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FRUIT CROPS:CULTIVATION PRACTICES AND ECONOMICS

Parshant Bakshi, Anil Bhat, Deep Ji Bhat, Naveen Kumar Patle
  • Country of Origin:

  • Imprint:

    NIPA

  • eISBN:

    9789389571219

  • Binding:

    EBook

  • Number Of Pages:

    158

  • Language:

    English

Individual Price: ₹ 1,595.00 ₹ 1,435.50 + Tax

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Prosperity through fruit cultivation is the new slogan gaining much acceptance among policy makers. Presently, fruit culture has established its credibility in improving income through increased productivity, generating employment and enhancing export. The focused attention on investment in fruit production during the last decade has been rewarding in terms of increased production and productivity of fruits. India has emerged as second largest producer of fruits in the world. It has diverse climates and soil for cultivation of fruit crops providing ample opportunities for the development of fruit industry but the greatest challenge in present is to produce sufficient fruit to feed the ever-increasing human population. This demands infusion of technology for an efficient utilization of resources for deriving higher output per unit of input with excellent quality of the produce within short span of time. In the present era of open economy, it has become increasingly necessary that our produce is competitive, both in the domestic as well as in international markets. This would be possible only through deployment of high-tech application and precision farming methods. Fruits are very important for human beings and also play an important role in religious practices, mythology and art. They are not only delicious but also have many nutrients which are necessary for human health. Fruit production requires a lot of science and some basic fundamental knowledge to grow them successfully. This book compiles many fundamental issues of fruit production like layout and planting, many cultural practices, growth and bearing habits of fruit crops, planting and propagation method, disease and pest management as well as cost of cultivation etc. Understanding of all these topics will help the students and fruit growers for proper knowledge of fundamentals of fruit production. We hope that this book would also be helpful for fruit growers, nurserymen, farmers, teachers, scientists, extension officers and all those who wish to become familiar with the topic in relation to their professional interest. We have tried to keep the language as simple and straight forward as possible and consistent with accurate representation of the content. Every effort has been made to present the ideas in very easy and understandable language and the interests of each reader. We would like to recommend “Fruit Crops: Cultivation Practices and Economics” to students, educators, researchers, extension specialists and orchard practitioners for cultivation practices of fruit crops and their economics.

0 Foreword

There has been a record production of Horticulture Crops with production during the year 2017-18(Final) reaching 311.7 Million Tonnes which is 3.7% higher than the previous year and 10% higher than the past 5 years’ average production. Production of fruits is estimated at 97.35 million tonnes which is 4.8% higher than previous year. These production increases partly reflect rising demand, but there has also been a strong push from improved varieties and advances in fruit tree husbandry. India has emerged as second largest producer of fruits in the world. It has diverse climates and soil for cultivation of fruit crops providing ample opportunities for the development of fruit industry but the greatest challenge in present is to produce sufficient fruit to feed the ever-increasing human population. Horticulture is developing fast in more countries and so in India than the government can manage with; but within its controls the government should promote growth in horticultural economics at regional and state level. Horticulture sector in diverse forms is finding its way into everyday life in developed as well as in developing countries. Thus, the field of horticultural economics will in future be approached from several directions and its scope must surely be widened by practice more than by research.

