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CLIMATE RESILIENT CROPS FOR THE FUTURE

Professor K.V. Peter
  • Country of Origin:

  • Imprint:

    NIPA

  • eISBN:

    9789389547696

  • Binding:

    EBook

  • Number Of Pages:

    450

  • Language:

    English

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Professor K.V. Peter
Professor K.V. Peter, Director World Noni Research Foundation, Chennai is the Former Vice-Chancellor, Kerala Agricultural University (KAU); Director, Indian Institute of Spices Research, Calicut ;Director of Research KAU and Professor of Horticulture from 1979. He is an acknowledged teacher and science manager.

Concise Oxford Dictionary defines Resilience as recoiling; springing back; resuming its original shape after bending, stretching, compression etc. With five components of crop production –space, water, energy, light, nutrients- limiting, there are stresses on crops to perform at threshold input yielding optimum output. Droughts and floods, cold and heat waves, forest fires, landslides and mud slips, ice storms, dust storms, hailstorms, thunder clouds associated with lightening and sea level rise are throwing new challenges to farming. This dangerously narrow level of food base prompts to widen the base of grains, vegetables, fruits, spices, industrial crops, mushrooms and aromatic plants. The emphasis so far was more on terrestrial plants, forest plants and lesser on lower plants. The aquatic plants-fresh water, brackish water, marine- were not much explored for edible use except by Chinese and Japanese. Halophytes, bryophytes, ferns and sea weeds are so far climate resilient. The Indo-Burmese Centre of origin (Hindustan centre including North East) is abode of several plants of possible vegetable, fruit and spicy value. The New Life styles consequent to migration for employment have brought newer food and dietary patterns. The urbanization and smaller family size are leading to pre-cooked foods and visitation to restaurants. s on bryophytes, halophytes, microalgae, chasmophytes, pseudocereals, medicinal mushrooms, speciality mushrooms, palmyrah palms, bramakamal, tropical tuber crops, dragon fruits, broad dhaniya, plants for dyes, kale and ornamental ginger are authored by eminent working scientists from 21 Universities and Research Institutes in Japan and India. The crops for the future especially climate resilient are to be identified and promoted in an emerging production scenario of new life style foods and convenient speciality foods getting attention by the new generation. The present book Climate Resilient Crops for the Future carries 17 s authored by men of eminence in respective areas concerning to the above areas.

0 Start Pages

Preface Concise Oxford Dictionary defines Resilience as recoiling; springing back; resuming its original shape after bending, stretching, compression etc. With five components of crop production –space, water, energy, light, nutrients- limiting, there are stresses on crops to perform at threshhold input  yielding  optimum output. Droughts and floods, cold and heat waves, forest fires, landslides and mudslips, icestorms, duststorms, hailstorms, thunder clouds associated with lightening and sea level rise are throwing new challenges to farming. The 1997/1998 El Nino, the strongest of the last century affected 110 million people and costed the world economy nearly US $ 100 billion. Weather related catastrophes during 1950-1999 caused estimated losses of US$ 960 billion. Human activities like fossil fuel combustion, production of synthetic chemicals, biomass burning, deforestation, excess use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides alter the chemical composition of rhyzosphere and planosphere, enhancing green house effect. The Oxygen: Carbon dioxide: Nitrogen ratio is changed to more of Carbon dioxide and less of Oxygen leading to imbalanced photosynthesis and lowering of crop yield. Eighty thousand plants are reported to be of possible use, about 30,000 plants are found edible in nature and approximately 7,000 plants have been cultivated by mankind at one time or another, of which 158 plants are cultivated by man at some point of time. Among these, 30 crops provide world’s food and only 10 crops supply 75% of the world’s food budget. Out of these only three crops-rice, wheat, maize-provide 60% of the world’s food requirement. This dangerously narrow level of food base prompts to widen the base of grains, vegetables, fruits, spices, industrial crops, mushrooms and aromatic plants. The emphasis so far was more on terrestrial plants, forest plants and lesser on lower plants. The aquatic plants-fresh water, brackish water, marine- were not much explored for edible use except by Chinese and Japanese. Halophytes, bryophytes, ferns and sea weeds are so far climate resilient. The Indo-Burmese Centre of origin (Hindustan centre including North East) is abode of several plants of possible vegetable, fruit and spicy value.

