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A. Poshadri, Aparna Kuna
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A. Poshadri
A. Poshadri formerly with Manager, R&D for Bambino Agro Industries Ltd, Hyderabad, as a part of New Product & Process development and International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad

Aparna Kuna
Aparna Kuna Assistant Professor, Department of Food & Nutrition Post Graduate Research Center, ANGRAU Rajendra Nagar-500030 Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh

Book of combination of basic concepts, scientific depth with practical usefulness, the book carries information on: product and process development, production, quality assurance and quality control food production, processing, food chemistry, food and industrial microbiology, food process engineering food trade and business management, food additives, food preservation, food spoilage food packaging, food labeling, food legislations and regulations. It also assembles the information on food biotechnology, functional foods and nutraceuticals and top food and beverage companies in the world. This book is a compilation of the wealth of knowledge which can guide the students, who are preparing for the competitive exams, especially for GATE, P.G entrances of CFTRI, ICAR, SLIET, IICPT, NIFETM, UICT and State Agricultural University entrance examinations. It is also useful book for those preparing for ICAR, SRF and NET-ARS Exams.

0 Start Pages

Preface The last thirty years have seen the establishment of Food Science and Technology both as an academic discipline and as a profession. "A Handbook for Food Techno’s is a book of  combination of basic concepts, scientific depth with practical usefulness. This book serves as a readymade tool for graduate students, food scientists, food engineers and technologists working in research, product and process development, production supervisors as well as quality assurance and quality control executives looking for the basic and latest information on food production, processing, food chemistry, food and industrial microbiology, food process engineering, food trade and business management, food additives, food preservation, food spoilage, food packaging, food labeling, food legislations and regulations. It also assembles the information on food biotechnology, functional foods and nutraceuticals and top food and beverage companies in the world. This book is a compilation of the wealth of knowledge which can guide the students, who are preparing for the competitive exams, especially for GATE, P.G entrances of CFTRI, ICAR, SLIET, IICPT, NIFTEM, UICT and State Agricultural University entrance examinations. It is also useful book for those preparing for ICAR, SRF and NET-ARS Exams.

1 Nutrition

    1.    Nutrients : Chemical substances obtained from food and used in the body to provide energy, structural materials, and regulating agents to support growth, maintenance, and repair of the body’s tissues. Nutrients may also reduce the risks of some diseases.     2.    Carbohydrate, fat, and protein are sometimes called macronutrients because the body requires them in relatively large amounts (many grams daily). In contrast, vitamins and minerals are micronutrients, required only in small amounts (milligrams or micrograms daily).     3.    The international unit for measuring food energy is the joule, a measure of work energy. To convert kcalories to kilojoules, multiply by 4.2; to convert kilojoules to kcalories, multiply by 0.24.     4.    Essential nutrients : Nutrients a person must obtain from food because the body cannot make them for itself in sufficient quantity to meet physiological needs; also called indispensable nutrients. About 40 nutrients are currently known to be essential for human beings. Energy-yielding nutrients: the nutrients that break down to yield energy the body can use:

1 - 10 (10 Pages)
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2 Basic Physical Chemistry

    1.    Absorbance (A) - Defined as –log (1-a) = log (1/t), where ‘a’ is the absorbance and‘t’ the transmittance of a medium through which a light beam passes.     2.    Absorption coefficient (a) - The relative decrease in the intensity of a collimated beam of electromagnetic radiation, as a result of absorption by a medium, during traversal of an infinitesimal layer of the medium, divided by the length traversed.     3.    Acceleration due to gravity (g) - The standard value (9.80665 m/s2) of the acceleration experienced by a body in the earth’s gravitational field.     4.    Acid - Historically, a substance that yields an H+ ion when it dissociates in solution, resulting in a pH< 7. In the Brönsted definition, an acid is a substance that donates a proton in any type of reaction. The most general definition, due to G.N. Lewis, classifies any chemical species capable of accepting an electron pair as an acid.     5.    Acid dissociation constant (Ka) - The equilibrium constant for the dissociation of an acid HA through the reaction HA + H2O1 A- + H3O+. The quantity pKa = -log Ka is often used to express the acid dissociation constant     6.    Acyl groups - Groups formed by removing the hydroxy groups from oxoacids that have the general structure RC (=O) (OH) and replacement analogues of such acyl groups.     7.    Adiabatic process - A thermodynamic process in which no heat enters or leaves the system.

