts on the natural resource base:

19 - 24 (6 Pages)
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4 Youth in Agriculture
V. Veerabhadraiah

The World is a home to more than one billion young people aged between 15 and 24 years.  Many are unable to fulfil their potentional because of poverty, hunger, poor health and lack of education. As a result, they lack the skills needed to gain employment, with rural youth typically, but often fruitlessly migration in search of economic opportunities. However, given support and opportunities for gainful employment, young people have the potential to play a significant role in agriculture. India has a big advantage as more than half of its population is below 30 years of age.  Indian agriculture will receive a big boost if the country takes advantage of its young population and encourage them into farm sector by making it lucrative.  It is necessary to launch a Youth for Agricultural Transformation Movement in rural India. Youth can provide demand driven services such as farm health monitoring and marketing of biological software essential for sustainable agriculture, climate-risk management, organization  of bio-parks, food parks, bio-village, bio-industrial watersheds and improved post-harvesting technology. Educated rural youth can establish Village Knowledge Centres (VKVs) to provide information at right time to farmers. Home Science graduates can establish nutrition clinics to help hidden hunger through appropriate local grains and vegetables (Swaminathan, M.S.). Why Youth in Agriculture?

25 - 28 (4 Pages)
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5 Strategy for the Promotion of Youth in Agriculture
V.G. Dhanakumar

The world is changing rapidly and education is facing new challenges as we move into the 21st century. For Extensionist, this means new approaches to teaching and learning are needed. Futurist John Naisbitt (1994) predicts that as structured employment opportunities decline, entrepreneurial skills will become necessary for the rural youth to compete. Additionally, acquiring skills and attitudes necessary for the youth can be achieved through youth entrepreneurship programs (Cox, 1998) There is a challenge to convert ideas into policy and then into action to put in programmes aimed at helping the future farmers of the world.  According to UN report , Youth as a target group is not a major policy priority of most governments in developing countries. This review illustrates that youth are only occasionally visible in policy related documents.  Hazelman  (2008) emphasized based on lessons from case studies made by FAO in Asia and the Pacific,  highlighted  the importance of having a clear national policy relating to rural youth; building and utilizing youth networks and partnerships at the national, regional and international levels; organizing youth into youth-led organizations that are active and have strong leadership together with competent and committed advisors, with projects and activities that address youth and community needs; and giving priority and attention to education and training opportunities for continued learning and human-capacity building.

29 - 38 (10 Pages)
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6 Youth in Agriculture - Reflections, Re-Orientation and Reforms
R M Prasad

While on one hand, more than 25 per cent of rural population in India is between 15 and 29 years of age, on the other, very little demographic dividend in agriculture is being derived. Unable to find decent employment, youth often look for employment in the urban informal sector, with poor working conditions and pay. But without training in skills suited to the urban labour market, these youth have few opportunities in the urban areas. Inadequately trained to compete successfully in urban labour market, they often suffer varying levels of poverty and marginalization in towns than in rural areas. In rural areas, if young farmers do not replace the ageing farmers, it will result in problems related to food security. For young people to take to agriculture, farming must be personally satisfying, mentally challenging, socially acceptable and economically rewarding. However, field reality is something different.

39 - 44 (6 Pages)
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7 Strategies to Retain the Farm Youth in Agriculture
T. Rathakrishnan

The Agriculture sector is by far the largest employer amongst all the major sectors employing roughly half of available workforce. At the same time, agriculture is the smallest sectoral contributor to the GDP. It is ironical that the most important requirement of human being, which is the bulk of agriculture farm produce, is largely considered to be an unrewarding sector in the nation. Though the Indian agriculture has made significant strides in the course of the last 50 years of planned development, still the farmers today are facing the consequences of host of challenges, namely dependence of monsoon, declining size of land holdings, degradation of soil & water resources, declining investment of public sectors on agriculture. So farmers are increasingly getting indebted and temptation to sell their farm land  for non-farm purposes is growing. Over 45 per cent of farmers want to quit farming says a survey conducted by National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO). Agricultural land is still a great source of income. But the practice of unsustainable methods and improper resource management leading to successive crop failures that make agriculture non- profitable and highly  risky.  So, the interest of youth in agriculture has been declining. While most developing countries are still experiencing high population growth rates, the youth are migrating in significant numbers to urban areas. The younger generation does not consider farming as a profession and they treat it as traditional activities of their family. The farm youth think that the farming system is not capable to provide a life, therefore they are diverting from agriculture to other profession.

45 - 50 (6 Pages)
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8 Participation of Rural Youth in Farm Activities
Y.N. Shivalingaiah and V. Veerabhadraiah

Youth of today are the hopes of tomorrow.  They are the backbone of a country.  Youth reflect the national potentiality and represent the life blood of a nation. The future of the country lies in their hands.  What they will become, what they will do, what role they will play in the free democratic society, will depend, to a greater extent, on the period between childhood and adulthood.  They are the most potent segment of the population of a country. It is they who are to shoulder responsibility for the future development of the country. The socio-economic development and prosperity of the rural areas depends, to a considerable extent, on the type of the youth the country side has, because the rural youth have abilities to orient themselves to go along the main stream of the development process.  The youth, a bulk of total population of the country, are the national cream and the future crown with full possession of physical built and mental tenacity and power. They are the precious human assets who can play an important role in nation building activities if opportunities are provided.  If a country can harness a creative and pervasive force like youth, it can substantially and quickly advance towards modernization. Youth are the nation builders of tomorrow. They are not only carriers of new ideas and are more receptive to new ideas, ready to bear risk and willing to work as a Team.

51 - 58 (8 Pages)
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9 Attracting and Retaining Youth in Farming
N. Parasuraman

Indian agriculture is at demographic, ecological, economic and technological cross-roads. Demographically, nearly 70% of the population is below 35 years in age and 70% of them live in rural areas.  Within the next few decades, India will have the world's largest number of young people looking for employment.  Ecologically the basic life support systems of land, water, forests, biodiversity and climate are in distress and the population supporting capacity of major ecosystems is being exceeded in most parts of the country. India's ecological debt and Nature Deficit Disorder are growing. Economically, the cost-risk-return structure of farming is becoming adverse, with the result that over 40% of today's farmers would like to quit farming, if they had another livelihood option. Technologically, there is a serious mismatch between production and post-harvest technologies. Also, there is no nationally agreed policy towards the technological transformation of agriculture, involving farm mechanization and frontier technologies like recombinant DNA technology and nano-technology.

59 - 64 (6 Pages)
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10 Farm Youth : A Catalyst for Sustainable Agriculture
Meenambigai, J. Santha Govind and G. Tamil Selvi

Today around 25% of rural population in India are between the age group of 15 and 29 (2001 Census).  The Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007) has estimated that India's labour force will increase faster than the ability of the economy to create new working opportunities. The country is adding 2 million young people to the ranks of the unemployed every year. The Plan document estimates that open unemployment could be as high as 5% at the end of the Tenth Plan period, from 2.8% at present.  This is likely to entail tremendous costs, including social unrest and dislocation resulting with large number of youth are unemployed or underemployed.   In India and in many developing countries the majority of the work force is employed in agriculture. However, stagnating agricultural productivity and rural environmental degradation have made agriculture a last option.  As the environment on which their livelihoods depend becomes more and more degraded, rural youth face diminished prospects of employment.  Not only do these youth lack income, they lack a means of gaining respect and a sense of belonging in their communities.  Unable to find decent employment, youth often look for employment in the urban informal sector, with poor working conditions and pay.  But without training in skills suited to the rural labour market, these youth have few opportunities in rural areas.  Inadequately trained to compete successfully in rural labour markets, they often suffer worse levels of poverty and marginalization in rural areas.

