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MAIZE RESEARCH

Jiban Shrestha, Subash Subedi, Krishna Prasad Timsina, Samaya Gairhe, Manoj Kandel, Mahesh Subedi
  • Country of Origin:

  • Imprint:

    NIPA

  • eISBN:

    9789389571226

  • Binding:

    EBook

  • Number Of Pages:

    173

  • Language:

    English

Individual Price: 220.55 USD 198.50 USD

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Since long, need had been felt for a book which described details on maize and the basic research concepts. This book is compiled as a text book with this aim and is divided in to 18 chapters. Especially maize breeding, agronomy, plant protection, statistical designs and socio-economic aspects of maize are explained very well inside this book. The volume comprehensively presents information available on the managing maize research activities from trials to manuscript preparation which could fill the gap of knowledge and information on this important part of maize research. The unique feature of this book is information on different aspects of maize experimental designs, observations recording, data analysis and how to write and publish the research report in well renowned journal. Most of the text books still are more focused on basic theoretical concepts of crop only but lacking practical sense and application so researchers and academicians still feel great gap in practical application of experimental designs and explaining research output to the world. This book tries to give some practical ideas to researches how to organize research experiments in maize and what are the basic parameters to be dealt under different areas of maize research and development.

0 Start Pages

Preface   Since long, need had been felt for a book which described details on maize and the basic research concepts. This book is compiled as a text book with this aim and is divided in to 18 chapters. Especially maize breeding, agronomy, plant protection, statistical designs and socio-economic aspects of maize are explained very well inside this book. Till date, no comprehensive volume is presently available on the managing maize research activities from trials to manuscript preparation which could fill the gap of knowledge and information on this important part of maize research. Maize is a most important cereal crop in Nepal and also the principal staple cereal diet of most of the Nepalese people who mainly lives in hilly region. Maize contributed about 25% in total edible cereal grain production in Nepal. In this scenario, this book is intended for researchers, students, academicians and stakeholders who have involved in agricultural research especially in maize research and development. The details about maize and basic research concepts are described in the book with very simple and concise language. The unique feature of this book is information on different aspects of maize experimental designs, observations recording, data analysis and how to write and publish the research report in well renowned journal. Most of the text books still are more focused on basic theoretical concepts of crop only but lacking practical sense and application so researchers and academicians still feel great gap in practical application of experimental designs and explaining research output to the world. This book tries to give some practical ideas to researches how to organize research experiments in maize and what are the basic parameters to be dealt under different areas of maize research and development. Last but not the least, we wish to acknowledge our gratefulness to the contributors of all the chapters of the book. The authors are also thankful to the publishers and persons for their painstaking efforts in giving the shape to this manuscript.

 
1 Introduction of Maize (Zea mays L.)

There is no cereal in the world which has no immense patentability as in maize and that’s why it is called the “Queen of cereals”. It is the world’s leading cereals crop after rice and wheat. It is one of most important cereals of Nepal. At national level, it stands second position after rice in term of area and fourth in term of production after rice, potato and sugarcane. Maize is the most important cereals crop of hill and mid hills of Nepal. It is grown single as well as mixed cropping with millets or legumes or potato. Maize crop in hill is grown as rainfed farming. Generally, farmer of such region does not apply chemical fertilizer but they fertilize the land with organic manures in three seasons viz., rainy, winter and spring season. In rainy season it grown in upland while in spring season in low land. The winter maize is grown in Terai and inner Terai in low land as well as upland.

1 - 2 (2 Pages)
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2 Classification of Maize

1.    Kernel type: Dent, Flint, Floury, Waxy, Sweet and Pop corn          •    Dent corn (Zea mays indentata Staurt.)         •    Flint corn (Zea mays indurate Staurt.)         •    Pop corn (Zea mays everta Staurt.)         •    Sweet corn (Zea mays saccharata Staurt.)         •    Flour/soft corn (Zea mays amylacea Staurt.)         •    Waxy corn (Zea mays ceatina Kulesh)

3 - 4 (2 Pages)
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3 Botanical Feature of Maize Plant

Maize is a tall, determinate annual C4 plant varying in height from (1-4) meters producing large, narrow, opposing leaves (about a tenth as wide as they are long), borne alternately along the length of a solid stem. The botanical features of various plant parts are as follows:  Root Root system of maize consists of seminal roots, crown or coronal or adventitious or fibrous roots and brace, pop or aerial roots. Seminal roots - which develop from radical and persist for long period. Crown roots developing from the lower nodes of stem below ground level which are the effective and active roots of plant and.  Brace or prop roots, produced by lower two nodes. The roots grow very rapidly and almost equally outwards and downwards. Favorable soils may allow corn root growth up to 60 cm laterally and in depth.