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3 Solutions

Percent Solutions There are three types of percent solutions. All are parts of solute per 100 total parts of solution. Based on the following definitions you may calculate the concentration of a solution or calculate how to make up a specific concentration     1.    % W/W - Percent of weight of solute in the total weight of the solution. Percent here is the number of grams of solute in 100 grams of solution.          Example:          A 100% (W/W) NaCl solution is made by weighing 100 g NaCl and dissolving in 100 g of solution     2.    % W/V - Percent of weight of solution in the total volume of solution. Percent here is the number of grams of solute in 100 ml of solution. This is probably the least significant way of naming a solution, but the most common way of doing it. In fact, any percent solution not stipulated as W/W, W/V, or V/V is assumed to be % W/V.          Example : A 4% (W/V) NaCl solution is 4 g of NaCl in 100 ml of solution.     3.    % V/V - Percent of volume of solute in the total volume of solution %V/V. Percent here is the number of milliliters of solute in 100 ml of solution.          Example: A 10% (V/V) ethanol solution is 10 ml of ethanol in 100 ml of solution; unless otherwise stated, water is the solvent. 

21 - 28 (8 Pages)
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4 Physical Chemistry of Foods

Physical Chemistry of Foods     1.    Thermodynamics is primarily concerned with energy and entropy. Energy, also called internal energy (U), comprises heat and work; it is measured in joules (J).     2.    Energy may be recalled that work generally equals force times distance (in N·m = J) and that force equals mass times acceleration (in kg ·m· s-2 = N).     3.    According to the first law of thermodynamics, the quantity of energy, i.e., heat (q) work (p) potential energy, is always preserved.     4.    Entropy (S)  is a measure of disorder; it is given by            S = KB ln Ω         Where KB is the Boltzmann constant (1.38 ×10-23 J × K-1) and W is the number of  ways in which the system can be arranged, also called the number of degrees of freedom.     5.    Colligative solution properties : The lowering of the chemical potential of a solvent by the presence of a solute causes changes in a number of physical properties: vapor pressure, boiling point, freezing point, osmotic pressure, etc. (the magnitudes of these changes all are proportional to the mole fraction of solute).

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5 Food Analysis and Quality Control

1. Guidelines on Analytical Terminology     1.    Accuracy : The closeness of agreement between a test result or measurement result and a reference value.     2.    Analyte : The chemical substance sought or determined in a sample. This definition does not apply to molecular biological analytical methods.     3.    Applicability : The analytes, matrices, and concentrations for which a method of analysis may be used satisfactorily.     4.    Bias : The difference between the expectation of the test result or measurement result and the true value. In practice conventional quantity value can be substituted for true value.     5.    The bias of a measuring instrument is normally estimated by averaging the error of indication over the appropriate number of repeated measurements. The error of indication is the: “indication of a measuring instrument minus a true value of the corresponding input quantity”.     6.    Calibration : Operation that, under specified conditions, in a first step, establishes a relation between the values with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standards and corresponding indications with associated measurement uncertainties and in a second step uses this information to establish a relation for obtaining a measurement result from an indication.     7.    Certified reference material (CRM) : Reference material accompanied by documentation issued by an authoritative body and providing one or more specified property values with associated uncertainties and traceability, using valid procedures.

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6 Instrumentation and Advanced Analytical Techniques

Instrumentation and Advanced Analytical Techniques     1.    Chromatography is defined as an analytical technique where by a mixture of chemicals may be separated by virtue of their differential affinities for two immiscible phases. One of these, the stationary phase, consists of a fixed bed of small particles with a large surface area, while the other, the mobile phase or “eluant”, is a fluid that moves constantly through, or over the surface of, the fixed phase.     2.    The chromatogram evaluated qualitatively by determining the Rf or retention factor, for each of the eluted substances.     3.    The Rf is a measure of that fraction of its total elution time that any compound spends in the mobile phase.     4.    If the liquid phase is a polar substance (e.g. polyethylene glycol) and the mobile phase is non polar, the process is termed normal-phase chromatography     5.    When the stationary phase is non polar (e.g. octadecylsilane) and the mobile phase is polar, the process is reversed-phase chromatography     6.    The chromatographic separation of mixtures of large molecules such as proteins may be accomplished by a mechanism called size exclusion chromatography or gel permeation chromatography.     7.    Separation of certain molecules is accomplished by a mechanism called affinity Chromatography in which specific binding between an antibody (stationary phase) and antigen (analyte) occur.

