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Gopal Shukla, Bidhan Roy, Vineeta, Sumit Chakravarty
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Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are invaluable natural resources of use to human race, without which the survival of human/ animal race is incredible. There is an enormous diversity of plants which are put into medicinal, beauty care and culinary purposes. Cultivation of commercially important medicinal plants is in high demand as the global community is growing towards a green and herbal oriented approach. India as a country has thousands of years old traditional medicinal systems which rely solely on medicinal plants. There is a gradual loss of medicinal plants with the increasing demand of plant derived drugs.  Majority of medicinal plants are still collected from the wild. This doesn't meet the demand and thereby pave ways to adulterants. The over extraction and ignorant activities cause biodiversity loss. Farm production of MAPs in these days is extremely vulnerable to underlying climate risk. Sustainable management of these resources requires urgent attention for environmental stability and improvement of livelihood. New income generating opportunities are opening up for rural populations and in particular for small-scale farmers as well as marginal farmers through MAPs cultivation. New generation are not well aware of the various uses of many plants to which it was put before. Thus there is an urgent need to spread the knowledge and conserve the wild populations of medicinal plant diversity in various forest areas of India.

Considering the importance of the MAPs, an attempt was taken in this edited book to understand and highlight the role of MAPs in livelihood improvement and income generation through cultivation, conservation and utilisation. Most of the chapters in this book dealt with individual medicinal plants in detail. Two chapters have also been included on pests and diseases management of MAPs. Nowadays, IPR issues are more important. One chapter has been included on IPR issues on medicinal plants. A chapter also devoted on value addition of the medicinal plant products.

0 Start Pages

Preface India has rich diversity of medicinal plants. The supply base of 90% herbal raw drugs used in the manufacture of Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani and Homoeopathy systems of medicine is largely from the wild. This wild source is speedily shrinking day-by-day. Therefore, there is a need for conservation to sustain use of medicinal plants. Cultivation is clearly an alternative to maintain the present collection of medicinal plants from the wild. It was an integral part of the development of modern civilization. Primitive man observed and appreciated the great diversity of plants available to him. Even today, use of medicinal plants in primary health care system is very important, especially in remote rural communities and poorly accessible areas. Much of the medicinal use of plants seems to have been developed through observations of wild animals, and by trial and error. As time went on, each tribe added the medicinal power of herbs in their area to its knowledgebase. They methodically collected information on herbs and developed well defined herbal pharmacopoeias. In this context, to inculcate recognition and motivation of the young researcher, students and industries to emerging disease threat and to design effective management strategies through various conventional and modern approaches is need of the hour. The chapters in the book provide a current and detailed account of cultivation, utilization and conservation of medicinal plants. We hope that this edited book would help the students, teachers, researchers, policy makers and stakeholders to foster traditionally used ethno-medicinal plants and their conservation strategies. We sincerely thank all the authors for their valuable contributions for providing us valuable research material for shaping the book. All the words in the lexicon will be futile and meaningless if fail to express our reference to faculty members and students for their blessing, affection, sacrifice and cheerful cooperation to overcome the hurdle. We thank New India Publishing Agency, Pitam Pura, New Delhi for accepting such valuable publication.

1 Vedic Medicine: A Trail on History Origin and Development
D.A. Patil

1. Introduction Vedic system of medicine, also called Hindu medicine, Aryan median, Indian system of medicine and in modern era as science of life (Ayurveda). It traces origin from mythical, through a semi-mythical, to historical beginning. Clues on uses of medicine are although obtainable since Indus civilization, it was propounded more in the Vedic period and also in post Vedic era. It is claimed to be the oldest medicinal system and heritage of India. The ancient Indians were first to cultivate astronomical science, mathematics, chemistry, grammar, lexicography, architecture and Dhanur-veda. Another compartment of human life is medicine, in which Indians never lagged behind. Vedic medicine is not born within four walls of a laboratory. It is nurtured in nature, human minds and hearts. The Vedic wisdom is engendered by trial and errors, experimentation, natural observations and timely criticism by the learned exponents. Obviously, there is no denial to the fact that the torch of learning was handed down to the other civilizations by the ancient Indians. Vedic medicine is not confined to the boundary of Indian nation but percolated in other cultures. Careful and critical examination of such a great heritage is a task of not of ordinary men. Still I took interest to review it, although almost impossible to justify it within the limits of few pages and time. The title of my paper amply suggests that Vedic medicine is a mine of information but I have tried to put on record it, in a nutshell. To tap down information in historical perspective, relevant literature has been borrowed and consulted to pinpoint the events, concepts wisdom of ancient Indians. These literary sources are enlisted under references.

