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Pratik Satya
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He book deals essentially with the aspects that are of immediate concern to new researchers in the filed of botanicals and natural products. It presents the first comprehensive overview of the plant products since they were introduces in the pest management covering both theoretical and practical applications. This book covers the key aspects of the plant products including ; natural pest management agents from plant, extraction of plant products, characterization and formulation and bioassay of extracts, a study on the stability of the prepared extracts towards their various biological activity against different microbial and stored grain pests through a large number of the prepared extracts and formulations in both water and organic media.

0 Start Pages

Preface Genomics is the latest frontier of genetic analysis, providing a way to look into the genome and the phenome in an integrative way. To understand genomics, learning the cutting edge technologies for gene identification and structure determination of proteins are not sufficient. This technical knowledge must be integrated with basic information about the genome to be manipulated. As understanding of the patient’s system is essential for successful surgical operation, scientific basis behind the technical manipulation of genome can only come from detailed understanding of the structural and functional processes of the genome. In the first chapter of this book, the enormous scope and application of the field of genomics has been presented, while in the second chapter emphasis has been given to introduce the reader the structure and function of the genome. Second, third and fourth chapter have been dedicated to discuss the tools of structural and functional genomics in an integrative way, as many of the tools are commonly applied to both the systems.   Genetic engineering, a process of manipulation of the genome is intrinsically related to genomic analysis. Transient gene expression is an indispensable tool of genetic engineering applied in genomics. Moreover, once genomic analysis determines the nature and function of a gene and its protein product, the obvious next step will be manipulation of the gene using transgenic technology for betterment of human population. Some of the common basic techniques applied to both of these fields are presented in chapter three and four, including cutting, cloning and expression of gene using vector systems. Chapter five covers Aranscriptome and proteome characterization. Chapter seven, eight and nine deal with the scope, applicability and achievements of transgenic technology in animals and plants, while chapter ten deals with the regulatory and ethical issues with recombinant DNA technology. 

1 An Overview of Genomics

Process of life of an organism is defined, driven and depicted by its genetic constitution, or the genome. A genome is a collection of genetic material present in the cell as nuclear or organelle DNA. To be precise, it is the sum of all single copy genetic materials present in the cellular subcompartments. Thus a diploid organism having two copies of each chromosome contains genetic material constituting two copies of the genome, while a gamete of the same organism contains single copy of the same. Organelle genome is shared by chloroplast and mitochondria. In these two organelle genetic material is present in single copy per organelle, although many copies of organelle ensures that a cell harbours many copies of mitochondrial or plastid genome. Unraveling the structure and function of the genome is, therefore, the central objective of biological science. Technologies that would help to understand the basis of genetic, biochemical and physiological processes are pivotal to execute the knowledge for the betterment of mankind and environment.

1 - 26 (26 Pages)
2 Structure and Organization of Genome

The information that drives the process of life is encoded in the genome of the organism. Structurally defined, a genome is an organization of genetic information consisting of nucleic acids (deoxyribonucleic acid or ribonucleic acid). Arrangement of nitrogenous bases in the nucleic acid codes the information for execution of cellular processes. Four types of bases (Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine) are present in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) while in RNA Uracil replaces thymine group of any three bases on transcribed RNA represent a codon. With four types of bases, sixty four types of codons can be formed. Genetic information encrypted in these codons is released in the form of arrangement of polypeptides consisting proteins via mRNA intermediate. This universal process of flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein is known as the central dogma of life. The whole set of information coded in 64 codons, out of which 61 codes for one or more amino acids (building block of polypeptides/proteins) and three indicating where to stop is called the book of life or genetic code.

27 - 62 (36 Pages)
3 Techniques in Genome Analysis & Genetic Engineering — DNA cloning

One of the primary targets of genome analysis is to manipulate it at the level of genes, the units of inheritance. Genes, as explained earlier have distinct positions and sequence configurations in the genome which are expressed in the form of RNA or proteins controlling the functionality and identity of an organism. To understand the function of a gene several methodologies may be adopted. As genes have conserved sequences like promoters preceding the reading frame, initiation sequences, exon-intron junctions and end sequences, these features can be used to screen genome sequence to identify the regions containing genes. An open reading frame (ORF) is the sequence of a gene for which functions have been assigned, i.e., the sequence codes for a protein or RNA. On the other hand, an unassigned reading frame (URF) is a sequence which has structural features of a gene, but no function has yet been assigned to it.

63 - 92 (30 Pages)
4 Tools of Structural and Functional Genomics — Induction of Mutation, Gene Identification and Sequencing of Genes and Genomes

The primary target of genomics is identification and characterization of genes and gene products. Starting point of genomics may be a whole genome sequence, from which gene and protein structures can be predicted by computational and bioinformatics approaches (in silico genomics), or genes can be identified step by step starting from identification of a phenotype by induction and detection of mutation, construction of a genetic map demarkating the position of the character, physical location, identification of the gene, cloning and characterization of the gene or genome sequence by sequencing followed by expression analysis to correlate the phenotypic expression (in vivo genomics). Alternatively, genes can be identified by developing knockout mutants by random or site directed disruption of a reading frame and then determining the protein product as well as phenotypic expression.