5 - 6 (2 Pages)
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4 Growth Stages of Maize and Growing Degree Units

•    A corn plant requires a certain number of growing degree units (GDUs) to reach maturity, regardless of the number of calendar days it takes to accumulate. •    The relationship of GDU accumulation and corn development, along with utilizing the estimated number of days to reach a certain growth stage, can help predict when important growth stages will occur. •    Growth stages can be used to help growers make timely applications of herbicides and fungicides. The following information is on corn growth and development from emergence to R6 growth stage. •    Corn growth stage development can vary according to corn maturity. An early maturing product may produce fewer leaves or develop through growth stages faster than a slower paced late maturing product. This is important to remember when staging corn in relation to accumulated GDUs.

7 - 12 (6 Pages)
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5 Maize Breeding and Hybrid Development

Basic principles of breeding hybrid maize 1. Inbreeding •    Produce a plant which breeds true •    Produce uniform plants •    Increase the homozygosity at all or specific loci in the plant genome •    We know what inbreeding does and I do not propose to spend people’s money to learn how to reduce corn yield-Hopkins

13 - 20 (8 Pages)
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6 Terminologies Used for Maize Breeding

Germplasm   Germplasm of crop may be defined as sum total of hereditary materials, i.e. all alleles of various genes present in a crop species and its wild relatives. The germplasm can be utilized in a breeding programme in following ways: •    Direct release as a variety •    It may be subjected to selection for developing a variety •    It may be used as one of parents in hybridization programmes

21 - 28 (8 Pages)
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7 Terminologies Related to Maize Experiments

Terminology of experiments      Evaluation trials are important in plant breeding where the selected lines are compared with standard varieties. In most cases, it will be necessary to make comparable yield trials under field conditions. In such case, the field becomes the experimental unit. In these cases, the field becomes the experimental unit. It requires the use of small plots and adequately replicated.

29 - 34 (6 Pages)
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8 Types of Maize Trials

Progeny test Progeny trials involve large numbers of progenies of a family type, such as full-sib, half-sib, or S1 lines. The progenies are evaluated to identify those that may be used to generate synthetic or experimental varieties, or recombined to form an improved population in a recurrent selection program. Progenies in the trials are normally a random sample from the particular population under study. Therefore, data obtained from progeny trials may be used to estimate genetic variances and covariances from which heritability estimates, predicted responses to selection, genetic correlation coefficients, and correlated responses to selection may be obtained. Progeny trials are normally researcher-managed. Progeny trials involve complex field designs, such as balanced incomplete block, lattice, and alpha-lattice. Some examples of lattice are 11 × 11 for 121 progenies, 14 ×14, 16 × 16, etc. Because of the large number of entries, single-row plots with only 2–3 replications in a few environments are used in progeny trials.

35 - 36 (2 Pages)
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9 Layout of Experimental Fields

Formation of a Rectangle Experiments are usually laid out in square or rectangular plots for data and yield estimation, even though the field may be irregular. The plot is usually placed on the contour, parallel with a road, or in a north-and-south alignment. To mark a plot, construct a right angle and then form a rectangle or square.

37 - 40 (4 Pages)
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10 Types of Experimental Designs and Crop Husbandry

Characteristics of a well-planned experiment   •    The treatments, design, management, and data collected should be consistent with the objectives. •    The experiment should be planned and conducted so that there will be a high probability of measuring differences between treatments with an acceptable degree of precision.  •    The experiment must be planned and executed to ensure that treatment effects are estimated in an unbiased way.

41 - 56 (16 Pages)
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11 General Information about the Experiment

Introduction Project title: Objective (S):

57 - 58 (2 Pages)
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12 Maize Pathological Experiments

Plant diseases are of paramount importance to humans because they damage plants and plant products on which humans depends for food, clothing, furniture, the environment and in many cases the housing. The kinds and amounts of losses caused by plant diseases vary with the plant or plant products, the pathogen, the locality, the environment, the control measures practiced and combination of these factors (Agrios, 2005). Disease is one of the major biotic constraints to reduce crop yield and also deteriorate the quality of product that ultimately reduce the market price.

59 - 110 (52 Pages)
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13 Collecting Data from Maize Trials

Biometric observations The phenological stages i.e. germination, tasseling, silking, and physiological maturity were recorded from fixed mid three rows of each plot. A particular stage was supposed to be completed while 90% of the observed plant showed the characteristics of that phase and number of days was counted from date of sowing. Days to emergence (DOE)   When the plant shoot pokes through the soil surface. Count the 75% seedlings emerged from at least 50% of the total rows starting from the centre. If 75% of the total expected seedlings emerged, then can be considered as 75% emergence. How the growth stages of maize are distinguished can be observed from the chart below.