1 - 18 (18 Pages)
2 Utilization of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Past, Present and Future Prospects
Prasenjit Mitra, Tanaya Ghosh, Prasanta Kumar Mitra

1. Introduction Plant is probably the greatest gift of nature. Plants provide us with food, cloth, house, papers and many others. Some of the plants have medicinal values and are known as ‘medicinal plants’. Our ancestors used these plants not only for protection from diseases but also for the treatment of several ailments. China has the highest number of the medicinal plants used (about 11,500 species) followed by India (about 7500 species). People of other countries also use medicinal plants in varying amount (Rafieian-Kopaei, 2013). Tradition is still going on. It is reported that even today 80% of the world population relies on medicinal plants in their medication (Hamilton, 2004). Few plants secrete essential oils full of aroma and are called ‘aromatic plants’. These plants are being utilized in industry for the production of essence and many other products. Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs), therefore, are in continuous use from past to present. In future also there will be tremendous scope of utilization of MAPs in drug discovery, aromatherapy, as cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals as well as in animal husbandry. Present review will focus utilization of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) in past and present and its possible prospect in future.

19 - 36 (18 Pages)
3 Mind-Altering Plants in Maharashtra (India): Biodiversity and Origin
D.A. Patil

1. Introduction Man (Homo sapiens) since his appearance on the sylvan Blue Planet started his search for healthcare and beautycare, besides food and shelter. Eventually, he also became conscious about his mind and attempted at ‘mindcare’. He employed leaves, flowers, fruits, etc. or some plant products altering his mind to remain aloof from his heavy worldly affairs, stress or even incurable diseases. He also endeavoured to use plants for his amusement. He exerted more pressure on local biodiversity, modified his study and observations on biodiversity which resulted into ‘cultural biodiversity’. He intensified his method of ‘trial and errors’ to search new sources or biodynamic chemicals. In recent times, he is emphasizing value-addition of the products in hand for his welfare. After food, medicine was his next priority to sustain life in primitive societies. Naturally, his study and research laid emphasis more on food and medicine in comparison to mind-altering bioresources. Even the modern man also paid more attention on the former rather that the latter. These trends have perforce led in partial negligence of research for psychoactive plants in his ambience. The present author, therefore, extended efforts to prepare an inventory of the mind-altering vis-à-vis psychoactive plants in the state of Maharashtra.

37 - 42 (6 Pages)
4 Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bert.) A Promising Drug for the Future
Abha Manohar K, Biplov C. Sarkar, Aakanksha Pandey, Vineeta, Subrata Das, Gopal Shukla, Hossain Ali Mondal Sumit Chakravarty