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7 Food Technology - 1

Introduction     1.    Food Science is the application of the physical, biological and behavioral science to the processing and marketing of foods (Margaret, 1968).     2.    Technology can be defined as the science dealing with knowledge of doing things efficiently and effectively.     3.    Food science helps us understand the theory example: what methods can best be used to store and preserve food to maintain quality and prevent spoilage.     4.    Food technology demonstrates how the food is stored, preserved, processed and transported and has been responsible for development of new techniques for processing and preservation of food on a commercial scale and for packaging it in such a way that it can be sold conveniently.     5.    Food science deals with the study of facts of the physical, chemical and biological sciences as they influence the processing and preservation of food.     6.    Food technology deals with engineering and other scientific and technical problems involved in transforming edible raw materials and other ingredients into safe, nutritious and appetizing food products (Desrosier, 1977).     7.    Food science is concerned with basic scientific facts about food, where as food technology concerned with the processing of raw materials into foods that meet human needs and wants.     8.    Indian agriculture has undergone a sea change during the past half a century. Starting with the campaign for “grow more foods” in the forties, India reached self sufficiency during the eighties.

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8 Codex Standard for Certain Pulses

Moisture Content   Two maximum moisture levels are provided to meet different climatic conditions and marketing practices. Lower values in the first column are suggested for countries with tropical climates or when long-term (more than one crop year) storage is a normal commercial practice. The values in the second column are suggested for more moderate climates or when other short term storage is the normal commercial practice.

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9 Cereal Processing

Cereal Processing     1.    The protein content of wheat grain varies widely, but for bread making a value of at least 11% is required.     2.    Low grain sulphur will result in low concentrations of the sulphur-containing amino acids, cystine and methionine, and may result in poor loaf volume.     3.    During seed germination endosperm starch is converted into soluble glucose and maltose to support the developing embryo. This is brought about by enzymatic activity, especially the enzyme a-amylase.     4.    Excessive a-amylase levels result in the formation of a darkened loaf crust as a result of sugar caramelization and a sticky crumb structure which can cause problems during slicing.     5.    Wheat with a protein level below 10% is preferred to reduce gluten elasticity.     6.    There is a very good correlation between grain nitrogen and the amount of malt extract achieved, low grain nitrogen giving more fermentable extract     7.    The term ‘coarse grains milling’ is a very broad one that refers to the comminution of the berries of the wheat, barley and other coarse grain crops.

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10 Meat and Meat Products

Meat and Meat Products     1.    Meat can be defined as “the muscle tissue of slaughter animals”.     2.    meat is composed of water, fat, protein, minerals and a small proportion of carbohydrate

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11 Dairy Technology

    1.    The heifer is bred (naturally or by insemination) before the age of two years.     2.    The gestation period is nine months and one week.     3.    After calving, the cow gives milk for 10 months.     4.    1 – 2 months after calving the cow will again be bred.     5.    The cow then continues to give milk for about 300 days. This period is known as lactation.     6.    Milk should preferably be handled in a closed system, to minimise the risk of contamination. It must be cooled to 4 °C as soon as it is produced.     7.    The content of protein, lactose and ash is somewhat higher in buffalo milk than in cow milk. Buffalo milk contains vitamin A, but lacks b-carotene, which is present in cow’s milk.     8.    When milk and cream turn to butter, there is a phase inversion from an oil-in-water emulsion to a water-in-oil emulsion.     9.    In milk, the whey proteins are in colloidal solution and the casein in colloidal suspension.

