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Dr. Sunil Kumar
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Dr. Sunil Kumar
Dr. Sunil Kumar: Department of Animal Science, GBPUA&T Hill Campus, Ranichauri, Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand – 249 199, India

There has been a tremendous increase in the production of livestock products and this is expected to continue in the coming future. This is especially in developing countries. The greatest increase is in the production of poultry and pigs, as well as eggs and milk. Livestock production can make good use of resources, some of which may otherwise not be used, and contributes high quality protein and important micronutrients to the human diet.

0 Start Pages

Acknowledgements We owe our sincere gratitude to Vice-chancellor, GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar who has kindly consented to allow us to edit this book. With great respect, immense pleasure and esteemed reverence, we express our thanks to Dr. PS Bisht, Dean, College of Forestry and Hill Agriculture, Hill Campus, Ranichauri for his critical and continuous guidance throughout shaping the manuscript and deserve sincere thanks for his blessing and to write foreword of the book.  The moral and academic appreciation also received from Dr R.B. Prasad, Ex Professor, Animal Genetics and Breeding, College of Veterinary and Animal Science, GBPUA&T, Pantnagar. We would never have been able to finish the assignment without the guidance of Dr RB Verma, Dr VK Yadav, Dr SK Sharma. We owe our thanks to all the contributors of the book who have submitted the valuable information on various aspects of Livestock Production and encourage to publish this book. Editors wish to record a word of appreciation to New India Publishing Agency, New Delhi for accepting the manuscript and shaping this book in a beautiful manner. All the words in the lexicon will be futile and meaningless if we fail to express our reverence to family members and Mr Abhishek Bahuguna for their blessing, affection, sacrifice and cheerful cooperation to overcome the hurdle.

1 Recent Advances and Future Prospects of Embryo Transfer Technology
Rajesh Kumar Sharma and Rajinder Singh Kishtwaria

Preamble The recent advances in embryo transfer protocols have placed these techniques as widely adopted means of developing experimental models to understand complex biological processes such as feto-maternal dialogue, fetal programming and maternal effects on early development. This has noticeably widened the scope of embryo transfer programs which are now not only limited to transferring the genetically superior embryos from donors to recipients for faster genetic improvement, or as only the therapeutic tools in human medicine, but has embarked these techniques as basic research tools in biological research. It is however critical to achieve effective synchronization between donors and recipients along with optimal superovulation in donors to get more number of transferable embryos and subsequently greater conception rates of recipients. For transfer, the embryos are collected Day 6 or 7 post insemination of donors. An overall discussion of sequential steps to achieve successful embryo transfer along with recent advances in the subject area and its possible future scope is discussed in this chapter.

1 - 22 (22 Pages)
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2 Application of Molecular Markers in Livestock Improvement
Vikas Mahajan and Dhirendra Kumar

Brief History 1953: discovery of the molecular structure of DNA 1961-1965: decoding of the genetic code 1977: first method developed for DNA sequencing 1980: the principle of genetic mapping by anonymous molecular markers 1987: first “automatic” DNA sequencing machine developed 1990: publication of the BLAST algorithm for the comparison of DNA sequences

23 - 52 (30 Pages)
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3 Bioinformatics in Livestock Production and Management
Dhirendra Kumar, Pranav Kumar and Vibha Raj Shanti

Bioinformatics is the study of analysis of biological data using computer programming, mathematics and statistics. Bioinformatics is the application of computer science and information technology to the field of biological sciences. Bioinformatics involves databases and information systems, web technologies, artificial intelligence and soft computing, information and computation theory, software engineering and statistics. The one of the most important achievement of bioinformatics is the human genome project which was mapped in 2001. Most of the work in this field is based on the research. Scientists make databases and develop different tools to analyze different gene expressions. Within last few decades, a number of research  in the field of molecular biology, along with advances in genomic technologies, have generated a huge number of biological information  Similar is the case in the field of animal production where many advances have occurred. The day to day advances in bioinformatics and computational science have led development in the field of animal as well as veterinary science. Bioinformatics generates new knowledge in the field of Animal Sciences, and improving & discovering new models of computation for the advanced livestock production.