1. Introduction The global population is very cautious about gaining weight and diabetics. Calorie less and sugar free substances are gaining momentum in food sector. The miracle plant stevia is very fit in this scenario as it is both zero calorie and sugar free and one more additional benefit that it is completely natural. Stevia rebaudiana Bert. belonging to the family asteraceae has been used in many countries for thousands of years as a source of natural sweetener eg., in Paraguay and Brazil Central America, Thailand, Korea and China (Megeji et al., 2005, Sivaram and Mukundan, 2003; Jain et al., 2009). It is also known as sweet herb, sweet leaf, honey leaf, candy leaf, honey yerba (Carakostas et al., 2008) and meeti tulsi. It possesses an extensive root system and brittle stems producing small, elliptic leaves. In natural conditions S. rebaudiana grows in a form of a shrub and reaches even 1 m of height. Leaves are the major economic part. They are sessile and oppositely arranged, lanceolate to oblancoelate in shape, and are serrated above the middle. Trichome structures on the leaf surface are of two different sizes, one large and one small (Shaffert and Chetobar 1994). The white florets are, borne in small corymbs of 2–6 in number. Corymbs are arranged in panicles. Dr. Moises Santiago Bertoni discovered this plant in 1888 at Paraguay. In 1905, the plant was scientifically named as S. rebaudiana after a Paraguayan chemist Dr. Rebaudi. (Gupta et al., 2013). The active components of Stevia i.e., steviol glycosides (SGs) includes rebaudioside A (Reb A), rebaudioside C and stevioside (ST) that are 250-300 times sweeter than sugar (Chalapathi & Thimmegowda 1997). Stevia is a short-day plant and its flowering is induced when days are shorter. Long photoperiods stimulates leaf growth and steviol glycoside content. The plant can survive only mild winters of its native regions. It cannot survive in waterlogged areas. Stevia extracts can be used in a wide variety of food and beverage applications. Individual usages and use levels may vary depending on the country. They act synergistically when used in combination with other sweeteners. The higher market demand favors the cultivation and commercialization of this particular species.

43 - 52 (10 Pages)
5 Agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis Lam.): A Promising Agroforestry Species Being Exploited for Ethno-Medicinal Uses in Northeast India
Pradip Kumar Sarkar, Pranati Sarkar, Mendup Tamang, Roman Chettri and Nazir A Pala

1. Introduction The Aquilaria malaccensis (Agarwood) is an Appendix II species of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES, 1994). The species is also red listed under International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) and is classified as ‘Vulnerable’ globally but ‘Critically Endangered’ in India (Oldfield et al., 1998; IUCN, 2009) and almost ‘Extinct in wild’ in Assam (Anon., 2003; Saikia and Khan, 2012a). The species due to its multipurpose uses is overexploited which is threatening its existence from the wild (Lee and Mohamed, 2016; Talucder et al.,2016). There are 21 reported Aquilaria species, of which 13 are fragrant resin producers, while the rest are yet to be studied (Lee and Mohamed, 2016; Talucder et al.,2016). Eleven of the domesticated species are A. malaccensis, A. crassna, A. subintegra, A. hirta, A.rostrata, A. beccariana, A. filaria, A. khasiana, A.microcarpa, A. grandiflora and A. sinensis (Zuhaidi, 2016). Species reported from Asia viz., A. apiculata, A. baillonii, A. banaense, A. beccariana, A. brachyantha, A. cumingiana, A. filaria, A. hirta, A. khasiana, A. malaccensis, A. microcarpa, A. rostrata, A. sinensis, A. subintegra and A. crassna are known to produce essential oils (Sulaiman et al., 2015). Only three species i.e. Aquilaria khasiana, A. macrophylla and A. malaccensis has centre of origin in India with A. macrophylla endemic to Nicobar Islands (Anon., 2003; Giri, 2003) and A. khasiana endemic to Khasi Hills of Meghalaya and surroundings (Kanjilal et al., 1982), while A. malaccensis is native to evergreen rain forests in the foothills of northeastern India (Chakrabarty et al., 1994; Saikia and Khan, 2012b) and West Bengal (Barden et al., 2000).

53 - 74 (22 Pages)
6 Nutritional, Therapeutic and Medicinal Properties of Moringa oleifera An Overview of Promising Healer
Amit Kumar Pal, Chandan Sengupta