65 - 74 (10 Pages)
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11 Augmenting Share of Rural Youth in Agricultural Development : A Case Study of Poonch District of Jammu & Kashmir
Pawan Kumar Sharma, Suraj Prakash and Sanjay Khar

Youth constitute a numerically dominant potential, resourceful and adventurous segment of the population in India. The share of population between age group 0-14 years dropped from 43% in 1971 to 41% in 1981, however the share of population age 65 has been fairly stable at 3% since 1971. In 1991, youth population in India with the age group of 15 to 35 years was around 31 per cent (246 millions) of the total population.  Out of this total youth population, 20 per cent (53 millions) were urban youth, while the remaining 80 per cent (211 million) were rural (Shivalingaiah, 1995). According to 2001 census, India had a total youth population of 347 millions (i.e. 35.2 per cent of the total population), out of which, about 70 per cent were rural youth and the remaining 30 per cent were urban youth. Since major segment of this population are being lived in the rural areas, they are considered as the nation builders of tomorrow. This important section of the rural population can respond to the needs of country only if they are offered fruitful opportunities for growing up as useful citizens. Today unemployment is a major problem among the rural youth which forced them to migrate from rural areas to urban areas. Indian villages are, therefore undergoing major transformation causing perceptible changes in aspirations of the rural masses, especially the youth. These aspects have been dealt in greater detail in some papers (Sharma, 2006).

75 - 82 (8 Pages)
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12 Rural Youth: Challenges and Strategies
M.S. Nataraju

The progress and prosperity of a nation depends to a large extent on well trained and disciplined youth. The youth of today are the adults of tomorrow and farm families of the future. More than half of the India’s population is below 35 years of age. Majority of these young people live in village where they do not have adequate opportunities for vocational training and formal schooling. This vast youth population has limitless energy and enthusiasm. The proper chanalization of this energy for constructive work can make India one of the most developed and prosperous nations of the world. Youth are the future of India, it is therefore, essential to harness them in an organized manner to build up the backbone of the country. If they are given good training they grow up as individuals-physically, mentally and morally capable of playing their full part as adult members of our welfare society. Youth, defined as those who belong to the age group of 13-35 in the National Youth policy 2003 of India, is considered to be the most vital segment of the population. Across the globe youth is being treated as an asset for a country’s development and enormous investment is being made to develop the human capital. The challenge of nations like India with ‘Youth Bulge’ in their population is to channelize the energy into positive and creative development process. Youth in the 21st Century aspires for a just global order,  They are looking for democratic process in all spheres of life, whether it is education, employment or decision making.  The issues and concerns of youth are fast changing in tune with the technological innovations.

83 - 94 (12 Pages)
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13 Capacity Building of Rural Youth for Better Livelihoods through Improved Natural Resource Management
Sreenath Dixit and B. Venkateswarlu

The livelihoods of millions of rural households in the semi-arid areas depend mainly on natural resources such as soil, rainwater, vegetation, livestock and the like. The major source of livelihood in these areas solely depends on the arrival, distribution and cessation of monsoons, which are erratic and ill distributed. However, management of natural resources like soil and vegetation in a way that these are used to optimally to produce maximum output. This requires new knowledge, better skills and improved management strategies. In this context, building the capacity of the rural households particularly the youth holds key to improving productivity and profitability ot the enterprise. Keeping these in view, the National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP) sub project on “Sustainable Rural Livelihoods through Enhanced Farming Systems Productivity and Efficient Support Systems in Rainfed Areas” being implemented by a consortium led by CRIDA has introduced several interventions aimed at involving rural youth right from the beginning of the project.  The project is being implemented in eight backward districts (Adilabad, Anantapur, Kadapa, Khammam, Mahabubngar, Nalgonda, Rangareddy and Warangal) of Andhra Pradesh in selected clusters of villages.

95 - 110 (16 Pages)
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14 Empowerment of Male Farm Youth through Agro-Based Income Generating Activities
Shivakumar B. Hayyal, Madhu Prasad V.L., Shivamurthy M. and Mahatab Ali K.M.

Youth in India had been at the forefront of the nation’s struggle for freedom and development. There are over one billion youth in the world today. Eighty five per cent of these youth live in the developing world and around 50 per cent of the population with in developing countries live in rural areas. According to 2001 census, more than 40 per cent of the total population is between the age group of 15 to 35 which is considered as “youth” by the Government of India. Out of which, 73 per cent resides in the rural areas (Anonymous 2001). Unfortunately rural youth of today are counted among the most disadvantaged groups of society. Because of rapid population growth, widespread unemployment inadequate health, poor education, migration, lower family income and lacking adequate opportunity at farm level had led the rural youth in continued stress of self esteem and self confidence. Youth empowerment is an attitudinal, structural and cultural process whereby young people gain the ability, authority and agency to make decisions and implement change in their own lives and the lives of other people. Youth are the present and the future of humanity.

111 - 114 (4 Pages)
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15 Training Strategies as Preferred by Farm Women on IPM Practices
J. Santha Govind, Gopalasamy, K and G. Tamil Selvi

Though gender is universally one of the key ways in which societies and culture allocate rights and responsibilities, yet the different roles of women and men in agriculture production have frequently been ignored in research and extension activities. Farming is a family enterprise involving both men and women. The role of women and their involvement is more important in production, processing and storage of grains and vegetables. Women in India constitute nearly half of its population and have a strong influence on the growth of the remaining half of population. Krishi Vigyan Kendra imparted learning through work experience and concerned with technical literacy. Krishi Vigyan Kendra imparted training to practicing farm women. The Krishi Vigyan Kendra of Gandhigram Rural Institute was established in July 1989 specifically to cater the needs of the peasants of the Dindigul district.  Inspite of these efforts, there exist a wide gap-between the availability of production technologies and adoption of those technologies. Evaluation of training programmes organised for farm women would provide an understanding of their effectiveness so as to improve them. Hence, a study was undertaken to assess the training needs, appropriate season, venue, type, frequency, duration and method of training in paddy crop as perceived by the respondents.

115 - 120 (6 Pages)
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16 Novel Extension Strategies to Enhance Sustainable Livelihood among Livestock Farmers in Tamil Nadu
Porchezhiyan. S, R. Senthil Kumar, K. Ranjith Kumar and B.S. Meena

The Government of Tamilnadu has taken a number of progressive measures on water resources and irrigation management, particularly through the Bank -assisted Tamil Nadu Water Resources Consolidation Project (WRCP) which was closed in September 2004 with a satisfactory rating. Now the Tamilnadu Government has decided to implement a project for the modernization of the Traditional Irrigation systems in Tamil Nadu with loan assistance from World Bank. The World Bank has also come forward to assist the Tamilnadu Government’s proposal. Under the World Bank funded project of “Irrigated Agriculture Modernisation and Water Resources Management” (WRCP - II) about 17 River sub basins have been selected and proposed to be taken up under the control of Water Resources organisation Wing of Public Works Department of Tamilnadu. The Varahanadhi sub basin is one among the seventeen. Accordingly this ‘IAMWARM’ Project report for the modernization of the irrigation systems of Varahanadhi Sub Basin has been prepared. The very objective of this project is to attain maximum productivity from farm lands, for which serious attention is required to modernise the existing irrigation structures, anicuts, canal systems and tanks in order to make them functionally more effective, conserve and utilise the available water from catchment area for optimum use.