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12 Functional Foods

Nutraceuticals and Health Foods     1.    According to the International Food Information Council (IFIC), functional foods are “foods or dietary components that may provide a health benefit beyond basic nutrition.”     2.    Nutraceuticals : A product isolated and purified from foods that is generally- sold in medicinal forms are usually associated with food. A nutraceutical is demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against chronic disease (Coined originally by Stephen DeFelice in 1989, founder and chairman of the Foundation for Innovation in Medicine, USA).     3.    The International Life Sciences Institute of North America (ILSI) has defined functional foods as “foods that by virtue of physiologically active food components provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition     4.    Health Canada defines functional foods as “similar in appearance to a conventional food, consumed as part of the usual diet, with demonstrated physiological benefits, and/or to reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic nutritional functions.”

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13 Herbs and Spices

1. Herbs and Spices             1.    International Standards Organization (ISO) defines spices and condiments as: Vegetable products or mixtures thereof, free from extraneous matter, used for flavouring, seasoning and imparting aroma in foods.     2.    Rosengarten describes a spice as a product which enriches or alters the quality of a thing, for example altering the taste of a food to give it zest or pungency; a piquant or lasting flavouring; or a relish. The term ‘spice’ is thus used to cover the use of spices, herbs and certain aromatic vegetables to impart odour and flavour to foods.     3.    Herbs may be defined as the dried leaves of aromatic plants used to impart flavour and odour to foods with, sometimes, the addition of colour. The leaves are commonly traded separately from the plant stems and leaf stalks.

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14 Fruits and Vegetables

    1.    Vegetables are less acidic than fruits and food poisoning bacteria are able to grow in many vegetable products     2.    Different levels of acidity in fruits     3.    Water for cleaning of fruits and vegetables should contain about 200 ppm of chlorine (by mixing 1 litre of bleach into 250 litres of water)     4.    Water that is used as an ingredient in fruits and vegetable product should not contain more than 0.5 ppm chlorine (by adding 2.5 ml of bleach to 250 litres of water), to avoid contaminating products with a chlorine smell

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15 Food Processing and Technology

Food Processing Technology     1.    The transition from solid to fluid and back is known as a phase transition and this is important in many types of food processing (e.g. water to water vapour in evaporation and distillation and dehydration; water to ice in freezing and freeze drying or freeze concentration or crystallisation of fats.       2.    Phase transition takes place isothermally at the phase transition temperature by release or absorption of latent heat, and can be represented by a phase diagram.     3.    A second type of transition, known as glass transition, takes place without the release or absorption of latent heat and involves the transition of a food to an amorphous glass state at its glass transition temperature.     4.    The transition is dependent on the temperature of the food, time, and the moisture content of the food.     5.    The density of a material is equal to its mass divided by its volume and has units of kgm-3

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16 Food Processing and Technology - 2

    1.    Food : defined as something which is eaten / drunk by human beings or something we eat and which can be utilized by our body.     2.    Milk and milk products like Dahi, yoghurt, paneer, cheese, Khoa etc these foods are rich sources of Vitamin A, Riboflavin and Calcium.     3.    Meat, fish, poultry etc besides proteins these foods also provide Iron and B- complex Vitamins.     4.    Eggs and egg products are also rich in Iron, Vitamin A and Riboflavin (B1).     5.    Pulses, nuts and oil seeds are also a good source of thiamin, niacin, and Iron.     6.    Strategies and measures for alleviating the world food problem require.

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17 Food Processing and Technology - 3

Storage Systems     1.    Low cost storage technology         ·    In situ : Means delaying the harvest until the crop is required and employed      for the root crops.         ·    Sand and Coir : Used for the Potatoes         ·    Pits used for the Potatoes         ·    Clamps used for the Potatoes              Wind breaks used for the Onions – 6 months 1m height wooden stakes         ·    Cellars : under ground / partly under ground. Ex: Apples, cabbage,      onions and potatoes during winter.         ·    Barns : In Sudan onions are stored in palm leaf barns called “Rakubas”.         ·    Evaporative Coolers         ·    Zero energy cooling chambers         ·    Night ventilation.     2.    As a general rule, air circulation of storage room is designed to provide about 25m2 / min / 3000 K cal of refrigeration predicated on a 5.5ºC     3.    Frozen storage refers to storage at temperature where food is maintained in frozen conditions.     4.    Good frozen storage generally means - 18ºC / below.     5.    Below – 9.4ºC, there is no significant growth of microorganisms in food.