 
1 Climate Change and Agriculture
GSLHV Prasada Rao

Climate change and variability are concerns of humankind. The recurrent drought and desertification threaten seriously the livelihood of over 1.2 billion people who depend on land for most of their needs. The global economy has adversely been influenced due to droughts and floods, cold and heat waves, forest fires, landslips and mudslips, icestorms, duststorms, hailstorms, thunder clouds associated with lightning and the sea level rise (Fig. 1). The year 1998 was the warmest and declared as the weather related disaster year, which caused hurricane havoc in Central America and floods in China, India and Bangladesh. Canada and New England in the U.S suffered heavily due to icestorm in January while Turkey, Argentina and Paraguay with floods in June 1998. In contrast, huge crop losses were noticed in Maharashtra (India) due to unseasonal and poor distribution of rainfall during 1997-98. The 1997/1998 El Nino event, the strongest of the last century affected 110 million people and costed the global economy nearly US$ 100 billion. A string of 16 consecutive months saw record high global mean temperature in 1997-98.

1 - 36 (36 Pages)
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2 Bryophytes as Future Foods
Yoshinori Asakawa and Agnieszka Ludwiczuk

1. Introduction   The bryophytes are found everywhere in the world except in the sea. They grow on wet soil or rock, the trunk of trees, in lake, river and even in Antarctic island. The bryophytes are placed taxonomically between algae (Fig. 1) and pteridophytes (Fig. 2); there are about 24,000 species in the world. They are further divided into three phyla, Bryophyta (mosses 14,000 species, Fig. 3), Marchantiophyta (liverworts 6,000 species, Fig.4a,b) and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts 300 species, Fig. 5). They are considered to be the oldest terrestrial plants, although no strong scientific evidence for this has appeared in the literature. This hypothesis was mainly based on the resemblance of the present-day liverworts to the first land plant fossils, the spores of which date back to almost 500 million years. Among the bryophytes almost all liverworts possess beautiful cellular oil bodies (Fig. 6) which are peculiar, membrane-bound cell organelles which consist of ethereal terpenoids and aromatic oils suspended in carbohydrates- or protein-rich matrix, while the other two phyla do not. These oil bodies are very important biological markers for the taxonomy in the Marchantiophyta (Asakawa, 1982, 1995; Asakawa et al., 1979b, 2008c, 2012b, 2013a,b; Asakawa and Ludwiczuk, 2008a,b; Ludwiczuk and Asakawa, 2010).

37 - 104 (68 Pages)
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3 Halophytes- Alternative Food Crops from Saline and Coastal Habitats
P. Kaladharan and Baby Ushakiran M.S.

Halophytes are salt-resistant or salt-tolerant plants which thrive and complete their life cycles in terrestrial or aquatic habitats having high salt concentrations. Aronson (1989) compiled a partial list of halophytes containing 1560 species in 550 genera and 117 families. Menzel and Lieth (1999) listed as many as 2600 plants under salt tolerant flora. Although halophytes represent only 2% of terrestrial plant species, they are present in about half the higher plant families and represent a wide diversity of plant forms. Because of their diversity, halophytes are regarded as a rich source of potential new crops. Halophytes are tested as vegetables, fodder and oilseed crops under field trials. The oilseed halophyte, Salicornia bigelovii, yields 2 tones/ha of seed containing 28% oil and 31% protein, similar to soybean yield and seed quality.