121 - 126 (6 Pages)
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17 Entrepreneurship Development in Agriculture and Rural Youth
B.S. Hansra and P.K. Jain

Agriculture is the main stay for majority for people in India for their livelihood as 55 per cent of population depends directly or indirectly depends on the agriculture. The farmers still follow the traditional farming system and practices. Food grain crops are dominating in the cropping pattern. The share of commercial crops in cropping pattern though rising is not significant. The condition of the farmers is such that they have lost interest in farming. The new generation has no interest and is away from farming. The new generation does not consider farming as profession and they treat it is traditional activities and family tradition. The present generation thinks that the farming system is not capable to provide a life, therefore, they are diverting from agriculture to other profession. The major problem for rural youth is non-availability of self-employment options except farming in Rural India. Therefore, rural youth are either migrating to urban area or becoming the causal labor.   In order to keep the rural youth in agriculture, there is dire need to create the employment opportunities in rural area. In rural area, agriculture is the major primary source of employment. In such condition, development of agriculture based entrepreneurship is the best option to keep the rural youth in agriculture. A number of agriculture based enterprises can be promoted. By introducing elements of entrepreneurship in farm business, the farming community will be able to combine land, labour and capital in right proportions.

127 - 136 (10 Pages)
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18 Entrepreneurship Development – An Appropriate Option to Rural Industrialisation and Youth
V. Sudha Rani and N. Kishore Kumar

A large portion of India’s population lives in the villages where still against many odds smaller units of village industry sector are struggling for survival. Abject poverty, no year round employment avenues, poor access to basic infrastructure, market, illiteracy and small holdings are few among tangible features of rural India. Desai (2007) has high lighted that poor infrastructural facilities in rural segments has been one of the factor holding back rural industrilisation in India. On the other hand with liberalisation and globalisation of economy and the removal of quantitative restrictions the khadi & village industries including agro based industries are facing stiff competition. The situation has ultimately resulted in continuous migration of unemployed rural youth to nearby urban areas. Very few among immigrated rural youth are getting absorbed due to mechanisation in urban industries, leaving others in distress. Gopu (2007) viewed that unbridled growth of industries in urban areas has accented the regional disparities in India. Despite planned industrialisation efforts in the country agriculture remains largest industry or major occupation providing employment to 65 per cent of rural work force. In this, situation, expansion of rural industrialisation can play a vital role in abating distress migration and create employment opportunities to rural youth.

137 - 146 (10 Pages)
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19 Entrepreneurship Development in Agriculture – An Opportunity for Unemployed Rural Youth
Ashoka Doddamani, V. Govinda Gowda and Jagadajyoti, S. Binkadakatti

“The reasonable man adapts himself to the world. The unreasonable man tries to adapt the world to himself. Therefore, all progress depends on the unreasonable man.”      - George Bernard Shaw Generating productive and sustainable employment for growing populations is a challenge faced by many developing countries in Asia. In India, the daunting numbers further compounds the task. Approximately 65% of the country’s billion plus population is below the age of 45. The Tenth Five-Year Plan (2002-2007) has estimated that India’s labour force will increase faster than the ability of the economy to create new working opportunities. The average growth rate of employment in India, which stayed above 2% per annum during the 80s and the early part of the 90s, fell to only 1.1% in the late 90s. The country is adding 2 million young people to the ranks of the unemployed every year. The Plan document estimates that open unemployment could be as high as 5% at the end of the Tenth Plan period, from 2.8% at present. This is likely to entail tremendous costs, including social unrest and isolation. India’s planners have set the country a goal to create 100 million employment opportunities over the next 10 years.

147 - 156 (10 Pages)
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20 Profile and Job Preferences of Bhil Youth in Dhule District of Maharashtra
Suryawanshi, D.B., K.S. Throat and S.H. Ban

India has the second largest concentration of tribal population after African continent. The tribal population of India is more than 8 per cent of the total population (Anonymous 2001). However, in Maharashtra it is over 9 per cent of the state population. Among the tribal community Bhil community is the largest tribal population in Maharashtra. They live in compact areas, which are generally hilly and undulating terrain. The Bhil are primarily farmers, though they are said to be hunters since the past. Poor condition of soil, small holdings, poor resources and economic condition, traditional methods of agriculture do not provide them a regular and continuous sustenance throughout the year as such they have to depend on other subsidiary sources of earning. Most of the tribal communities have to live under a difficult economy; the ways of their livelihood are limited and work very hard to get a bare subsistence. Thus, the tribal children from their early age are burdened with a number of economic duties, obligations and they can hardly be spared for school. Proportion of dropout is also higher among tribal children. In fact most of the tribal youth and school going children participate in farming and looking after the economic demands of the family.

157 - 160 (4 Pages)
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21 Marketing Behaviour of Dairy Farmers in Tamil Nadu
R. Senthil Kumar, Ram Kumar, Babu. D and P. Jai Sridhar

Indian dairy sector has made significant progress over the last few decades. Despite three decades of cooperative movement in India, however, a large proportion of milk and milk products in India continues to be marketed through the ‘informal or unorganized sector’. Although the share of organized market has steadily increased over the last few decades, the informal sector comprising middlemen, private milk traders and direct sale from producer to consumer, still accounts for nearly 80 percent of existing milk marketing pattern in the country. Milk contributes more to the national economy than any other farm commodity more than 10.5 billion dollars in 1994-95 (Dairy India 1997). In the context of poverty and malnutrition, milk has a special role to play for its many nutritional advantages as well as providing supplementary income to some 70 million farmers in over 500,000 remote villages (Dairy India 1997).  In their study, Datta and Ganguly (2002) reported that if the current growth continues for the next twenty years (the nation has been growing at a rate between 5 and 7 percent over past five years), milk consumption is likely to more than double by 2020. So above the discussion drives us to analyse the marketing behaviour of dairy farmers. The study area, Tamilnadu, was selected purposively and out of seven agro-ecological zones in Tamil Nadu, western region has been selected purposively as it highest share in both the bovine population and milk production in the state. And both organized and unorganized milk marketing system working in this zone with largest number of milk plants.

161 - 168 (8 Pages)
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22 Youth and ICTs for Agricultural Development
Suchiradipta Bhattacharjee and R. Saravanan

As rural populations decrease, so does the agricultural work force. In Europe and North America, agriculture now represents about 5% of the work force. In Africa and Asia, it is expected that the number of agricultural workers will have decreased from nearly 70% of the population in the 1980s to barely 50% by 2015 (Crop life International, 2010). The events of the past few years have highlighted the vulnerability of global food security to major shocks – both in the global agricultural markets and in the world economy. The food price crisis and the ensuing economic crisis reduced the purchasing power of large segments of the population in many developing countries, severely curtailing their access to food and thus undermining their food security. “We estimate that in 2012 there will be over a million children suffering from severe acute malnutrition – what’s important to know is that malnutrition can kill,” UNICEF’s Director of Emergency Programmes, Louis-Georges Arsenault, said in a news release. “We need more resources to really scale up our response before it becomes too late and too many lives are lost.” Sahel and other regions in the Horn of Africa are facing severe food crisis (UN, 2012). In such a condition, to feed the hungry mouths of the world, agriculture needs to be more modern and decisions should be information and knowledge based and not instinct-based. Information and communication technology has a great role to play here.