53 - 64 (12 Pages)
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4 Laboratory Animals in Animal Breeding: A Review
Bharat Bhushan, Manjit Panigrahi and G K Gaur

Introduction   Animals used for experimental research purpose, which show results resembling to human beings are known as lab animals. They are mostly used because of their small size, lesser feed and space requirement. Furthermore, they are not natural host for most of the animal / human pathogens. The laboratory animal research is conducted at universities, medical colleges, pharmaceutical companies, farms, defense establishments and commercial facilities that provide animal-testing services to industry. It includes basic research in the area of genetics, developmental biology, behavioural science etc., as well as applied research in the area of biomedical science, xenotransplantation and drugs including cosmetics testing. Laboratory animals are also used for education, breeding and defense research. The common laboratory animals are mice, rats, hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits. However, cats, dogs, monkeys, goats, sheep, cattle, pig, horses, fishes etc. can also be utilized as laboratory animals for experimental purpose in biomedical sciences.

65 - 84 (20 Pages)
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5 Impact of Nutrition on Reproductive Efficiency of Small Ruminants
V P Maurya, V Sejian, Gyanendra Singh and Mihir Sarkar

Introduction Sheep and goats have a vital economic importance in India, inhabitant in semi-arid region and mostly rose under harsh environmental conditions (high ambient temperature, scarcity of feed and water). The arid and semi-arid regions of India are drought prone due to low and uneven rainfall.  The vegetation of arid and semi-arid tract is more acute during summer when the quality of the pastures becomes vulnerable which in turn decreases the body condition score of animals and reproductive efficiency is being compromised (Maurya et al. 2009a & 2010).  The small ruminants are widely distributed in comparison of other domesticated species. These species of livestock is also a source of employment for marginal and land-less farmers particularly in the arid and semi-arid region of India. Most of the Indian farmers have limited resources and small ruminants production offers an opportunity to alleviate financial conditions and improve living standards.

85 - 94 (10 Pages)
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6 Cactus (Opuntia) as Strategic Source of Feed for Farm Animals in Arid and Semi-arid Regions
Abed M Al-Bial, Jai Singh and Ram Niwas

Introduction   Agricultural activity in the arid and semi-arid divided into two main components are plant production and animal production. Animal production is associated with a component of a large proportion of workers in the agricultural sector, either individually or as part of agricultural activity Integrative. The livestock are plays major role in the lives of the rural population to the availability of several important products such as meat and dairy products. Farm animals in the arid and semi-arid depend on their feeding mainly on crop residues and natural pastures that do not meet their needs due to scarcity of resources in these regions. Such scarcity is caused by a number of factors; the most important factor is limited agricultural land devoted to cultivation of fodder crops, low rainfall and the deterioration of natural pastures. However, there are many studies in different countries suggesting the possibility of widespread exploitation of cactus as a strategic resource, especially in the areas of low rainfall and scarce feed resources (FAO 2007). Those studies recommend the use Cactus to feed cows, goats, sheep and rabbits without causing any problems to the animals’ health. In addition, it can be used as medicine and cosmetics for humans and for many other uses.

95 - 102 (8 Pages)
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7 Computation of Ration for Cattle and Buffaloes
Shalik Gram Shukla

As an engine requires fuel to run, similarly the animal body requires food to run its vital activities. Food, after its digestion, absorption and oxidation, provides energy to the body. The energy thus obtained is utilized by the animal for maintenance, growth, reproduction and production. Hence, a good quality of food should be provided to the animal so that it may fulfil all the requirements of the animal. Food contains water, carbohydrates fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals which are essential constituents of the body and indispensable for life. Water being an essential constituent of protoplasm carries out many other important and inevitable functions in the body. Water helps the body absorb nutrients from the food and throw out wastes from body in the form of sweat and urine. Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins provide energy to the body. Fat provides 2.25 times more energy than carbohydrate and proteins. Besides providing energy, proteins are also essential for body building, growth and repair of wear and tear of the body tissues. Vitamins protect the body against diseases and help in keeping eyes, gums, skin, teeth and bones healthy. Vitamins are required by the body in small quantities. Vitamins are essential for normal growth, health and reproduction. Prolonged deficiency of vitamins causes characteristic diseases. Minerals required in small quantities are essential for normal growth of body and maintaining good health. Skeleton system of the body contains principally Calcium and Phosphorus with small amount of Magnesium.

103 - 118 (16 Pages)
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8 Minerals: An Important Micronutrient in Livestock Enterprises
Ravindra Kumar Tiwari and Sunil Kumar

There are six major classes of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, fibre, proteins, minerals and vitamins. Water is not a nutrient but play important role in livestock industry. These nutrient classes can be categorized as either macronutrients (needed in relatively large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients are carbohydrates, fats, fiber, and proteins. The micronutrients are minerals and vitamins. The term minerals is used by nutritionists to refer to inorganic chemical elements, but is used by many other scientists to mean a homogeneous crystalline compounds. Mineral elements are not inert materials. Mineral elements may change valence states and are transferred from one chemical compound to another. Minerals are active participants in enzymatic reactions, have specificity of function, and are critical to life.