1. Introduction Medicinal plants are used to be the valuable sources of new drugs (Nalawade et al., 2003; Chen et al., 2010;Chacko et al., 2010; Hamilton 2004). In Europe, about 1300 plants were used as medicinal plant, of which 90% are collected from wild resources. In United States, about 118 out of 150 prescribed drugs made up of natural sources (Balunas and Kinghorn 2005) Moreover in developing countries, about 80 % people are totally reliant on herbal drugs and over 25 % of prescribed medicines derivative from wild plant species (Hamilton 2004). With the increasing demand for herbal drugs, natural health products, and secondary metabolites of medicinal plants, the use of medicinal plants is growing rapidly throughout the world (Nalawade et al., 2003). Between 50,000 and 80,000 flowering plant species are using for medicinal purposes worldwide according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and the World Wildlife Fund (Bentley 2010). However, 20 % of the wild resources have already been exhausted with the increasing human population (Ross, 2005). Worldwide loss of species and habitat destruction has increased the extinction rate of medicinal plants, especially in China (Nalawade et al., 2003; Heywood and Iriondo, 2003), India (Heywood and Iriondo, 2003; Hamilton, 2008), Nepal (Hamilton, 2008), Kenya (Hamilton, 2008), Uganda (Zerabruk and Yirga, 2012) and Tanzania (Zerabruk and Yirga, 2012). China and India used highest numbers of medicinal plants i.e. 11,146 and 7500 species respectively (Rafieian-Kopaei, 2013). So, it is now necessary to find out new medicinally important plants or to utilize the well known medicinal plant sustainably. There are many plants in India that contains different medicinal and nutritional components, which can be exploited much more efficiently to establish a new era of medical science.

75 - 88 (14 Pages)
7 Medicinal and Nutritional Uses of Rice
Bidhan Roy, Surje Dinesh Tulshiram, Swarnajit Debbarma Monish Roy, Gadge Sushant Sundarrao, Pallabi Saha Priyanka Sharma

1. Introduction There are a large number of indigenous rice varieties in India, which are still grown by the tribal people and small farmers of the remote areas where the modern agricultural practices, sufficient foods as well as healthcare systems are a dream. Nature has provided them some alternative ways. They have different indigenous rice varieties with its nutritional and medicinal values. Until recently, rice was considered only a starchy food and a source of carbohydrates and some amount of protein. Rice protein, though small in amount, is of high nutritional value (Chaudhary and Tran, 2001). It has extensive curative properties known from the ancient days. In fact, specific rice varieties with medicinal properties were cultivated and used in the treatment of some ailments in different counties of South East Asia. During recent times, both at national level and international levels, the land races are being preserved in the gene banks. The scientists said that they were also checking these land races for some such characteristics which were not available in the existing varieties so as to incorporate the same in the present varieties (Sultan and Subba Rao, 2013). Traditional varieties are experiencing an increasing trend among consumers, due to their incredible health benefits for example the traditional varieties possess higher amount of glutamic acid, fiber and vitamins. Some people also credit traditional varieties with other health benefits, such as giving sensations of cooling in the body, improves vocal clarity, eyesight, fertility and mitigating rashes (Caius, 1999).

89 - 110 (22 Pages)
8 Education and Research on Medicinal Plants in Bangladesh: Present Status and Future Strategies
Md. Azizul Hoque

While reviewing the status of education and research on medicinal plants in Bangladesh, it was found that there are 27 government and private educational institutions currently engaged in offering Bachelor or Diploma degree on Unani and Ayurvedic systems and training of traditional medicine practitioners in Bangladesh. Several other public and private universities have included different aspects of medicinal plants in their syllabus with other degrees at undergraduate and post graduate level. At present, there are 277 Unani, 201 Ayurvedic and 32 herbal drug manufacturers in Bangladesh with 6498 Unani, 4058 Ayurvedic and 537 herbal products registered by the Directorate General of Drug Administration. About 500 species of plants are identified which possess medicinal properties and are distributed throughout the country. There is no distinctive research organizations at present for conducting planned research solely on medicinal plants; though, the Bangladesh Forest Research Institute have some research programme on medicinal plants. Hamdard University- a private university is offering degree on Unani and Ayurvedic systems and conducting some research including drug manufacturing. Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute with other public and private universities are conducting some hectic research on medicinal plants including some high yielding variety development. The Government of Bangladesh (GoB) have taken some initiatives for development of Unani and Ayurvedic medicine sector like making ‘Bangladesh Unani and Ayurvedic Practitioners Ordinance, 1983’, ‘National Drug Policy 2016’, establishment of ‘Board of Unani and Ayurvedic Systems of Medicines (BUASM)’, etc. But proper implementation of the ordnance, strengthening the activities of BUASM and taking organized research programme on medicinal plants are very much essential for having skilled professionals, quality drugs and research.