111 - 128 (18 Pages)
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14 Statistical Parameters and their Analysis

Hypothesis: A statement about the value of a population parameter developed for the purpose of testing. Type I and Type II Errors •    Type I Error: Rejecting the null hypothesis when it should not be rejected.     •    Therefore accepting the alternative hypothesis (your theory) when you should not.     •    Probability of a Type I error is called a. •    Type II Error: Failing to reject the null hypothesis when it should be rejected.     •    Therefore not accepting the alternative hypothesis (your theory). Opportunity loss.     •    Probability of a Type I error is called b. •    Minimizing Type I errors is the main concern of hypothesis testing

129 - 180 (52 Pages)
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15 Calculation of Fertilizer and Pesticides

The first step in applying the correct rate of fertilizer is calculating crop nutrient requirements. A soil test is the only way to measure how much P2 O5 and K2 O are available in soils, and soil tests are available through several private and public laboratories. Fertilizer Calculation To compute the equivalent amount of fertilizer necessary to supply the corresponding amounts of nutrients, the following formula is used:

181 - 186 (6 Pages)
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16 Economic Analysis in Maize Trials

Definition of terminologies and concept Variables: Variables are the characteristic, number or quantity which increases or decreases over time and takes different values in different situations. Variables are those, whose value varies according to the situations. For example, maize yield, Stover, fertilizer, labor, land, pesticides, etc.   Dependent variable: Variables whose value is dependent on independent variables. These variables take different values only in response to independent variables. Yield of maize is dependent on amount fertilizer, fertilizer application methods, labor, pesticides etc. So in this case maize yield is dependent variables while amount fertilizer, fertilizer application methods, labor, pesticides are independent variables. However in other situation, maize yield can be used as independent variables also.

187 - 194 (8 Pages)
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17 Some Formulas related to Maize Experiments

Crop growth rate (g m-2 day-1) Crop Growth Rate is referred to a whole crop, so you need to consider the area of the ground where crop is present. It is measured as mass increase in crop biomass per unit ground area per unit time. Equation for that is, CGR= W2-W1 / t1-t2

195 - 202 (8 Pages)
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18 Preparing Manuscript for Publication

Peer-reviewed academic journals publish a variety of article types, such as “research articles” that report original research, “reviews” of the literature, and “case reports” of a small number of interesting cases. Each article type has its own specific format, and it is important that you use the appropriate one.

203 - 220 (18 Pages)
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19 End Pages

Aday, B. A. (1975). The Philippine program in breeding for resistance to downy mildew of maize. Tropical Agricultural Research Service, 8, 207-219 Agrios, G.N. (2005). Plant pathology. (5th ed.) Burlington, MA. Elsevier Academic Press. Asnani, V. L. & Bhushan, B. (1970). Inheritance study on the brown stripe downy mildew of maize. Indian Phytopathology, 23, 220-230. Batsa, B.K. & Neupane, S.K. (1982). Loss assessment studies on stalk rot of maize. In: Proceedings of the 19th summer crop workshops pp. 99-101 at NMRP, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal. Batsa, B.K., Basnet, R., & Paudel, D.C. (2004). Biological control of banded leaf and sheath blight in maize. P. 229. In: Proceedings of the 24th National Summer Crops Research Workshop on maize research and production in Nepal, June 28-30, 2004, Kathmandu, Nepal. Batsa, B.K., Sharma, R.C., & Rai, S.N. (2004). Comparative efficacy of cultural, chemical and biological control against banded leaf and sheath blight in maize. P. 232. In: Proceedings of the 24th National Summer Crops Research Workshop on maize research and production in Nepal, June 28-30, 2004, Kathmandu, Nepal. Bonde, M.R., Peterson, G.L., Dowler, W.M., & May, B. (1984). Isozyme analysis to differentiate species of Peronosclerospora causing downy mildews of maize. Phytopathology, 74, 1278-1283. Butchaiah, K. (1977). Studies on some aspects of banded sclerotial disease of maize. Thesis M.Sc. (Ag.), G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantanagar. 65 pp. Butler, E. J. (1907). Some diseases of cereals caused by Sclerospora graminicola. Mem. Dep. Agric., India, BOI. Ser.2, 1-24. Campbell, C. L., L. V. Madden. (1990): Introduction to Plant Disease Epidemiology. John Wiley & Sons, New York City. Chang, S.C. (1969). Genetic studies of resistance to downy mildews in corn by means of chromosomal translocations. Rep. Corn Res. Taiwan 7, 1-6. CIMMYT Maize Program. (2004). Maize Diseases: A guide for field identification. 4th edition. Mexico, D.F. CIMMYT. 2p. CIMMYT. (1989). Maize Research and Development in Pakistan.CIMMYT, EI Batan, Mexico, 100 pp.

 
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