119 - 154 (36 Pages)
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9 Heat Stress and Livestock: Impact and Adaptive Mechanisms
V Sejian, V P Maurya and Gyanendra Singh

Introduction A huge increase in the demand of animal production is expected in the next decades. Food and water security will be one of the other priorities for humankind in the 21st century. Over the same period the World will experience a change in the global climate that will cause shifts in local climate that will impact on local and global agriculture (Nardone et al. 2010). Global climate change is expected to alter temperature, precipitation, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and water availability in ways that will affect the productivity of crop and livestock systems (Hatfield et al. 2008). For livestock systems, climate change could affect the costs and returns of production by altering the thermal environment of animals thereby affecting animal health, reproduction, and the efficiency by which livestock convert feed into retained products (especially meat and milk).

155 - 174 (20 Pages)
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10 Examination of Sick Animals and Management of Diseases
Ajay Kumar Upadhyay

Deviation from normal well being may be for various kinds involving one or more organs and exhibiting array of symptoms. Examination of animals for diagnosis of disease is strenuous process because investigator has just got to know by several means of examination. The evidences produced by owner, animal house, feed being provided supported by prevailing environment and climate are immensely helpful in accurate diagnosis. Diagnosis, of production related diseases, is more difficult because of biasness in history revealed by the owner. At the same time diagnoses of poisonings are also not easy because owner’s description about possible cause and symptoms exhibited by sick animals are vague. So careful quizzing of owner about each and every aspect of disease and animal obviously seems to be first step towards diagnosis, followed by examination of animal. Examination of environment in relation to history revealed by owner and observations drawn from the examination of animal can infer some conclusion about cause of disease. Support of laboratory examinations such as fecal test, blood test and urinalysis are important tools in disease investigation. Following steps are essential in disease diagnosis.

175 - 236 (62 Pages)
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11 Livestock for Sustainable Agriculture
Manish Kumar, Sunil Kumar and Teena Rani

Introduction “Sustainable development as a concept represents the latest step in a long evolution of public concerns with respect to both natural resources and environment”. It is defined as “development that meets the needs for the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. This definition indicates that to meet their needs, the present generations have no right to overuse natural resources and the environment, which will ultimately threat the living standards of the future generations. Therefore, stewardship of both natural and human resources is of prime importance (Freenstra 1997). Advocates of sustainable development perceive that the biosphere imposes limits on economic growth, express a lack of faith in either science or technology as leading to human betterment, are extremely averse to environmental risks, support redistributive justice and egalitarian ethics, profess concern over population growth and have faith in the wisdom of human capital development, and have survival of species and protection of the environment and of minority cultures, rather economic growth per se, as goals.

237 - 264 (28 Pages)
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12 Nutraceuticals in Livestock Practices
Ravindra Kumar and Prabhat Tripathi

Several centuries ago, Father of medicine Hippocrates, has said “Let food be your medicine”. Our traditional therapies or alternative medicine effectively integrated this concept and include herbal remedies, nutritional interventions like vitamins/minerals supplementation specialized diets etc, and other techniques such as acupuncture, relaxation regimens, and homeopathic medicines. While, in modern medical science medicines are used to cure diseases which may have some inherited side effects. From the final decade of the last century, a renewed interest was seen in traditional therapies and people are thinking of integrated medicine with a focus on prevention of disease rather than its cure. In this context many terms like “dietary supplements”, “nutraceuticals” and “functional foods” were frequently used to address this issue. The term “nutraceutical” was coined from “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical” in 1989 by Stephen DeFelice, MD, founder and chairman of the Foundation for Innovation in Medicine (FIM). Nutraceutical can be defined as, “a food or part of a food, that provides health benefits, including the prevention and treatment of a disease.” However, the term nutraceutical as commonly used in marketing has no regulatory definition. There is confusion between the closely related terms nutraceuticals, functional food and dietary supplement. Kalra (2003) differentiated between these terms as: Functional food provides the body with the required amount of vitamins, fats, proteins, carbohydrates, etc, needed for its healthy survival. When functional food aids in the prevention and treatment of disease(s) and disorder(s) other than anemia, it is called a nutraceutical.