111 - 132 (22 Pages)
9 Medicinal Properties of Pummelo [ Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.]
Nilesh Bhowmick, Bidyarani Devi Senjam, MP Devi

1. Introduction Pummelo is considered as largest fruit among all the Citrus species from the Rutaceae family. It is also known as shaddock, papanus or chakotra. Although C. grandis (L.) Osbeck is more frequently used, however C. maxima (Burm.) Merr. is considered as correct under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Singh and Navneet, 2017). It is considered as one of the four true species (natural, non-hybrid) of Citrus. The ltypical large size, thick rind is one of the causes for slow acceptance of pummelo in international market. However, it is presently considered as important fruit due to presence of various bio-active compounds related with human health and nutrition. The word ‘pummelo’ was originally derived from the Dutch word ‘pompelmoes’. The fruit is also named as ‘Shaddock’ after a Captain Shaddock who was believed to have introduced the fruit in Barbados on an East India Company ship on its way to England in the 17th century. It is known by different names by different communities residing in India such as chakotra (Hindi), batabi lebu or jambura (Bengali), robab tenga (Assamese), nobab (Manipuri), ser trawk (Mizo), soh myngor or soh bah (Khasi), rabab tasing (Adi), papanas (Gujarati), chakota (Kannada), kambili naranga (Malayalam), pamparapanasa (Telugu), metukki or pampalimaku (Tamil) and bampara (Marathi) [Anon, 2019]. Pummelo can be distinguished from grapefruit by its larger size fruit, thicker albedo and the bunch bearing habit of grapefruit can also be considered for distinguishing it from pummelo (Scora et al., 1982). The crop is believed to have originated from South and Southeast Asia and it is now cultivated in many tropical and semi tropical countries. The top ten world producers of pummelo and grapefruit are USA, China, Mexio, South Africa, India, Argentina, Turkey, Cuba, Brazil and Tunisia (FAOSTAT, 2010). It is also cultivated in in Bangladesh, Cambodia, Chile, Philippines, Vietnam, Sri Lanka and Nepal. There is no report of its commercial cultivation in India till date; rather it is mainly grown in homestate gardens across the country including UP, Punjab, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. However, maximum genetic diversity in pummelo germplasm is found in North Eastern Region, West Bengal and Bihar (Singh et al., 2015).

133 - 144 (12 Pages)
10 Quantitative Ethnobotanical Study of the Medicinal Plant Geophila repens (L.) I.M. Johnst. (Rubiaceae) Used by the Karbi Indigenous Group in Assam India
Puranjoy Mipun, Y. Kumar

1. Introduction The interest in the uses of medicinal plants has grown considerably from the mid of 20th century with the introduction of phytochemical analysis of natural products from various plants parts (Matos, 1996). Most studies survey specific local communities to examine patterns of use of plant part for treating various aliments along with the influence of economic and social variables on plant use (Albuquerque, 2006). Medicinal plants are the base for the development of new drug, which is the basic mode of survival of human and livestock from many diseases to maintain their healthcare (Uddin et al., 2014). Number of studies has been carried out globally on ethnomedicinal uses of plants among various indigenous communities (Alexiades and Sheldon, 1996; Basualdo et al., 1995; Martin, 1995). Particularly from the region Karbi Anglong, Assam (Teron and Borthakur, 2012, 2013; Terangpiet al., 2014; Teronpi et al., 2015) have also conducted many notable work on ethnomedicinal. While in all these studies qualitative approaches have not been adapted to document ethnobotanical information. The quantitative approaches on ethnobotany have grown steadily in the last two decades. Today researchers have developed and applied quantitative methods to the various ethnobotanical data to test different hypotheses about the relation between plant species and humans (Reyes-García et al., 2006). Quantitative ethnobotanical indices were applied to determine how important these plants are to ethnic and indigenous cultures whether, as food, veterinary medicine, human medicine or economic value from various non-timber forest products (Pieroni, 2001; Upadhyay et al., 2011; Reyes-García et al., 2006). Therefore, the aim of this study was to document the various uses of the medicinal plant Geophila repens (L.) I.M. Johnst by the Karbi tribe and to apply quantitative methods to determine the specific importance of these plants for treating particular ailment. G. repens is a very rare plant with high medicinal potential (Roy et al., 2011) and is global distribution is reported from India (Assam, Meghalaya, Andaman Islands and Western Peninsula); Bangladesh; Bhutan; Sri Lanka; Nepal; Malaysia; South China; Fiji; Tropical America; and Africa.