 
1 Fruit Crops: Cultivation and Management

Jammu division with three agro-climatic zones viz., sub-tropical, intermediate (low hills) and temperate (Fig. 1) has vast potential for horticultural industry by way of improving the productivity of existing orchards and using vast tracts of underutilized wastelands, kandi areas of sub-tropical zone and hilly areas of intermediate and temperate zones for fruit production. For this, there is need for plantation of suitable varieties, budded/grafted on proper rootstock and following of improved orchard management practices viz., training and pruning, nutrient and water management and pest and disease control. At present, fruits occupy an area of 118805.00 ha with the production of 274006.70 MT and productivity of 2.31 MT/ha in Jammu division. Sub-tropical zone It comprises both irrigated and unirrigated areas and goes upto an attitude of 500 m above mean sea level. This zone is characterized by hot summers and relatively dry but pronounced winters. The land is suitable for cultivation of mango, citrus crops (sweet orange, mandarin particularly kinnow, lime, lemon), guava, litchi, ber, papaya and other minor fruits. Some low chill varieties of temperate fruits like peach, plum, pear and strawberry have been introduced at Advanced Centre for Horticulture Research (ACHR) of SKUAST-J, Udheywalla and peach cultivars Shan-e-Punjab, Flordasun and Flordared and pear cultivars Patharnakh and LeConte have shown good yield and quality crop. Besides, strawberry cultivars Chandler, Gorella, Fern and Belrubi have also shown promising yield with proper management practices. For rainfed areas, hardy fruits like aonla, phalsa, ber, guava, lasoda, karonda and custard apple are more suitable with aonla, phalsa and ber being commercially more viable.

1 - 10 (10 Pages)
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2 Cultivation, Management and Economic Analysis of Mango

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the choicest and most ancient fruits known to mankind. It occupies a pre-eminent place amongst the subtropical fruits grown in Jammu region and occupies an area of 12,739 ha with annual yield of 24,150 metric tons. It is extensively grown in Jammu district and also in the sub-tropical areas of Udhampur, Reasi, Kathua and Rajouri districts. Climate and Soil Mango thrives well up to 600 m above mean sea level provided locality is frost free and there is no high humidity or rains during flowering. The favourable temperature is 240 C to 270 C, however, it can tolerate temperature as high as 480 C provided that trees are getting regular irrigation. Mango has been found to grow on a wide range of soils. However, deep and well-drained sandy loam soils are most suitable for its cultivation. Heavy black cotton, saline and alkaline soils should be avoided. The ideal range of soil pH for mango cultivation is 5.5 to 7.5.

11 - 30 (20 Pages)
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3 Cultivation, Management and Economic Analysis of Citrus Fruits

Citrus (Citrus spp.) is one of the most important fruits grown in sub-tropical and foot hill regions of Jammu province (Kathua, Hiranagar, Samba, Jammu, Akhnoor, parts of Basohli, Nowshera, Ramnagar, Ramban and Udhampur) upto an elevation of 800 m amsl. The most important commercial citrus fruits in Jammu region are kinnow mandarin, sweet orange, grapefruit, lemon and lime. The area under citrus fruits in Jammu division of state is 14,542 ha with an annual production of 34,191 metric tones. Climate and soil Citrus plants being sub-tropical cannot with stand extended cold period. Temperature below 3oC and above 40oC are injurious to the citrus. Hot winds and excessive heat during flowering and fruit set cause fruit drop and sun burning. These are the light loving crops. Citrus fruits thrive well in deep, loose, well aerated soils with the pH of 5.5 to 6.2 devoid of any hard pan layers of calcium carbonate in the rooting zone up to 150 cm. High water table and poor drainage system are quite unsuitable for citrus fruits which cause drying of roots and nutritional imbalance, respectively.

31 - 44 (14 Pages)
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4 Cultivation, Management and Economic Analysis of Litchi

The litchi (Litchi chinensis) is a delicious juicy fruit of excellent quality. It is liked very much as table fruit. Presently, litchi occupies 940 ha area in Jammu region with an annual production of 2315 MT. Climate and Soil Litchi being a sub-tropical fruit thrives best under warm humid sub-tropical climate. However, frost in winter and hot winds in summer limits its growth and production. Hot winds results in cracking of fruits before reaching maturity while excessive rainfall at the time of flowering interfere with pollination. The prolonged dry spell after fruit set reduces the crop considerably. Litchi flourishes well on deep, well drained loamy soil, rich in organic matter and free from hard substrata.