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18 Food Processing and Technology - 4

    1.    Microbial Risk Assessment (MRA) can be considered a tool for use in the management of the risks posed by food borne pathogens and in the elaboration of standards for food in international trade.     2.    MRA comprises risk assessments of particular pathogen - commodity combinations     3.    According to codex alimentarious commission (CAC) microbial risk assessment is defined as a scientifically based process consisting of 4 components.         ·    Hazard identification         ·    Exposure assessment         ·    Hazard characterization         ·    Risk characterization

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19 Unit Operations

1. Fundamental Concepts of Unit Operations     1.    Process is the set of activities or industrial operations that modify the properties of raw materials with the purpose of obtaining products to satisfy the needs of a society.     2.    Food process engineering includes the part of human activity in which the knowledge of physical, natural, and economic sciences is applied to agricultural products as related to their composition, energetic content, or physical state.     3.    Food process engineering can also be defined as “the science of conceiving, calculating, designing, building, and running the facilities where the transformation processes of agricultural products, at the industrial level and as economically as possible, are carried out.     4.    In a discontinuous operation the raw material is loaded in the equipment; after performing the required transformation, the obtained products are unloaded. These operations, also called “batch” or “intermittent,” are carried out in steps:

437 - 440 (4 Pages)
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20 Instructions for Establishment, Registration and Processing

Instructions for establishment registration and processing, filing for acidified and low-acid canned foods Acid Food   A food that has a natural pH of 4.6 or below.   Acidified Food   A low-acid food to which acid(s) or acid food(s) are added and which has a finished equilibrium pH of 4.6 or below and a water activity (aw) greater than 0.85.   Authorized Company Representative   The person authorized by the company to sign the registration and process filing forms on its behalf. That person should possess the knowledge necessary to answer technical questions concerning filed processes.

441 - 448 (8 Pages)
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21 Food Packaging

Food Packaging     1.    Food packaging : A wrap, pouch, bag, box, cup, tray, can, tube, bottle and jar are some of the many forms of packaging that contain food products. It must contain a food product as well as protect and preserve it for a specific length of time. Each package must, by law, display product information for the consumer.     2.    Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) is an economical material with low WVTR; however, it has high permeabilities to flavours/volatiles, poor grease resistance and are limp.       3.    High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is stiffer, more translucent and has better barrier properties but needs higher temperature for sealing.     4.    A copolymer of polyethylene and poly vinyl alcohol, and EVOH has outstanding gas barrier properties especially when dry.     5.    High-density polyethylene is stiff, strong, tough, resistant to chemicals and moisture, permeable to gas, easy to process, and easy to form. It is used to make bottles for milk, juice, and water; cereal box liners; margarine tubs; and grocery, trash, and retail bags.     6.    Low-density polyethylene is flexible, strong, tough, easy to seal, and resistant to moisture. Because low-density polyethylene is relatively transparent, it is predominately used in film applications and in applications where heat sealing is necessary. Bread and frozen food bags, flexible lids, and squeezable food bottles are examples of low-density polyethylene.

449 - 458 (10 Pages)
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22 Food and Industrial Microbiology

Food and Industrial Microbiology     1.    Microbiology often has been defined as the study of organisms and agents too small to be seen clearly by the unaided eye—that is, the study of microorganisms     2.    Two bacteria that are visible without a microscope, Thiomargarita and Epulopiscium.     3.    Procaryotic cells [Greek pro, before, and karyon, nut or kernel; organism with a primordial nucleus] have a much simpler morphology than eucaryotic cells and lack a true membrane-delimited nucleus. All bacteria are procaryotic.     4.    Eukaryotic cells [Greek eu, true, and karyon, nut or kernel] have a membrane- enclosed nucleus; they are more complex morphologically and are usually larger than procaryotes. Algae, fungi, protozoa, higher plants, and animals are eucaryotic.     5.    The ordinary microscope is called a bright-field microscope because it forms a dark image against a brighter background

459 - 466 (8 Pages)
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23 Water Activity