265 - 272 (8 Pages)
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13 Goat Improvement for Milk Production
Rajendra Kumar Pandey

Historical background of dairy goats Small ruminants sector plays an important role in the national economy. This enterprise is associated with social and cultural fabric of millions of resource poor farmers. Small ruminant especially goats gain importance mainly on account of their short generation intervals, higher rates of prolificacy and the ease with which they can be marketed. They are very useful in semi-arid and arid zone where they can sustain themselves on sparse vegetation and esteemed climatic conditions.   There are four main breeds of dairy goats commonly found in Western Country, namely, Alpine, Nubians, Saanens and Toggenburgs. They are considered to be the best milking breeds of the world. All these four breeds have recently been introduced in India for improvement of milk quality of local goats. These breeds have been improved by selection, upgrading, and the wise use of pedigree records and registration over a period of more than half a century in Europe and North America.

273 - 288 (16 Pages)
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14 Guinea Fowl as an Alternative Source of Chicken
Brijesh Singh

Introduction The present world wide situation of food items calls for a broad range of poultry alternatives to meet increasing demand of quality protein. Besides, complication involved in managing chicken, emergence of new diseases, increase in feed cost and increasing demand of poultry meat bound us to search for alternative species of poultry. In this circumstance rearing of Guinea fowl framed for centuries to meet poultry production requirements of diversified agricultural milieu. The traditionally reared Guinea fowl could become a significant source of food and also a source for substantial supplement income. History   Guinea fowl a bird of West African origin came to India during mediaeval age. Now guinea fowl are being raised in the districts of eastern Uttar Pradesh and in some parts of Tamilnadu. The birds are very popular with marginal farmers and poor classes and are being largely kept as foragers and insectivorous under semi-range and range conditions.

289 - 296 (8 Pages)
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15 Dairy Farm Management for Profit: An Overview
B K Mishra

India has the highest livestock population in the world with 50% of the buffaloes and 20% of the world’s cattle population, most of which are milch cows and milch buffaloes. The dairy industry in our country is considered as one of the most successful development programmes in the post-Independence period. In the year 2006-07the total milk production in the country was over 94.6 million tonnes with a per capita availability of 229 gm. per day. The industry had been recording an annual growth of 4% during the period 1993-2005, which is almost 3 times the average growth rate of the dairy industry in the world. Milk processing in India is around 35%, of which the organized dairy industry account for 13% of the milk produced, while the rest of the milk is either consumed at farm level, or sold as fresh, non-pasteurized milk through unorganized channels. Dairy Cooperatives account for the major share of processed liquid milk marketed in the India. Milk is processed and marketed by 170 Milk Producers’ Cooperative Unions, which federate into 15 State Cooperative Milk Marketing Federations. Over the years, several brands have been created by cooperatives like Amul (GCMMF), Vijaya (AP), Verka (Punjab), Saras (Rajasthan). Nandini (Karnataka), Milma (Kerala) and Gokul (Kolhapur). Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu are the milk surplus states in India.

297 - 322 (26 Pages)
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16 Handling and Processing of Animal By-products for Economic Returns
Vikas Pathak and V.P. Singh

To sustain the meat industry in profitable manner, efficient utilization of meat by-products is an important issue. In today’s competitive world the realization of old saying “Only the last cry of the animal is wasted” has become essential. The utilization of by-products not only ensures additional revenue but also reduce the cost of various mandatory disposal treatments. The live animals are becoming costlier over the dressed carcass which compels the utilization of by-products. Moreover, unused by-products is also a great threat to environment and public-health apart from loosing nutritional resources. According to FAO (2004) estimates 106.75 million livestock and more than 650 million poultry birds were slaughtered annually in India leading to production of 6.3 million MT meat and different by-products of appreciable value. Now a day’s various techniques are available for the utilization of by-products for different purposes still significant portion of the by-products are unutilized and poses huge economic losses. Animal By-products are the portions of animal body which are not included in dressed carcass. Animal by-products can be estimated by subtracting the dressing percentage from 100. Dressing percentage is inversely proportional to the byproducts means lower the dressing percentage, higher will be the yield of by-products and vice versa. In normal cases dressing percentage usually ranges between 50-70 percent and by-products yield in between 30-50 percent. However, the actual percentage may be higher because it excludes the weight of bones in muscles which is a part of dressed carcass.