105 - 118 (14 Pages)
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4 Microalgae
Neha Chamoli Bhatt and Sushma Tamta

Nowadays, revolutionary changes in entire globe have led to the economic, cultural and scientific development in our society and have augmented considerable changes in our food habits and life-style. Continuously growing population had noticeably increased the pressure on land, water and energy resources. All these resources are scarce and going to be exhausted in coming decades at the present rate of consumption. Undoubtedly, production of food is more imperative than the production of energy or any other bioproducts. Moreover, with the world population rising to 9 Billion in 2050, with many inspiring to a western life style and diet, this challenge should be addressed urgently (Draismaa et al., 2013). The challenge to produce about 70% more food by 2050 for a growing and increasingly affluent world population has motivated several review papers addressing the different dimensions of the food system and food security (Verburg et al., 2013). Presently, human beings consume approximately 2.5 billion tons of dry weight of harvested crops which include approximately 2.3 billion tons of cereals (e.g., rice, wheat, and corn kernels) and grass from managed pastures (Smil, 2000).

119 - 132 (14 Pages)
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5 Pseudocereals
M. Dutta and J.C. Rana

Ever since the dawn of civilization, dependence on plants has been indispensable for human survival. Transformation from food gathering to settled agriculture necessitated domestication of plant species useful for mankind leading to co-evolution of plants and man in absolute harmony with nature. Natural disasters like famines, floods, epidemics have often led people to search new plant species for human consumption. Out of an estimated total of 80,000 plants of possible economic use, about 30,000 plants have been found to be edible in nature and approximately 7,000 plants have been cultivated by mankind at one time or the other, of which only 158 plants are widely used for food (Wilson, 1992). Among these, 30 crops provide 90% of the world’s food and only 10 crops supply 75% of the world’s food budget. Out of the above only three crops, rice, wheat and maize provide 60% of the world’s total food requirement (Paroda, 2000). This dangerously narrow level of food base may imperil the existence of mankind during a time of impending crisis in unforeseen times in the future.

133 - 174 (42 Pages)
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6 Edible Chasmophytes
Binu Thomas and Rajendran Arumugam

Wild edible plants have played an important role in human life since time immemorial. People depend on the wild plant resources for various purposes like fire wood, timber, non-timber forest products, medicines and food (Pushpangadan, 1995). In many cases, rural communities depend on wild edible plants, to meet their food needs in periods of food shortage. Indian subcontinent is blessed with varied and diverse soil and climate conditions suitable for the growth of various plant species. It has been estimated that 9000 of the 15,000 higher plants occurring in India are commercially useful. Of these 7500 are medicinal, 3900 are edible, 700 are culturally important, 525 are used for fiber, 400 are fodder, 300 for pesticides and insecticides, 300 for gum, resin and dye and 100 for incense and perfume (Anonymous, 1992-1993).

175 - 188 (14 Pages)
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7 Palmyrah Palm
Jiji George and Anitha Karun

The palmyrah palm exists both in the wild as well as in cultivation, ranging from sea level about 800 amsl. It is usually grown in seasonal tropical or subtropical climates on sandy soils. It is a very adaptable palm, however, growing well in dry areas and is quite drought resistant. It also grows in per-humid areas and survives water logging quite well. The worldwide distribution of natural and cultivated populations of the palmyrah shows that it occupies a band on either side of the equator and extends laterally over a considerable girth. The country wise distribution of the palms are Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta, Nigeria, Gaban, Congo, Sudan, Tanzania, Madagascar, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Lubeigt, 1977), Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia and Indonesia (Kovoor, 1983). In India, the palms are wide spread in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal.  Isolated patches are also seen in Assam, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh (Anonymous, 1948). The palmyrah is considered as a slow grower and the growth rate decreases in regions of higher altitude (Tjitrosoepomo and Pudjoarinto, 1982).

189 - 202 (14 Pages)
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8 Brahmakamal
Manu Pant

The Indian Himalayan region is a well known abode to numerous plants of medicinal significance. The Western Himalayan ranges are home to a diverse flora of variety of endemic medicinal plants making it a biodiversity-rich region (Samant et al., 1998).  The ancient system of traditional medicines has been using these endemic medicinal plants since time immemorial. Of late the resurgence of herbal system of medication has led to an unprecedented rise in extraction of such plants from the wild for medical preparations. Most of the times the plant collection is unscientific and unthoughtful of ecological status of the medicinal plant, especially herbs. As a result, unplanned collection and other human interferences have brought a threat to survival of several important medicinal plants of the IHR an  example being  Brahmakamal.