169 - 188 (20 Pages)
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23 Krishi Community Radio : An Emerging ICT Tool
Sneha M. Talwar., Manjunath, L. and Ashalata, K.V.

In this era of information and communication, in a country like India where more than 75% of population live in rural areas, radio is the cheapest medium available in almost all families for entertainment and education. A community radio (CR), in essence is a type of radio service that caters to the interests of a certain area, broadcasting material that is popular to a local audience but is overlooked by more powerful broadcast groups. It is usually established by the efforts of a specific community, operated by the community and for the community’s welfare. Radio can play an effective role in promoting social change.  Community radio station is one that is operated in the community, for the community, about the community and by the community.  It can play a very important role in bringing about social change. It covers all developmental and rights based issues, and can help to sustain the diversity of the local cultures and languages. It is an effort towards bottom-up approach to address specific requirements or rural Indian population. An attempt has been made to know the profile characteristics of krishi community radio listening farm women, awareness of farm women about FM krishi community radio and to study the usefulness of krishi community radio programmes as perceived by farm women.

189 - 194 (6 Pages)
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24 Providing Management Services through Mobile Telephone to Attract Farm Youth Towards Sustainable Agriculture
B.K. Narayana Swamy and N. Shankariah

Agricultural research in India has contributed new varieties of crops and production technologies for increased production at the national level. These modern technologies benefited only a particular section but farm youth in rainfed areas are facing many problems. One of the problems identified in the diffusion of technologies to farm youth in sustainable agriculture was the lack of appropriate technologies suitable to the farm and social situations. When farmers in rain fed areas are exposed to innovations, they react to the practices/innovations from different viewpoints. A practice appropriate to farm youth in rain fed areas must be less in cost, high in profits, less risky,  highly compatible with socio-cultural values and beliefs, less in complexity, highly trialable on a small scale and the results of the same should be easily observed and communicated. These dimensions are perceived by farmers differently and the degree to which they perceive them favourably are likely to adopt the same in rain fed areas. Many a time, several past investigations have only indicated whether the recommended package of technologies has been adopted or not by farm youth. This gives percentage of farm youth adopting the practices but not the percentage of recommended technologies adopted by them and the problems encountered by them in adopting the recommended technologies in rain fed areas.

195 - 198 (4 Pages)
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25 Case Study of Farm Youth in Water Management
Bharaswadkar, R.B.

Involvement of Farm Youth in the developmental sector of Agriculture is emerging as a crucial area for the water management sector. Initiative of Farm Youth is essential for accelerating modern Agricultural technologies to be adopted by the large number of farmers in the rural area. Being an educated, effective use of the information & communication   technology (ICT) is possible. The recent developments in the field of Agriculture like, green-house technology, exporting vegetables and fruits to outside country, formation of agricultural producer’s company etc. are the challenging areas where the Farm Youth can develop a leading role for the farming community.   Maharashtra, being a progressive State, encourages Farm -Youth activities in various fields to boost-up the younger generation to participate in the information and communication technology (ICT) areas. As a result of Govt. initiative, in the field of Participatory Irrigation Management, the Water Users Association, namely, ‘Mahatma Phule Water Users Association’ At Post: Ozar (Mig), Taluka: Niphad, Dist: Nasik was successfully run by a Farm Youth namely, Mr. Govardhan Rajabhau Kulkarni who is an idol for the Farm Youths to participate in the irrigation water management field. The use of internet, e-mail, agriculture related web sites and developing software programmes for irrigation management is highly appreciated by the Govt. of Maharashtra.

199 - 206 (8 Pages)
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26 Profile of Farmers using Kissan Call Centres
Savithramma, K. Venkataranga Naika and M.P. Gokul Raj

ICT refers to tools that facilitate production, transmission and processing of information. It includes the gadgets and processes to access, retrieve, store, organize, manipulate, produce, present and exchange information by electronic and automated means. According to UNESCO (2004), Information Communication Technology includes a range of technologies starting from radio, television, up to modern technologies like mobile phone, multimedia, internet, and satellite based communication systems. Modern information and communication technologies that have resulted from a breakthrough in information technology, when applied to conditions in rural areas, can help to disseminate information, improve farmers’ knowledge, increase their participation and share knowledge with others. Information Communication Technology (ICT) is one of the yardsticks to measure socio-economic development of the country and hence effective usage and management of ICTs tools is the pre-requisite for any development. Telephone is a powerful electronic device. The number of rural telephones was increased by approximately 35 per cent per annum (Jhunjhunwala and Ashok, 2005). This impressive growth in telecommunication sector is being utilized to provide information on demand to the farming community with the establishment of “Kissan Call Centers” (KCCs).  Kissan Call Centres were launched in January 2004 across the country to provide information services to the needy farmers and answer the queries made by them through telephone. In this context, a study was conducted to find out the profile of Kissan Call Centre users.

207 - 210 (4 Pages)
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27 Gender Mainstreaming in Agriculture Development and Sustaining Women Youth in Agriculture
P.S. Geethakutty

Relevance of Gender Mainstreaming  in Agriculture Indian agriculture is characterized by farming systems wherein men and women perform mutually interdependent as well as independent roles right from production, processing, marketing, and decision making as farmer, labourers and entrepreneurs. The extensive contribution by women in wide ranging tasks in production and processing in agriculture, influences household food security and determines national competitiveness in agro industry at large. Even though women make substantial economic contribution towards the sustenance of the farming systems and livelihood security, most often women’s roles remain invisible and their problems and needs are unaccounted and unattended. Historically dictated by social norms, family traditions and economic factors, participation of women and men in various farming contexts in India still remain gender specific and highly women discriminating. Women’s work is considered as unskilled and remains undervalued and underpaid. It is to be appreciated that at international and national level efforts of women empowerment and gender perspectives are being brought in development approaches and the situation during the past few decades is slowly changing as policies, efforts and budget are being specially allocated for the upliftment of rural farm women. But it is to be noticed that most of the programmes are of short term, narrow focussed and without continuity.

211 - 214 (4 Pages)
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28 Handholding Strategies for Sustainable Development of Women SHGs
Anasuya Patil, D.M. Chandargi, N.R. Mamledesai and S.B. Mahajanshetty

The major impact of the two important components of the Karnataka Watershed Development Programme (KWDP) viz farming system intensification and watershed treatment will be on land-based enterprises and land owners, although to a certain extent landless families would also benefit from the increased labour demand through intensification of agriculture. To ensure growth with equity among all the stakeholders in the project, it is imperative to have practical, market-driven, complementary and supplementary income generating activities for weaker sections of the community, including SCs, STs, women, landless persons, families below the poverty line and other vulnerable groups in project districts.  Hence, it is imperative to raise the status of landless families above the poverty line.  The SHGs are to be encouraged to take up viable enterprise and to enhance their fund mobilization by regular savings, investment in viable income generating activities and in time repayment of the loan taken.  The IGAs are meant mostly for the landless and asset less stakeholders in the watersheds.