    1.    Water activity (aw) affects food chemistry and can be controlled by removal (dehydration or drying) or by chemically binding the water, reducing its activity. Water activity in foods ranges from 0.95 to 1.00 in fresh meats and vegetables to 0.20 in dried milk.     2.    Water activity (aw) may be defined in a number of ways, qualitatively, aw is a measure of unbound, free water in a system available to support biological and chemical reactions.     3.    Water activity, not absolute water content, is what bacteria, enzymes, and chemical reactants encounter and is affected by at the micro environmental level in food materials.     4.    Two foods with the same water content can have very different aw values depending upon the degree to which the water is free or otherwise bound to food constituents.     5.    The term “water activity” is related to relative humidity. Relative humidity is defined as the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapour in the air to the vapour pressure of pure water at the same temperature.     6.    Water activity or aw is a property of solutions and is the ratio of vapour pressure of the solution compared with the vapour pressure of pure water at the same temperature. Under equilibrium conditions water activity equals:

467 - 470 (4 Pages)
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24 The Stability and Shelf Life of Foods

1. The Stability and Shelf-Life of Food     1.    In the UK, the date coding to be used is determined by the total life of the product: for microbiologically highly perishable foods, a ‘use by’ date is needed, while for other foods, including foods with more than 18 months’ shelf-life, a ‘best before’ or a ‘best before end’ date is needed.     2.    IFT (1974) definition of shelf-life, is : The period between manufacture and retail purchase of a food product during which the product is of satisfactory quality.     3.    Shelf-life is defined as the time during which the food product will :         i.    remain safe;         ii.    be certain to retain desired sensory, chemical, physical and      microbiological characteristics;         iii.    comply with any label declaration of nutritional data,

471 - 500 (30 Pages)
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25 Food Safety and Quality Management Systems

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) System 1. Identify hazards    It is important to be able to identify the possible microbiological, chemical and physical hazards that can occur at every stage of the food business – from growth, processing, manufacture, storage and distribution, until the point where it is sold to the customer and eaten.     ·    Microbiological Hazards : Any bacterium, virus, or protozoan that is capable of causing illness and that grows or may be carried on food. Well-known examples of bacteria are Campylobacter, Listeria and Salmonella. The most likely food-borne viruses are the Norwalk type viruses. Giardia is an example of a protozoan that may be food borne. It is important to have some understanding of the risks associated with different types of microbiological hazards.     ·    Chemical Hazards : Examples include excessive or toxic amounts of heavy metals, chemicals, pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, vitamins, minerals, preservatives, disinfectants, detergents and cleaning compounds. Some hazards may be naturally present such as in green potatoes or taro and rhubarb leaves.     ·    Physical Hazards : Objects that get into food, or are already present in food, may cause illness, injury or distress to the person eating it. Some examples are glass, metal fragments etc. Other contaminants such as hair or insects may be offensive but not necessarily a danger to health. They should nonetheless be considered and controlled

501 - 510 (10 Pages)
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26 Labelling of Foods

1. Food Labelling Food labelling is the primary means of communication between the producer and seller of food on one hand, and the purchaser and consumer on the other. Basic Terminology in Food labelling ‘‘Food” means any substance, whether processed, semi-processed or raw, which is intended for human consumption, and includes drinks, chewing gum and any substance which has been used in the manufacture, preparation or treatment of “food” but does not include cosmetics or tobacco or substances used only as drugs. ‘‘Ingredient” means any substance, including a food additive, used in the manufacture or preparation of a food and present in the final product although possibly in a modified form.

511 - 520 (10 Pages)
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27 Food Safety and Standards : Rules and Regulations, 2009

Food Safety and Standards Rules and Regulations-2009     1.    The Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 has been passed by the Parliament with the intention to integrate all present food laws into one and to have a single regulatory body.     2.    Accordingly the Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) has been established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (FSS Act, 2006) with the mandate to lay down science based standards for articles of food and to regulate their manufacture, storage, distribution, sale and import, to ensure availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption.     3.    In exercise of the powers conferred by section 91 of the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 (34 of 2006), the Central Government hereby makes the rules and regulations.     4.    ‘‘Anti-oxidant’’ means a substance which when added to food retards or prevents oxidative deterioration of food and does not include sugar, cereal, oils, flours, herbs and spices.