45 - 52 (8 Pages)
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5 Cultivation, Management and Economic Analysis of Guava

Guava (Psidium guajava), the apple of tropics, is one of the most common fruits in India. It is the fourth most important fruit in area and production after mango, banana and citrus. Being hardy, it gives assured crop even with little care, and is good for rainfed areas also. This fruit is popularly being grown in sub-tropical regions of Jammu on 2480 ha with annual production of 9153 MT. Climate and Soil Guava is successfully grown under tropical and sub-tropical climate. In areas with distinct winter season, the yield tends to increase and quality improves. It can be grown upto an altitude of 1515 m above mean sea level. Older plants can tolerate drought. High temperature at the time of fruit development can cause fruit drop. Guava trees are very hardy and can thrive on all types of soils, but are sensitive to water logging. The best soils are deep, loamy and well drained.

53 - 62 (10 Pages)
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6 Cultivation, Management and Economic Analysis of Ber

Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk.) is one of the ancient and common fruits, indigenous to India. It is growing in wild, semi wild and cultivated forms all over the country in sub-tropical and tropical areas. Area under ber in J&K is 5,376 hectare with annual production of 10,779 metric tonnes. Climate and Soil Ber plant is hardy and can grow successfully even under poor soil and unfavourable climatic conditions, where most other fruit trees fail to grow. It prefers a hot and dry climate for its successful cultivation, but needs adequate water during its first fruiting season. It can be grown up to an elevation of 1000 meters above sea level. Excessive atmospheric humidity seems to be a limiting factor in its successful fruiting. The ber tree develops a deep tap root system with in a short period of its growth and as such adopts itself to wide variety of soils. However, deep sandyloam soils appear to be better for its plantations. It is well known in its ability to thrive under adverse conditions of salinity, drought and water logging.

63 - 70 (8 Pages)
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7 Cultivation, Management and Economic Analysis of Phalsa

Phalsa (Grewia subinaequalis) is one of the hardiest, drought resistant and quick growing fruit crop. Different parts of the plant are used for curing variety of ailments. The ripe phalsa fruits are consumed fresh, in desserts or processed into refreshing fruit and soft drinks enjoyed during hot summers. Climate and Soil Phalsa prefers dry conditions and can therefore, withstand drought. It flourishes well under variable climatic conditions, and requires protection from the freezing cold temperature. Also, adequate sunlight and warm or hot temperatures are required for fruit ripening, development of appropriate fruit colour and good eating quality. Kandi areas are, therefore, quite suitable for its cultivation. It can also be grown under irrigated conditions. Phalsa plant grows vigorously under wide range of soils including fine sand, clay or even limestone. However, best results are obtained in well-drained, loamy soils.

71 - 76 (6 Pages)
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8 Cultivation, Management and Economic Analysis of Pecan

Pecan (Carya illinoensis) is a highly nutritive and energy giving nut fruit. It has nutty flavor and superb tree characteristics. Area under pecannut in J&K is 414 hectares with annual production of 86 metric tonnes. Climate and Soil Pecan need warm temperate climate and extremes of both temperate and sub-tropical climates are undesirable. It needs adequate chilling hours ranging from 400-600 hours below 7.2oC for different cultivars. Mean monthly temperature ranging from 24.0 to 29.50C, with little diurnal variation during growing period is best for growth and fruiting. High humidity prevents pollination, increases the incidence of diseases and premature splitting of nuts. Although pecan nuts are grown in varied soil conditions, but sandy loam soils (pH 5.0-8.0) which are deep, fertile and are rich in organic matter are best for its growth and fruiting. Symbiotic mycorrhiza and fibrous roots permeate the top 1 meter of soil.