215 - 226 (12 Pages)
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29 Training Needs of Dairy Farm Women
S.R. Lahoti, R.R.Chole and G.U. Gholap

In India, for centuries women have been pushed aside from the race of development in the name of customs, traditions and religion. As a result they have been denied the opportunities for their social, economical and political development leading to the lower status in society. The present situation demands active participation of women along with men in all walks of life. Involvement of women in all development activities. Based on the recommendations of National Policy of empowerment of women, Tenth Plan suggests a three fold strategies for empowering women through social empowerment, economic empowerment and gender justice.   Women play a significant and crucial role in agriculture and allied fields including crop production, dairy husbandry, horticulture, post harvest operations etc. It has been estimated that about 86% of the total rural women are working for various agricultural operations. They play an important role not only in maintaining their home task but also managing their farms and animals, depending upon the situation, personal and socioeconomic characteristics of the family to which they belong.  Women are also partners in animal husbandry activities management as manager or skilled workers. The term empowerment has different meaning in different socio-cultural and political context and does not translate easily into all languages. The term include self strength, control, self power, self reliance, own choice, life of dignity in accordance with one’s values, capable of fighting for one’s right, independence, own decision making, being free, awakening and capability of mention only a few.

227 - 232 (6 Pages)
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30 Drudgery Reducing Equipment as a Key to Enhance the Efficiency of Farm Women
M.R. Kammar, A.R. Kurubar and Chavan Mohan

Agriculture is of paramount importance in most developing countries because large proportion of the population involved and the need to maintain national food production. It is generally accepted though not fully proven, that health and productivity are positively correlated. This is of particular  relevance because many agricultural tasks in developing countries demand high level of strenuous activity (Anonymous, 1987). Investment to improve agricultural worker’s health would be justified on both humanitarian and economic grounds. Nearly half of the available human resources in India are women.  It has been roughly estimated that women represent 50% of population and have contributed about 10% of income and own less than 1 % of the world’s property.  The population of farm women are involved in sowing, transplanting, weeding, winnowing, drying, bringing drinking water and firewood, cleaning and dehusking.  Most of the drudgery prone tasks for women in agriculture are cutting uprooting, transplanting, weeding and sowing and post harvest tasks like manual threshing of maize, millets and pulses, sieving and cleaning. For groundnut, after the harvesting, removal of nuts and cleaning of groundnut seeds are also performed  manually. Further, sieving, cleaning are performed by winnowing followed by traditional sieve. (Badiger et al. 2006).  Studies have pointed out that farm activities that are time and labour intensive, monotonous, repetitive and more drudgery prone are generally performed by women.

233 - 236 (4 Pages)
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31 Potential Income Generation Activities (IGA) and Alternative Options for Women in Sub-Watersheds of Karnataka
Chandargi, D.M., Anasuya Patil, S.B. Mahajanshetty and N.R. Mamledesai

Agriculture and allied service sector in Karnataka, contributes about one third to the state Gross Domestic Product (GDP).  This sector still continues to be the largest source of employment in the state with about 70% of the population depending on it.  Agriculture plays a key role   in the state’s economy with a net-cropped area of 107.90 lakh ha. of which 23.20 lakh ha. is irrigated and 84.79 lakh ha is rainfed.  In today’s competitive environment, one need to rethink about the sustainability of development, whether it is individual or the area and agriculture or any other field .To develop the rainfed area and the people, the World Bank assisted Sujala Watershed Project is implemented through the Karnataka Watershed Development Department (KWDD).  This has become a boon towards sustainable development of the rainfed area and the people. The first phase of KWDP focuses on poverty alleviation and improvement in agricultural productivity through its multi faceted approach.  That is, the land treatment for improving their agricultural productivity and strengthening Self Help Groups (SHGs) in the selected area to take up viable Income Generating Activities, which paves way for the overall development of the area and the people living there.  The project area covered five districts namely, Kolar, Tumkur, Chitradurga, Haveri and Dharwad in Karnataka state of India.

237 - 244 (8 Pages)
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32 Empowering Women SHG through Tuberose Cultivation – A Case Study in Karnataka
Basavaraj Hulagur, Jamuna Urs and S.G. Goudappa

A case study was made in Geemarahalli village, Nanjangud taluk of Mysore district during 2009-10 to know the performance of women SHG involved in cultivation of tuberose.  JSS Krishi Vigyan Kendra which was started during 1994 analyzed the problems of farmwomen that they were unorganized in doing the field operations and were almost isolated in nature.  KVK initiated in formation of women SHGs in many villages and one of such village is Geemarahalli.  Ms. Rajamma was selected as group leader of the group and her contact with KVK was started since 1996 and still continued.  She is an innovative woman despite being illiterate.  Earlier she was doing tailoring and wire bag making. Later, she developed an interest to take up farming. She formed a Self Help Group called Triveni in her village which consists of 15 farmwomen.  In the beginning, they were involved in farm operations as contract workers.  During 2007-08, this group had come in contact with KVK and were imparted the training programmes on vermicompost production, horticulture nursery management, production of biological agents etc.  Later, the group came forward to learn the cultivation aspects of tuberose which has got good market at Mysore city.  To start this venture, the possession of land was the constraint for them and they overcome it by taking a 10 gunta land on lease basis. They were imparted series of trainings on tuberose cultivation at KVK. 

245 - 246 (2 Pages)
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33 Information Seeking Behaviour of Dairy Farmwomen
S.K. Meti

India is one of the countries where 90% of the small, marginal and medium land holding farm families are depending on agriculture. The average annual income of the each farm family isvery less from the agril sector. At present farmwomen play an important role in managing different kinds of farm and home activities. The entrepreneurial behaviour development among the farm family is very essential to earn the additional income to manage their family. Farmwomen not only are involved in home activities but also play a significant role in farm production. In India farmwomen take decisions in their day-to-day life in agricultural sector. However, farmwomen are greatly aided by the amount of information available to them about their felt needs.  The World Bank Report(1992) states that keeping the role of farmwomen in mind, there is a need for training of farmwomen regarding necessary dairy technologies, so that they can perform these activities with more competence.   The advances in information technology have brought an explosion in information flow like Radio, T.V, Internet etc in agriculture.  There is large quantity of information through various sources, channels and Website on the Internet, but the information tends to be one sided, as it is gathered from Research stations. Farmwomen seek information sources.  Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the information seeking behaviour of dairy farmwomen.   The study was conducted in Manvi and Deodurga taluks of Raicur district in Karnataka state to know the information seeking behaviour of farmwomen regarding dairy farming and allied sector.

247 - 250 (4 Pages)
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34 Sustainability of Women Self Help Groups of Gender Mainstreaming in Tamil Nadu
M.A. Vennila, K. Narayana Gowda and S. Manickam

The past development efforts in India center around individual approach and these efforts did not bring about sustained development of people in the respective areas. In view of this, the development of the people could not be harnessed to the fullest potential. Realizing this lacuna, the group based development efforts have come up in a big way across the country in the recent years. The Government, private organizations and also the NGOs are giving due importance for the promotion and establishment of Self Help Groups (SHGs) for addressing all developmental issues. As on today, there are more than 3.37 million SHGs across the country, Tamil Nadu is one of the pioneering states in the formation and promotion of women SHGs and about 4.41 lakh SHGs are functioning in the state. Among the SHGs formed, some of the SHGs are functioning well and sustain for a longer period and others did not come up to the expectation and they did not sustain for longer period. Hence, it was considered opportune time to find out the sustainability level of the SHGs and isolate factors for variation since there was no research back up.   Therefore, the study was undertaken to analyse the sustainability of mixed enterprises  related SHGS in Tamil Nadu with an intention to find out the extent of sustainability at different levels.  The study was conducted in Dharmapuri District of Tamil Nadu. Five blocks namely Dharmapuri, Harur, Morappur, Nallampalli, and Pennagaram were selected from the district based on maximum number of SHGs.