323 - 336 (14 Pages)
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17 Vermibiotechnology: A Micro Enterprise for Rural Development and Sustainable Agriculture
Ran Vir Singh

Introduction After introduction  of Green Revolution and White  Revolution in our country, India had high growth in food and milk production but farmers of our country had  applying more chemical fertilizers, insecticides  pesticides, weedicides and various medicines  in injudicious way  to increase grain, vegetable, fruit, flower, milk, meat and egg production . Due to this reason soil fertilely and soil health is deteriorating continuously. The soil  of food bowl states of our country viz. Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and plain area of Uttarakhand deficient in organic matter, macro and micro and trace elements. Now soil became non living due to death of earthworms and beneficial micro organism. Farmers are using mainly nitrogen, phosphorus and potash in crop production. However there are 15 essential plant nutrition’s for growing of crops. Due to more application of chemical fertilizers in crop production these days’ farmers are not properly using organic, green and compost manures in crop husbandry. Soil fertility and ground water level has been declined very fast by adopting intensive farming.

337 - 352 (16 Pages)
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18 Vaccines: A Boon for the Animals
Ram Niwas, D P Singh and Abed M Al-Bial

In its original concept, vaccination aims to mimic the development of naturally acquired immunity by inoculation of nonpathogenic but still immunogenic components of the pathogen in question, or closely related organisms. The term “vaccine” (from the Latin term “vacca,” meaning cow) was first coined by Edward Jenner to describe the inoculation of humans with the cowpox virus to confer protection against the related human smallpox virus and illustrates the close relationship between human and animal infectious disease sciences. The famous proverb saying ‘Prevention is better than cure’ implies perfectly to the vaccines. Vaccines have proven to be boon for animals which can be regard a potential weapons against infectious diseases caused mainly by bacteria and viruses. The major aims of veterinary vaccines are to improve the health and welfare of companion animals, increase production of livestock in a cost-effective manner, and prevent animal-to-human transmission from both domestic animals and wildlife. Vaccines have long been used to combat infectious disease; however the last decade has witnessed a revolution in the approach to vaccine design and development. Apart from improving animal health and productivity, veterinary vaccines have a significant impact on public health through reductions in the use of veterinary pharmaceuticals and hormones and their residues in the human food chain.

353 - 366 (14 Pages)
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19 Ethnoveterinary Management of Livestock Diseases by Inhabitants of Central Himalaya
Lalit Tiwari, Nitin Rai, Rajeev Kumar Sharma and P C Pande

Introduction Harshberger first used the term ethnobotany in 1895-96, for the plants used by the local tribes and people, for their basic needs and requirements. They also used plant, plant parts and plant products for animal healthcare and other practices. This indigenous or traditional animal health care practice is called ethnoveterinary medicine. Ethnoveterinary medicine is defined as a holistic comprehension of the indigenous systems of animal health, their interpretation through western medicine and the development of effective and appropriate technologies (McCorkle 1986). McCorkle et al. (1989) define Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) as dealing with the folk beliefs, knowledge, skills, methods and practices pertaining to the health care of animals. McCorkle et al. (1996) give a description of ethnoveterinary medicinal research as the holistic interdisciplinary study of the local knowledge and the socio-cultural structures and environment associated with animal health care and husbandry.   EVM consists of local people’s knowledge pertaining to animal health and production. According to Mathias (1996 & 2002), it includes:

367 - 376 (10 Pages)
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20 Quality Standards of Medicinal Plants with Special Reference to Regulatory Aspects
Nitin Rai, Lalit Tiwari and R K Sharma

The quality of medicinal plants is paramount in respect of its therapeutic value. The therapeutic value of a plant solely depends on its genuineness in respect of its identity and optimum quantity of therapeutically active phyto-constituents. The medicinal plants are resourced from wild and cultivated sources. The major sources of medicinal plants are wild sources viz. forest areas, open land, non-cultivated sources etc. The medicinal plants collected from wild sources remain questionable for their quality especially when they have been procured from trade channels owing to fair chances of adulteration, substitution and inappropriate storage condition which lead to deterioration in quality. All the medicinal plants which are available in dried form in the trade are termed as crude drugs and are always subject to quality check in a laboratory on the basis of pharmacognostical, physico-chemical, phyto-chemical, microbiological and other analytical specifications. These specifications are available in pharmacopoeial monographs under regulatory frame work.  The pharmacopoeial standards are experimentally established and are also approved standards incorporated in a pharmacopoeia. A pharmacopoeia is a book of standards applicable to drug substance and their dosage forms of common usage in a country. Pharmacopoeia is prepared by recognized authority appointed by the Government of a particular country. It is an essential requirement of a regulatory framework in the sphere of Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules there under (Anonymous 1940). Pharmacopoeial standards are experimentally established and approved standards.

377 - 398 (22 Pages)
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