77 - 82 (6 Pages)
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9 Cultivation, Management and Economic Analysis of Apple

Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) is a premium fruit of the world. It is a typical temperate fruit and main fruit crop of J&K State. The area under this fruit in J&K State is 1,62,971 hectares with an annual production of 17,26,834 metric tones. The acreage under this fruit crop in Jammu Division is 18,146 hectares and the annual production is 38,421 metric tones. In Jammu Division, apple is being grown in upper areas of Doda, Kishtwar, Ramban, Poonch, Udhampur, Reasi, Kathua and Rajouri districts. Climate and soil Apple is a typical temperate fruit crop requiring 1000-1600 hours of rest period below 7oC. The average temperature during growing season should be 210C to 240C. Sunshine is essential for colour development of the fruit. In general, a cool climate with low winter temperature and little rainfall in summer is most suitable for apple cultivation. Apple is grown on a wide range of soils. However, a well drained slightly acidic (about 6.5 -6.7 pH) loam soil with good depth (more than 45 cm) is ideal for apple cultivation. Apple can’t tolerate wet field, and water logging may cause collar rot and death of trees.

83 - 102 (20 Pages)
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10 Cultivation, Management and Economic Analysis of Pear

Pear (Pyrus spp.) is a superior temperate fruit with good taste and flavour. Because of its tolerance to wide range of soil and climatic conditions, it is grown both in sub-tropical and temperate conditions. In J&K, 14,532 hectare area is under cultivation, with an annual production of 88,329 metric tones. In Jammu Division, pear is being grown on 7,600 hectare having 30,257 metric tonnes production annually. The pear is grown in Doda, Poonch, Rajouri, Udhampur and Kathua districts of Jammu Division. Climate and Soil Pear is adapted to wide range of climatic conditions. Most of the commercial cultivars require 900-1000 hours of chilling below 7oC to break the dormancy. Pear is a temperate fruit crop; however, it can be grown successfully in subtropical regions of Jammu. There are several low chilling cultivars, which are well adapted for cultivation under sub-tropical conditions. Pears are grown successfully over a wide range of soils provided they have sufficient moisture. Compared to apples, they are less tolerant to drought and rather more tolerant to impeded drainage. Deep, well drained and fertile soil give high yield.

103 - 118 (16 Pages)
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11 Cultivation, Management and Economic Analysis of Peach

Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.) is a highly popular fruit crop grown in temperate regions of the world. In India, peach cultivation is confined to mid hill zone of Himalayas extending from J&K State to Khasi Hill at an altitude of 1500 to 2000 meters above mean sea level. Low chilling cultivars are also grown in sub mountainous zones of Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Western U.P. and also gaining popularity in sub-tropical areas of Jammu. Peach crop in J&K state covers an area of 2,615 hectares with 1,699 hectares falling in Jammu Division. Total production of peach in J&K state is 6,221 metric tonnes, out of which 2,612 metric tonnes are being contributed by Jammu Division. Main peach growing areas in Jammu region are hilly areas of Poonch, Doda, Kishtwar, Ramban Udhampur, Reasi, Rajouri and Kathua districts. Recently, the new orchards of low chill peaches are also being planted in Jammu, Samba and Kathua districts. Climate and Soil Peach does well in wet and cool climate with cold winter and dry summer. It likes mild climate. The limiting factors in peach cultivation are the minimum winter temperature, chilling hours, spring frost, hail storms, high humidity and desiccating winds during summer. In sub-tropical areas of North, the low chilling cultivars require 50-300 hours of chilling during the winter for proper flowering and fruiting. The peach thrives well on light textured soil. Deep, fertile, loam or sandy loam with good drainage is considered well for successful peach cultivation. Poorly drained soil should be rejected for peach cultivation.

121 - 129 (9 Pages)
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12 Cultivation, Management and Economic Analysis of Plum

Plum (Prunus saliciana Lindl.) is a temperate fruit and grows on commercial scale in J&K, HP and Uttaranchal. In J&K, plum cultivation is spread over 4,038 hectares with total yield of 10,112 metric tones. In Jammu Division, plum is being grown in temperate areas of Poonch, Rajouri, Doda and Kathua districts covering an area of 2,665 hectares with an annual production of 14,240 metric tonnes. Climate and Soil Plums because of their wide variability between different species, exhibit considerate varietal differences in their climatic requirements. The Japanese plums do very well in the low and mid hill regions ranging between 650 to 1650 meters above mean sea level. Some varieties can be grown successfully in the warmer regions of plains. For good growth and longer life of plants, well drained medium to deep soils are most suitable. Plums propagated on peach root stocks grow better on sandy loam soil, while for heavier soils apricot rootstock or Kabul green gage root stocks of plum can be used.