251 - 256 (6 Pages)
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35 Integrated Farming System – A Successful Case Study
K. Narayana Gowda, K.C. Narayanaswmay, Babu R.M. Ray, H.C. Girisha and B.V. Manjula

The most significant achievement in India after independence is the self-reliance in food grain production. The use of high yielding varieties, irrigation facilities, higher application of fertilizers & pesticides contributed to sufficient food grain production in the mid 60’s & 70’s of the last century. Later on development in other enterprises like dairy, poultry, piggery, fishery, sericulture etc., took place in an isolated manner. However, the productivity of these high yielding varieties and hybrids became stagnant during last decade and with limited scope for increasing the cultivable land, the country’s food security is likely to be threatened in the near future. According to a recent estimate the food grain requirement of India would be 380 and 450 million tons in the years 2025 & 2050 respectively with the present rate of population growth. On the other hand, despite significant breakthrough in food production the living standards of farmers are far from satisfaction; this situation is matter of great concern for the country. The farmers are losing confidence in farming due to declining returns; hence majority of them prefers to shift to non-agricultural vocations. If this trend continues in future, the potential to satisfy future food needs will be seriously compromised. Agriculture continues to be the pivotal sector in the Indian economy providing employment to 69 per cent of the population.

257 - 266 (10 Pages)
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36 Integrated Farming System Demonstration Model forAttracting Rural Youth for Agriculture
G. Eswarappa, E. Yellappa and Ashok Doddamani

India is predominately a agriculture based country, wherein 85 per cent of the land holding are small and marginal. The per capita availability of land has been decreased from 0.5 ha in 1950-51 to 0.15 ha by the turn of the century and a projected future decline to less than 0.1 ha by 2020. This decline in trend in size of land holding poses a serious challenge to sustainability and profitability of the farming. The population is steadily growing without any possibility of increase in land area. The income from cropenterprise for an a average farmer is hardly sufficient to sustain his family. But the farmer has assured of a regular income for a reasonable standard of living by including other enterprises. The integrated farming system (IFS) seems to be the solution to continue to increase the demand for food production, stability of income and improvement of nutritional status of family members.   Agriculture in this millennium, due to emerging production scenario, higher economic growth, population explosion and shifts in dietary pattern has changed the supply and demand profiles of food respectively. Integrated Farming Systems (IFS) seems to be the possible solution to meet the continuous increase in demand for food, stability of income and diverse requirements of food grains, vegetables, milk, egg, meat etc., thereby improving the nutrition of the small-scale farmers with limited resources.

267 - 274 (8 Pages)
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37 Livelihood Improvement of Vulnerable Farmers through Integrated Farming
K. Jagadeeshwara|, K. Narayanagowda, Y. Nagaraju and Bhagyavathi

Switching over to alternate production systems, or adoption of modern production practices are far beyond the scope of Scheduled Caste and other vulnerable farmers due to their poor resource base and economic conditions The agricultural production systems are largely dependent on rainfall, vagaries of climate, and biophysical environment including market dynamics. Continuously, threatened livelihood systems lead to low income generation, insecurity in food production, and compels to live in below poverty line (BPL).   The basic approach of agricultural extension focuses on reach to small, marginal/rural women/rural youth. It also includes strengthening and up-scaling of on-going extension reforms, provision of quality manpower and promotion of commodity based farmers organizations and thrust on market-led extension. The National Development Council had visualised an overall growth rate of 10 per cent for the XI Five-Year Plan for which agriculture sector has to contribute a growth rate of about 4.1 per cent as against 1.7 per cent. Hence, there is a need for vibrant, dynamic and innovative approaches to be adopted for agricultural extension in order to achieve the targeted growth rate.

275 - 286 (12 Pages)
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38 Role of Rural Youth in Milk and Silk Farming
M.T. Lakshminarayan, M.S. Nataraju and B.N. Manjunatha

The backwardness and underdevelopment of our rural areas have drawn the attention of not only the planners but also those who are interested in the overall development of the India. The numerous schemes have not appreciably raised the living standard of the rural masses. Adoption of traditional agricultural technologies, lack of knowledge of improved practices, in sanitary conditions, inadequate housing and educational facilities are serious challenges faced by the rural masses. Unless we devote our efforts towards this cause, the chances of improvement of rural areas are remote in the near future.  The youth, who are the citizens of tomorrow have a vital role to play.  Youth reflect the national potentiality and represent the life blood of a nation.  Development of youth determines the future of the community and the country as a whole. As psychologists say, youth possess dynamic energy, creative activity and adventurous spirit and undergo physiological and psychological changes as they grow. In agriculture, due to small holdings, erratic rainfall, unrealistic market and price for the produce and meager income from crops, youth farmers are taking up dairying and sericulture as subsidiary enterprises which provide additional income and gainful employment to them as members of farm families throughout the year.  Young members of farm families play an important role in managing these enterprises. A study was  undertaken to know the role of youth in milk and silk farming.

287 - 292 (6 Pages)
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39 Integrated Farming System – An Avenue for Rural Youth in the Coastal Zone of Karnataka
Manjula, N., Dhanunjaya, B. and Nagesha, G.

The coastal zone of Karnataka is marked by highly fragmented agriculture land with more than 70 per cent of the land holders belonging to small and marginal farmer categories. Though the average annual rainfall received in the zone is 4000mm, the kharif season crops suffer from submergence and lodging.  The rabi/summer crops fail due to low soil residual moisture because of high percolation loss and poor water holding capacity of soils. Thus, the returns from the land is very less resulting in migration of youngsters mainly to the Arab countries as well as the neighbouring states in search of a job. In this situation, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore through Extension Education Unit, Mangalore has demonstrated the Integrated Farming Systems (IFS) in Udupi and Dakshina Kannada districts to show that the IFS is profitable, sustainable and can secure the livelihood. The demonstrations were taken up in each farmer’sfield continuously for three consecutive years. To analyze the impact of these demonstrations, case studies of three IFS demonstrated farmers were done during 2007 with the objective of documenting the farming systems demonstrated and the current farming systems practiced by the farmers; to analyze the income and employment generated and their impact on their socio-economic status. The yearwise documentation of the subsystems of the farming systems practiced by each farmer and the net income, percent increase of income over benchmark year, employment generation, cropping intensity, B:C ratio were analyzed. The results of the case studies are presented below.