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28 Important Interview Queries

    1.    Control points are the points in the food processing chain where it is possible to control or remove hazards.     2.    Critical control points are the control points in the processing chain where it is essential to a hazard, usually because there is no later step at which to establish control.     3.    Preventative measures are the actions and activities needed to remove hazards or control them by reducing them to acceptable levels.     4.    Critical limits for critical control points are measurements such as temperature and time, that must be met, or characteristics such as appearance and texture. Critical limits need to be validated.     5.    Monitoring is the regular measurement or observation of a critical control point to ensure it is not beyond its critical limits.     6.    Take corrective action to bring the process back under control before the problem (‘deviation’) leads to a safety hazard. Consider proper management (disposition) of any adversely affected product.     7.    Verification procedures are tests and programmes that make sure the HACCP system working properly     8.    Record keeping and documentation systems must meet the needs of the business and be adequate to show that the food safety programme is working.

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29 FAQs in Food Technology Entrance Exams

    1.    Wohler (1828) synthesized the first organic compound, urea from inorganic components.     2.    Emil Fischer (1894) demonstrated the specificity of enzymes and the lock and key relationship between enzyme and substrate.     3.    Michaelis and Menten (1913) developed kinetic theory of enzyme action     4.    Watson and Crick (1953) Proposed the double-helical model for DNA structure     5.    Ingo potrykus (1999) Golden rice- rich in b-carotene.     6.    Glyoxysomes : Glyoxysomes are temporary in that they occur during transient periods in the life cycle of a plant such as in certain beans and nuts which store fats in their seeds as energy reserves. Glyoxysomes appear in the first few days after seed germination in endosperm cells and associate closely with lipid bodies. They disappear after the storage fats are broken down and converted into carbohydrate.

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30 Latest Trends in Food Science and Technology

    1.    Cereals are grown over 73% of the total world harvested area and contribute over 60% of the world food production providing dietary fibre, proteins, energy, minerals,  vitamins, b-glucans , Oligosaccharides, such as lactulose, fructo-oligosaccharides, transgalacto-oligosaccharides     2.    Finger millet is a potent source of antioxidants and has potent radical-scavenging activity that is higher than that of wheat, rice, and other millets; these results corresponded to their phenolic content     3.    The brown or red variety of finger millet, which is commonly available, had higher activity (94%) than the white variety (4%) using the DPPH method.     4.    Most of the herbal plant polyphenols are known to have multi functional properties such as reducing agents, hydrogen donating antioxidants and singlet oxygen quenchers and flavonoids and their derivatives are the largest and most important group of polyphenols.     5.    Phytosterols are found in plant foods and are structurally and functionally analogous to cholesterol in vertebrate animals. a-sitosterol, campesterol and stigmasterol are the most commonly occurring phytosterols and constitute 95% of total phytosterols in the diet.

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31 Top 100 Food and Beverage Processing Companies

1. Tyson Foods Inc.  2210 W. Oaklawn Drive, Springdale, AR 72762-6999  Phone  : 479-290-4000; Fax  : 479-290-4061; Web site  : Executives : Chairman : John Tyson; Pres./CEO : Richard Bond; SVP-Intl. Ops. : Mike Baker; SVP-Commodity Trading & Risk Management : Jean Mrha Beach; Group VP-Research & Development, Logistics & Tech Services : Hal Carper; SVP & CIO : Gary Cooper; Group VP & International Pres. : Rick Greubel Jr.; SVP, Controller & CAO : Craig Hart; VP, Assoc. General Counsel & Secretary : R. Read Hudson; Group VP-Ops : Donnie King; SVP-Human Resources : Ken Kimbro; EVP & CFO : Dennis Leatherby; Group VP-Food Service : Bernard Leonard; Sr. Group VP-Fresh Meats : James Lochner; SVP-External Relations : Archie Shaffer III; Group VP-Consumer Prods : Donnie Smith; EVP & General Counsel : David Van Bebber; SVP-Renewable Products : Jeff Webster; VP-Investor Relations & Asst. Secretary : Ruth Ann Wisener

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