145 - 152 (8 Pages)
11 Medicinal Properties of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.)
Polu Parameshwar, Ashok Chhetri, Nilesh Bhowmick

1. Introduction Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is one of the most significant trees in tropical and subtropical homegardens and perhaps the most widespread and useful tree in the important genus Artocarpus. Jackfruit belongs to the family Moraceae. The word “jackfruit” comes from Portuguese jaca, which is derived from the Malayalam language term, Chakka. Jack fruit native to India and seen abundant in Western Ghats (Wangchu et al.,2013). Besides India, jackfruit is commonly grown in home gardens of tropical and sub-tropical countries especially Sri Lanka; Bangladesh, Burma, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia and Brazil. In India, it widely distributed in the states of Assam, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka and considered to be the “Poor mans food” (Prakash et al., 2009). In Malayalam, jack fruit is called as “Chakka” while the ancient Indian language Sanskrit refers as Atibruhatphala (Baliga et al., 2011). The morphology of the tree varies with 10-30 m tall; with long tap root and dense crown producing the largest tree born fruit in the world. The fruit weight up to 50 kg, but average weigh is considered to be 10 kg, while only 30-35% of the bulb is edible. Jack fruit is considered as national fruit in Bangladesh and highly appreciated in India due to cheap and availability in summer seasons were food is scarce (Muralidharan et al., 1997). It is a monoecious tree and both male and female inflorescences are found on the same tree. The fertilization is by cross-pollination and the propagation is mostly through seeds. The complete fruit development process takes about three to seven months from the pollination, varying in different countries. Jackfruit consists of lower fleshy edible region (bulb), middle fused region (syncarp) and out spiney region (spike). When ripe the fruit get fleshy, outer spines widened and flesh get soft and yellow. Except the thorny outer bark and axis are not edible (Baliga et al., 2011). The jackfruits were classified based on their phonotypical and organoleptic characteristics with variation in bulb colour as well as shape, size, odour, flake size, flake colour and period of maturity. Two types of ecotypes are recognized, one with soft and spongy flakes or bulbs while other with firm carpels.

153 - 172 (20 Pages)
12 Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Sustainable Conservation Status of Few Cultivated and Wild Dioscorea Species of North East India
Nilofer Sheikh, Nazir Ahmad Bhat, Yogendra Kumar and Mautushi Das

Dioscorea L. commonly known as yam is the largest genus in the family Dioscoreaceae with 602 species distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions. It is an important food crop next to cereals and grains due to high yield storage of carbohydrates which form an important place in the dietary habits of small and marginal farmers especially in the food security of tribal population. The tubers are rich source of various secondary metabolites like Diosgenin, a commercially important bioactive sapogenin used as a precursor in the manufacturing of sex hormones, oral contraceptives and other pharmaceutically important steroidal drugs. Despite of its huge diversity only few species are recognized to be useful for medicinal and edible purposes. About 50 species of Dioscorea are distributed in India. The North East India, one of the hotspot of biodiversity is particularly rich in tropical root and tuber crops. Dioscorea species are in luxuriant growth in wild habitat in this region. The present study mainly addressed to explore the ethno medicinal uses, phytochemical analysis and also focused on safe conservation of sixteen species of Dioscorea found in this region. 1. Introduction The North east India (located between 87Ú32’E to 97Ú52’E latitude and 21Ú34’N to 29Ú50’ N latitude) forms a distinct part of the Indo-Burma hotspot which rank the 6th among 25 biodiversity hotspot of the world is climatically, ecologically and ethnically very diverse. The region is largely dominated by tribals such as Naga, Khasi, Mizo, Miri, Adi, Aka, Apatani, Maripa, Mushard, Garo, Tagin Naga and Singhpho who are sociocultural different. The North east region, besides having large floral biodiversity, is yet not fully explored. The forest resources available in this area are most often ill managed due to lack of awareness and anthropogenic activities. Various wild roots and tuber crops are consumed by the indigenous group of North East India which have very less scientific documentation although. As wild tuber crops available in North East India, Dioscorea species play a prime role in providing food and medicinal requirements for the indigenous communities of this region. Hence the present paper focuses on the ethnobotanical importance and qualitative screening of few important phytochemicals present in the various species of Dioscorea, their conservation strategies and sustainable utilization in North East India.