293 - 298 (6 Pages)
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40 Leisure Time Utilization by the Rural Youth
R.R. Chole, P.R. Deshmukh and U.N. Fatak

Youth, as a concept, has been generally defined all over the world as a group of human beings who have reached the end of puberty but have not yet acquired the full rights and duties of adult life ( Friedman: 1971).  Undeniably, the youth constitute a vast reservoir of energy especially in underdeveloped countries including India. Out of the 120 crores population of India, those in the 15 to 30 age group constitute 50 per cent which means that 60 crore young people, men and women, are available for handling various tasks of development, local, regional and national.  Progress of the country depends on the participation and full involvement of all sections of people especially youth. Youth can make their constructive contribution to national development and through which society can benefit from the idealism and sense of dedication of youth. At the same time, they also benefit from their active participation in developmental activities. Since such participation increases their self esteem, give them a sense of identity and of being needed by society.  The human life passes through various stage such as infancy, childhood, adolescence, youth, adult and old. Out of these stages the youth stage is very crucial and dynamic in the life of an individual as from this stage individual starts assuming responsibilities in the life and learns practically the social rules by coming in contact with world outside the family.  Youth is the time of life marked by growth and development. It is the period between childhood and maturity. United Nation has defined youth as those young people within the age group of 15 to 24 years both inclusive. Youth symbolizes zest, idealism, dynamism, enthusiasm and energy.

299 - 306 (8 Pages)
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41 Leisure Time Utilization by Male and Female Rural Youth
Antwal P.N., J.V. Ekale and P.S. Kapse

The efforts to keep pace with the fast life are causing mental and physical tensions. Diversion and relaxation is needed for the revival of spirit and enthusiasm. Leisure is an unimposed free time, after the practical necessities of life have been attended to. It is the time spent in activities chosen by the individual rewarding for its own sake. Choice of leisure time activities may also depend on the regularity of free time. An activity performed during small amounts of free time may be different than the one planned for a large block of free time. The leisure activities have far reaching influence on the personality development of the youth. If these youngsters are trained to make use of their leisure time for productive purpose, their endless energies could be channelised into fruitful development work. An investigation was carried out involving 120 rural youth from Kapasi and Mardasgaon villages in Gangakhed taluka of Parbhani district from marathwada region of Maharashtra state, to asses the leisure time utilization by rural youth.  The sample included 70 boys and 50 girls. Profile of Rural Youth Education : As regards the education of female youth is concerned, 30 percent of them were educated up to H.S.C. and S.S.C, level where as 20 percent of them were educated up to high school level and 10 percent of them were degree holders and educated up to middle school level.

307 - 310 (4 Pages)
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42 Leisure Time Activities of Rural Youth
Sasane G.K., U.D Jagdale and S.S. Patil

Youth are the creative force potential and a strength symbol for every community. One of the hallmarks of the positive youth development movement is that it is built on a foundation of scientific research. In addition, youth development programs typically work through existing social organizations rather than focusing on individual counseling. The rural youth work of FAO over the years has made significant contributions to make the lives of young people from rural areas more productive and meaningful by strengthening the organizations which serve them. The needs and challenges of rural young people today are greater than they have ever been in the past. In most developing countries, youth make up well over one-half of the total rural population. Because of their number and potential impact, rural youth must be a major part of any equation dealing with immediate and long-term solutions to solving problems of food security and sustainable development. Rural youth living in rural areas get limited opportunities for educational attainment in village areas. Opportunities for vocational guidance are also limited causing them diverting towards non creative activities and for merely wastage of time. An investigation was undertaken to study the socio-economic characteristics  and leisure time activities of rural youth. The study was conducted in College Development Block comprising Hatkanangle, Radhanagari & Bhudargad Tahsils of Kolhapur district, Maharashtra. From the Tahsil, 10 villages were selected randomly.  From each village, nine rural youths were selected randomly. Thus in all 90 rural youth were finally selected for the study. 

311 - 314 (4 Pages)
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43 Case Studies on the Functioning of Rural Youth Clubs
K.S. Krishna

Planning Research and Action Institute, Lucknow (1960) found that lack of initial capital considerably hindered the growth of Animal Husbandry Projects in Youth Clubs. It was also revealed that involvement of non-official agencies and training of youth organizers were very important for strengthening youth clubs. Singh and Prasad (1963) identified that following deficiencies in the working of youth clubs.     1.    Inadequate knowledge of youth club work on the part of members as well as on leaders     2.    Non-availability of literature on youth clubs     3.    Lack of active leadership‘     4.    Rift between village youth clubs and village panchayat     5.    Lack of proper guidance and follow up of youth club programme Behniwal (1964) revealed the following factors as responsible for the successful working of youth clubs.     1.    Strength of membership in a club      2.    Participation in project work     3.    Participation in games     4.    Frequency of meetings     5.    Attendance in tours, rallies and games     6.    Actual gains received   Kumar (1965) found that in the successful clubs the youth had clear conception of the importance and objectives of the youth organization. 

315 - 320 (6 Pages)
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44 A Case Study of a Young Farmer in Integrated Farming System
R.P. Kadam and S.K. Panke

It is now a fait accompli that for enhancement of the economic condition of the farmers, just growing of the variety of crops is not sufficient. Along with the crop husbandry, it is the need of the time that farmers must integrate other enterprises with traditional crop production practices. Integration of various farm enterprises in a farm ensures growth and stability in overall productivity and profitability. It also ensures recycling of residues, optimization of resources, reduction of risk and generation of employment. Various enterprises that could be included in farming system are agronomical crops, vegetables, fruits, flower cultivation, dairy, poultry, fishery, goat keeping, piggery, sericulture, mushroom cultivation, agro forestry, bee keeping, silviculture, agro-based industries and food processing. A judicious mix of enterprises complementary to crops and suited to the given farm situations and farmer’s preference would bring overall prosperity.   The Integrated Farming System (IFS)  is a complex inter-related matrix of soil, plant, animals, implements, power, labour, capital and other inputs controlled in part by farm families and influenced by varying degrees of political, economic, institutional and social forces that operate at many levels. Under farming system, the farm is viewed in a holistic manner. Farmers are subjected to many socio-economic, bio-physical, institutional, administrative and technological constraints. Integrated farming system conceptually is a set of elements or components that are inter-related with each other and which are interact among themselves.

321 - 330 (10 Pages)
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45 Promotion of Jalasri Method of Paddy Cultivation under Tank Achkat – A Case of Young Farmer
Eswarappa. G, E. Yellappa and Ashoka Doddamani

In recent years, rainfall pattern is changing and the sustainability of irrigated rice ecosystem is threatened by water crisis. Tanks are often not filling or partially filling due to insufficient rains. In order to safeguard the food security, it is necessary to preserve previous water resources and to utilize the limited water most efficiently. In this regard alternate ways of growing rice using minimum water must be explored. Farmers are adamant to grow paddy crop to meet their domestic needs of food and fodder. In such situation Jalasri method can became one of the alternative for paddy cultivation. The Jalasri method is an appropriate system aimed at reducing the cost of cultivation, saving irrigation water, besides increasing grain yield significantly. Earlier Jalasri method was popular as Madagascar method of paddy cultivation.