93 - 132 (40 Pages)
5 Tools of Structural and Functional Genomics — Gene Expression Analysis, Proteomics and Metabolomics

While structural genomics aims to describe the protein structures coded by the genes present in the genome, functional genomics deciphers meaning of the coded information at transcriptome, proteome and interactome level. In the previous chapter we have seen how a gene can be identified by creation of mutants, genetic and physical mapping, and by sequencing the gene. Another source of possible gene structures come from genome sequence information, which by using computational algorithms identifies a number of ORFs that have the structural configuration of a gene. A third option of identifying a gene is identification of differences between wild type and mutant at RNA level, by analyzing the transcriptome. If we are able to identify differences in RNA expression pattern between these two, the information can be used to search back the gene sequences responsible for the differences. From proteome analysis inferences on expression of proteins and their interaction in the functional network of the cell with other proteins, DNA, RNA and cellular 

133 - 164 (32 Pages)
6 Molecular Markers — Overview and Applications in Gene Mapping and Genetic Studies

Molecular markers or DNA markers are considered to be one of the most successfully applied component of molecular biology techniques that have relevance in almost every sphere of biology, from paleobotany to transgenic technology. In true sense, a marker is a characteristic of an individual that differentiates the individual from others. Morphological descriptions like cotyledon colour of Pea, eye colour of Drosophila, shape and size of fruits in summer squash etc. are examples of typical morphological markers. However, a single morphological marker is not sufficient for describing the uniqueness of an individual, for many pea plants will have green cotyledon or many Drosophila may have red eye. To define the uniqueness of an individual, we have to find a number of marker traits characteristic of that individual. Unfortunately, morphological variations are not sufficient to differentiate between a large number of individuals, or between groups or sub groups within a species, simply because the level of polymorphism is low. Besides, morphological characters or phenotypic expressions are affected by environmental changes, so stability of expression is low and sometimes uncertain.

165 - 196 (32 Pages)
7 Genetic Engineering in Animals

Preternatural development of recombinant DNA technology has established genetic engineering in animals the most important field in application of biology for human benefit, from production of genetically modified animals to providing crucial technologies to medical science sector. On the basis of the nature of the target tissues, genetic engineering may target single cell line, particular tissue sectors or the organism as a whole. The purpose of transformation may be basic research involving elucidation of gene function, study effect of directed mutations, examination of physiological and developmental processes in animals or may be target oriented, such as production of proteins or metabolites in large quantities in a cell line, incorporating rDNA in the germline cells, gene therapy, use of rDNA in disease diagnostics, or production of transgenic animals for specific purposes.

197 - 228 (32 Pages)
8 Plant Genetic Engineering — Applications and Achievements

Food is the basic requirement for maintaining the life process. Plants supply the bulk of foods required for human and animal. With limited cultivable area and ever increasing pressure of human population, the demand for food is constantly rising which can not be alone met by conventional plant breeding technologies. Novel techniques like plant genetic engineering are gaining momentum for production of superior plants or yield enhancement of a species.  It has been observed that the most commercially successful application of recombinant DNA technology is in genetic engineering of plants, which led development of multinational seed companies deriving monetary benefit from genetically modified crop and food products. From production of herbicide resistant or insect pest tolerant plants to alter the inherent quality composition of human food, plant genetic engineering has established firmly the commercial viability of recombinant DNA technology.

229 - 226 (-2 Pages)
9 Biosafety and Regulatory Aspects of Genetic Engineering

Words like rDNA (recombinant DNA) technology, cloning, genetically modified organism (GMO), living modified organism (LMO) and transgenics are of today’s common knowledge. However rather than scientific interest, debates on biosafety issues have made these terms more agnized among general people. Global, sectorial and individual protests against transgenic plants and animals are enunciated allover the world raising issues and concerns over risks and health hazards of using these organisms. Despite these protests and concerns, commercial use of transgenic organism as food, feed or other purposes are increasing at an exponential rate. Although there is not much scientific evidence where transgenics have caused havocs on ecological balance or human health, the biosafety issues need to be solved to provide a safer environment rather than be sorry and lament in the future for today’s mistakes. One of the major problems in supporting use of GMOs lies in the incapability of biosafety science to draw reliable and widely acceptable conclusions for labeling a safe tag on these organisms and their derivatives.

277 - 310 (34 Pages)
10 End Pages

Appendix-I Patents, IPR and Legal Issues Related to Genomics and Genetic Engineering Genomics and genetic engineering provide cutting age technologies contributing to the development of the field of life science in an exponential rate. Both of these have three major outcomes; technologies that create new process and refine the old processes, service in the development and execution phases and products derived from the combination of the technology and service. In case of genomics, the products are gene and protein sequences, their three-dimensional structures as well as the information contained within. For genetic engineering, the product is transgenic organism itself and any outcome from experimentation of these organisms. In the current patent and intellectual property right (IPR) protection systems existing in various countries, most of the three components are protected by right holders in various manners involving complex legal issues and systems of protection. Most debated among these are patents on genes or parts of gene sequences, specifically those covering human genes and more recently on human stem cells that are principally owned by private life science companies who commercially exploit the benefit out of these patents.

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