203 - 206 (4 Pages)
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9 Tropical Tuber Crops
James George and Suresh Kumar P.

Tropical root and tuber crops are the third important group of food crops after cereals and pulses. Tuber crops hold a premier position among food crops in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. These crops are rich in starch and calories and have great potential in meeting the food and energy needs.  More than 840 million people do not have enough food to meet their basic daily energy needs. Far more - an estimated 3 billion - suffer the insidious effects of micronutrient deficiencies leading to hidden hunger. Apart from its popular use as food, tubers also find an important space in cattle feed and agro industries sector.Tropical tuber crops possess high photosynthetic ability coupled with the capacity to yield under marginal lands, adverse biotic and abiotic stress etc (Ravindran et al., 2008).

207 - 258 (52 Pages)
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10 Dragon Fruit
P. Bhattacharjee and D. Chatterjee

Dragon fruit, commonly known as pitaya/pitahya (Hylocereus sp.) is a  climbing perennial cacti belonging to the Cactaceae family and the subfamily Cactoidea of the tribe Cactea (Raveh et al., 1993). It is a perennial climbing cactus plant native to tropical areas of North, Central and South America. Main countries growing dragon fruit are Vietnam, Colombia, Mexico, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Thailand and Taiwan. Cultivation also occurs in Australia, Israel and Reunion Island. The European Union and Asia, especially China are the largest import markets of dragon fruits (Vinas et al., 2012).

259 - 284 (26 Pages)
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11 Broad Dhaniya
Shrawan Singh

Broad dhaniya (Eryngium foetidum L.: Umbelliferae - Apiaceae) is an underutilized leafy vegetable and aromatic plant used for seasoning food items and source of medicine. It is a shade loving plant of tropical regions.  It has got status of a promising cash crop with huge export potential particularly in United Kingdom, USA and Middle East markets. Its medicinal and seasoning properties are well known in various countries like Vietnam, India and in the Amazon region (De Gumao et al., 2002). Broad dhaniya is relatively unknown in many other parts of the world and is often mistaken and misnamed for its close relative Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.).

285 - 304 (20 Pages)
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12 Black Caraway
S.K. Gupta, Sandeep Sehgal, N.S. Raina and L.M. Gupta

Black caraway (Bunium persicum Boiss. Fedtsch ) commonly known as kala zeera is a low volume,  high value, under-exploited and  non-perishable crop that finds place  in cold arid  North -Western Himalayan regions of Indian sub-continent. Its fruits are expensive spice and are used in indigenous system of medicine for curing various ailments and disorders. The proper information on botanical identity of the species, its description and distribution, active ingredients, standardized agro-techniques, processing and value addition and marketing potentials, etc. are very scanty. An attempt has been made to gather information on various aspects of kala zeera to promote its cultivation in the cold arid regions of the Himalayan states and its role in improving the socio-economic conditions of the people by cultivating the cash crop.

305 - 316 (12 Pages)
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13 Plants for Dyes
S. Sarada

Dyes are one of the most important by products of the plants, as they are related with cultural practices, rituals, arts and crafts, fabrics and to satisfy personal embodiment. However, dye yielding plants have not received significant attention (Grover and Patni, 2011). Dye is a substance that has affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied such as textile fibers, foodstuffs and powder. They are organic coloured substances which absorb light in the visible part of the spectrum and have the property of colouring the substrate they are applied to.   Colourants which are obtained from plants and natural sources are known as natural dyes. Natural dyes have been traditionally used in most of the countries. These dyes were obtained from roots, leaves and bark (Akhtar et al., 2012). Natural dyes find use in the colouring of textiles, drugs, cosmetics, etc. Owing to their non-toxic effects, they are also used for colouring various food products. In India, there are more than 450 plants that can yield dyes (Siva, 2007).