131 - 137 (7 Pages)
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13 Cultivation, Management and Economic Analysis of Walnut

Walnuts (Juglans regia L.) are found in the northern parts of the country in temperate belts. They are grown in the length and breadth of the valley in Jammu and Kashmir and hilly areas of Jammu. The walnut is being cultivated in the state on 89,339 ha with an annual production of about 2,66,280 metric tonnes. In Jammu Division, walnut plantation is on 38,318 ha with an annual production of 92,227 metric tonnes. The walnut is very rich in proteins, fats and minerals and is a concerned source of energy. Climate and Soil Walnuts are found growing in all parts of the Himalayan region between the elevation of 1200 to 2100 m above mean sea level. Walnuts are sensitive to both low and high temperature. Climate should be free from frost in spring and from extreme heat in summer. They grow well in areas where rainfall is about 75 cm or more and is well distributed. Temperature of 29-32oC near harvest time, results in well-filled kernels. Walnuts do best in soils where roots can penetrate deep evenly. In addition to good top soil, sub-soil must be free of rock, impervious clay or layers of gravel. Most suitable soil is well drained silt loam with abundant organic matter. Alkaline soil and sandy soils should be avoided for walnut growing. A soil with 2-3 metres depth and pH range of 6-7 gives best results.

137 - 146 (10 Pages)
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14 References

Acharya, S. S. and Aggarwal, N. L. 2001. Agricultural Marketing in India. Third edition, Oxford & IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi. Ajani, O. I. 2005. Economic analysis of the marketing of fruit in Lagos State of Nigeria (A case study of Oyingbo, Oshodi and Ikotun markets). Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science, 10: 38-46. Bakshi, P., Kour, K. and Jasrotia, A. 2019. Fundamentals of Horticulture. Narendra Publishing House, New Delhi. Bal, J.S. 2007. Fruit Growing. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. Bhat, Anil and Kachroo, J. 2011. Economics of Production and Marketing of Citrus. Book Published by Daya Publishing House, New Delhi. Bhat, Anil and Singh, S. P. 2016. Agricultural Marketing: Perspectives and Potentials. Book Published by New India Publishing House. Chadha, K.L. 2003. Handbook of Horticulture. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) pp. 1069. Iqbal, Mudasir. 2009. Investment appraisal of mango and ber fruit production in Jammu district of J&K state. M.Sc. thesis. Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu, India.

 
14 References

Acharya, S. S. and Aggarwal, N. L. 2001. Agricultural Marketing in India. Third edition, Oxford & IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi. Ajani, O. I. 2005. Economic analysis of the marketing of fruit in Lagos State of Nigeria (A case study of Oyingbo, Oshodi and Ikotun markets). Nigerian Journal of Horticultural Science, 10: 38-46. Bakshi, P., Kour, K. and Jasrotia, A. 2019. Fundamentals of Horticulture. Narendra Publishing House, New Delhi. Bal, J.S. 2007. Fruit Growing. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi. Bhat, Anil and Kachroo, J. 2011. Economics of Production and Marketing of Citrus. Book Published by Daya Publishing House, New Delhi. Bhat, Anil and Singh, S. P. 2016. Agricultural Marketing: Perspectives and Potentials. Book Published by New India Publishing House. Chadha, K.L. 2003. Handbook of Horticulture. Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) pp. 1069. Iqbal, Mudasir. 2009. Investment appraisal of mango and ber fruit production in Jammu district of J&K state. M.Sc. thesis. Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, Jammu, India.

 
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