331 - 336 (6 Pages)
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46 Bivoltine Chawki Rearing Centre - A Success Story of Sericulture Farm Youth
Madhu Prasad V.L., Nanjappa D, Manjunath M and Govinda Gowda V

The silkworm chawki rearing is a vital stage in rearing as it has major influence on cocoon production.  Temperature, humidity and leaf quality are the three key important factors influencing chawki rearing.  Hence, maintaining these conditions at every step is very important and calls for provision of separate chamber. Any alteration in these factors will influence during later ages of silkworm rearing leading to crop losses.  Taking these factors into consideration the Government of India promoted the establishment Chawki Rearing Centres (CRCs) in private sector also.  These CRCs brush the silkworm eggs at one point under controlled conditions and distribute the worms to the needy farmers.   In recent years, bivoltine hybrids are becoming more popular in India and particularly in Karnataka.  This is due to the efforts of the Central Silk Board, Karnataka State Department of Sericulture and Japanese International Co-operation Agency.  These Bivoltines have high cocoon shell ratio (24 to 25%), better quality, fetches high cocoon price, better returns, high rendita (5.1 to 6.1) and raw silk percentage (20 to 22%) with filament length of 11502 to 12200 meters.  The farmers could achieve up to 70kgs cocoon yield per 100 Disease Free Layings (DFLs) and quality silk of 2A to 4A grade. 

337 - 340 (4 Pages)
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47 Case Studies on Rural Youth
M.S. Nataraju

1. Success Story of Rural Youth in Dairying   M.S. Nataraju, P. Sunil Kumar and R. Shashidhar There is a proverb in Kannada that “Koti Vidyeginthaloo Meti Vidyee Yee Melu” means - among all the professions for livelihood on this earth agriculture is the best profession for better livelihood.  This proverb suits Sri. Vasudeva Indraje, resident of Yenmoor village in Sulliya Taluk of Dakshina Kannada Dist. in Karnataka State. Sri. Vasudeva Indraje is a role model for today’s youth, who are neglecting agriculture and migrating to cities with an illusion of making a quick buck.  Hailing from an agricultural family his moorings was in agriculture and allied activities.  After passing out from SSLC he did not seek to continue the studies but showed interest in pursuing some small business.  Along with his younger brother he started a cold drink house in Balila and made good profit from it.  When it appeared that the business was seeing a downward trend he came out of the business and invested the money in farming land. Sri. Vasudev along with his friend visited RUDSETI, Ujire and enquired about the training programmes. After going through his interests Director suggested him to apply for Dairy and Vermicompost training programme.  Later, he was selected and undergone Dairy and Vermicompost training programme in the year 2007.  During his training programme along with the technical inputs regarding the Dairy management he also learnt about different soft skills like how to develop entrepreneurship competencies? How to develop Self Confidence? How to avail Institutional Credit? etc.

341 - 346 (6 Pages)
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48 Case Studies on Migrated Rural Youth
D. Nanjappa

In order to portray the conditions of the migrated rural youth in cities, who otherwise would have been practicing agriculture, a few case studies were conducted to know more about the migrated rural youth, their family background, reasons for migrating, satisfaction after migration, type of support given to the family at the villages, assets created at their village and in the cities, types of problems faced, opinion about the environment, and willingness to go back to their villages for continuing farming. The sample included migrated persons engaged in different jobs in Bangalore city as Hotel workers, Construction Workers, Auto Drivers / Taxi drivers, Security Guards, Garment workers and Vegetable/Fruit Vendors. From each category, five respondents were interviewed by using a simple questionnaire. Following are the case studies. I. Case Studies on Migrated Rural Youth Working as Building Construction Workers 1. Case of Sri Krishnappa : Muttanna, V.L. Madhuprasad and D. Nanjappa Sri. Krishnappa S/o Saranappa, aged 30 years from Surapur taluk, Yadagiri district had migrated to Bangalore as a construction labourer. He had completed his primary education and got married at an early age. He has two sons and  two daughters.  After marriage, he continued to live in a pucca house along with his parents, one brother and two sisters.  The family has two acres of dry land, and  farming is main occupation. Desire to earn more money by him and non  co-operation among members of his family are the reasons for Sri Krishnappa’s migration.

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49 Software Professional Becomes Best Farmer in Coastal Zone – A Case Study
G. Nagesha, H. Hanumanthappa and Jayashree. S

The pressure of population on land is increasing and the average size of a farm holding is reducing, to below one hectare. Farmers are increasingly getting indebted and the temptation to sell prime land for non farm purposes is growing. If there are other opportunities, about 40 per cent of farmers want to quit farming, says a survey conducted by National Sample Survey Organization. We hear deplorable stories of farmers ending their life not being able to cope with the loss and indebtedness from agriculture.   On the closer examination, we find that agricultural land is still a great source of income. But it is the practice of unsustainable methods, improper resource management leading to successive crop failure that makes agriculture non-profitable and risky. As a result, many young farmers are leaving agriculture and migrating to cities. Under these conditions, how are we going to persuade educated youth, including farm graduates, to stay  in villages and take to agriculture as a profession? How can youth earn a decent living in villages and help shape the future of our agriculture? At the same time, we also hear the stories of highly educated persons wanting to move into agriculture as their profession.   It is a well known fact that the recession had hit the Information Technology sector and the professionals across the globe in a big way. Some of them were ‘sacked’ and even thrown to streets as ‘loss cutting’ measures by the companies. Many qualified software professionals were forced to find an alternative job. But software professional, Sri. Kondana Chandrashekara Gatty, who was in the Information Technology field for nearly 10 years, did not feel the pinch of recession since he had switched over his carrier field from IT to agriculture. 

365 - 368 (4 Pages)
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50 Mitigation of Migration and Persuasion of Youth to Continue in Farming Profession
V. Govinda Gowda, Ashoka Doddamani and Siddaram

During his recent visit, US President Barack Obama pointed out that India is fortunate to have a youthful population with over half the population of 1.2 billion being under the age of 30. Of the 600 million young people, over 60% live in villages. Most are literate. Gandhiji considered the migration of educated youngsters from villages to towns and cities as the most serious form of brain drain adversely affecting rural India’s development. He, therefore, stressed that we should take steps to end the divorce between intellect and labour in rural professions. The National Commission on Farmers (2004-06) stressed the need for attracting and retaining educated youngsters in farming. The National Policy for Farmers placed before Parliament in November 2007 includes the following goal: “To introduce measures which can help to attract and retain youth in farming and processing of farm products for higher value addition, by making farming intellectually stimulating and economically rewarding”. We are currently deriving very little demographic dividend in agriculture. On the other hand, the pressure of population on land is increasing and the size of the average farm holding is dipping below one hectare. Farmers are getting trapped in debt and, as real estate rates continue to rise, the temptation to sell prime farmland for non-farm purposes is growing. Over 45% of farmers interviewed by the National Sample Survey Organisation want to quit farming.

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51 End Pages

Recommendations of the National Seminar on ‘‘Attracting Farm Youth to Sustainable Agriculture’’, held from 26th–28th, August, 2011 at the University of Agricultural Sciences, GKVK Campus, Bangalore Preamble A large majority of the farm youth across the country are loosing confidence in farming. The situation is more or less similar both in developing and developed countries as well. Given the choice, they are looking forward for non-farming vocations than opportunities in farming.  Why this mind set is going among the farm youth, the reasons are many.  But the single most reason is continuous decline in income derived from farming and consequently farming is no more considered as profitable and respectable profession. In order to support this observation, the best yardstick visible is the GDP.  The GDP which was 58% during 1950s has come down to 16% as on today.  The farmers’ purchasing power going bad to worse. The situation is bound to go beyond expectations particularly threat to food security if no corrective measures are undertaken.  The country cannot be comfortable and happy if food is being imported.  The present day draining of farm youth from rural area is mainly because of less profitability of farming and not an attractive profession any more. It is time to give serious attention on how to sustain the farm youth in rural areas.

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