317 - 334 (18 Pages)
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14 Kale
Chander Parkash, S.S. Dey and Vijay Bhardwaj

Kale (Brassica oleracea L. convar. acephala (DC.) Alef.) is a representative of cole group of vegetables and cool-season cooking green somewhat similar to collard and non heading cabbage that has gained recent widespread attention due to its health-promoting, sulfur-containing phytonutrients. Kale is grown for its large foliage which is mainly used as leafy vegetable. This leafy vegetable is helpful in reducing the chances of cancer if taken regularly. Among the vegetable crops, kale is the richest source of carotenoids which is the precursor of vitamin-A. Besides, it also contains good amount of different minerals essential for human diet. There are several varieties of kale, all of which differ in taste, texture and appearance.

335 - 346 (12 Pages)
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15 Ornamental Gingers
Sheela Jaygopal

Gingers  belong to Zingiberaceae family and are made up of about 1000 species in 47 genera. They have numerous members with aromatic oils that have made them popular for perfumes and ornamentals. Ornamental gingers, while related to edibles, are usually grown for their looks instead of their flavor. A very large and diverse group of gingers are valued both for their tropical foliage and for their large, colorful flower heads. From the startling red ginger to the subtle shell ginger, these attractive plants are easy to grow in home landscapes in tropical and semi-tropical areas. They are great for tub gardens They can be very rewarding to grow, and with some simple care will continue to produce beautiful leaves and flowers for many years which also have cut flower value.

347 - 362 (16 Pages)
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16 Speciality Mushrooms
B.L. Dhar

The edible speciality mushrooms are mushrooms that are generally not grown and available commonly in the market. Any mushroom other than popularly grown white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) falls under the specialty category, and these mushrooms are generally not available over the counter or in departmental stores in India or other countries in the world. The mushrooms under this group include the different types of commonly grown Oyster mushrooms like grey, black, white, pink, yellow oyster mushrooms, King Oyster mushroom, Shiitake mushroom, Black Ear mushroom, Shimeji mushroom, Enokutake mushroom, Milky mushroom, the Portabella brown, Cremini mushroom , Straw mushrooms and others. This paper will describe in detail biology and cultivation of these mushrooms as grown under controlled environment conditions or under seasonal growing conditions, where ever possible.

363 - 382 (20 Pages)
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17 Leaf Vegetables of Mizoram
B.K. Singh, V.K. Verma and Y. Ramakrishna

Mizoram in North East India, is located between 21º58’ to 23º35’ N latitude and 92º15’ to 93º29’ E longitude, surrounded by Tripura, Assam and Manipur in North frontier regions; Bangladesh in west; and Mayanmar in east and south. The undulated topography of Mizoram, known as Lushai hills during British period, has varied altitudes ranging from 21 to 2157 m above mean sea level, annual rainfall of 2000-3200 mm, and mean monthly temperature of summer (monsoon) ranges from 14.6ºC to 29.6ºC. Besides having good rainfall; the vegetable production, including leaf vegetables, during winter period is limited by acute soil moisture stress caused by high rate of evapo-transpiration, almost no rain from November-March, non-availability of irrigation water and low water holding capacity of the sloppy land (Singh et al., 2011; Singh et al., 2013b).

383 - 404 (22 Pages)
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18 End Pages

Index (+)-Bornyl Acetate  47 11ah-Dihydrodehydrocostuslactone  72 5-Lipoxygenase  78 A A. bisporous  364, 371 A. blumei  230 Â  carotene  395 A. caudatus  136, 137 A. cruentus  136, 137 A. cucullata  229 A. dubius  136, 137, 140, 230, 384 A. ebracteatus  114 A. edulis  136 A. fornicata  229 A. gangeticus  137 A. gracilis  137 A. graecizans  137 A. hybridus  136, 137, 384 A. hypochondriacus  136, 137, 143 A. indica  229 A. lividus  137, 140 A. macrorrhiza  229, 242 A. niger  66 A. paeonifolius (dennst) nicols. var. paeonifolius  230 A. paniculatus  137 A. prawn  230

 
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