173 - 182 (10 Pages)
13 Valeriana (Valeriana jatamansi Jones) An Endangered Medicinal Plant of Himalayan Region
Soumendra Chakraborty

1. Introduction Valeriana jatamansi Jones is considered to be highly endangered medicinal plant found mainly in northern part of Himalayan region. Although it is also found in all temperate regions of world except in Australia (Jain, 1968; Polunin and Stainton, 1987; Bennet, 1987). It is grown in Himachal Pradesh, northern part of U.P., Sikkim and newly introduced in West Bengal Darjeeling region by us. It is enlisted in the endangered category by IUCN (Kaul and Honda, 2000) and it is enlisted as an endangered species in the national medicinal plant board, New Delhi ( The plant was reported to be found in fragmented populations in different places of Kashmir Himalayan hilly region like Dara, Sonamarg, Harwan, Gulmarg, Ferozpur, Pahelgum, Yusmarg, Shajnar (Naqashi and Dar, 1982-86). It is found to be in the margin of extinction from the world though it is widespread in the temperate regions of whole world except Australia (Nayar and Sastri, 1998). Indiscriminate collection of rhizomes from the plants made potential threat of its existence in some previously founded localities (Wyatt, 1981; Nayar and Sastri, 1998; Airi et al, 2000; Nautiyal et al, 2003, CAMP, 2003).

183 - 194 (12 Pages)
14 Conservation of Ethno-Medicine in Rarh Region of South-west Bengal
Debabrata Das, Pampi Ghosh, Atmaja Avirupa Das

Ethnobotany deals with different aspects of man-plant relationship with special emphasis on ethnic community of a region, nay country or any geographical territory. This perhaps gives us a new dimension, orientation and objectives to make it complete with vivid information on people and their resource use pattern including science background behind scientific use. The new form of ethno-botany is now reformed and re-oriented as beta-ethnobotany. Earlier taxonomists, anthropologists and social workers have made their work on a wide field of man-plant relationship which was very loose in the sense that no specification or special focus was there which has its origin so called alpha-ethnobotany. Beta-ethnobotany deals with objective based oriented studies, divine, dynamic and quantitative ethno-botany with special emphasis to assessment of credibility of folk claims, ethno pharmacology, ethno-pharmacotherapy and ethno-medicine. Presently scientists estimated that out of over 5000 plants have been used in ethno-medicine much less than 1000 are utilized in herbal drug industry in different indigenous systems of medicine like ayurveda, homoeopathy, unani and siddha. A wide variation of use and conservation strategies on that medicine or the raw sources of these materials are available in the lower tract of Chotanagpur plateau in red lateritic part of West Bengal so called the ‘ rarh’ region. Tribal people like santal, kol, sabar, kheria, oraon, munda etc. inhabiting the rarh region use the medicine as ethno-medicine since time immemorial and conserve the plants and similar plant propagules in their home gardens and nearby sal (Shorea robusta) dominated forests for future generation. Wide application and conservation strategies of a large number of ethno-medicine and ethno-medicinal plants have been presented here with special emphasis on landscape conservation to make the ecosystem pristine rather than degraded in near future.

195 - 210 (16 Pages)
15 Common Paddy Field Weeds: An Evaluation of Their Ethnomedicinal Potential among the Indigenous Apatanis of Ziro Valley, Arunachal Pradesh
Kuntal Narayan Chaudhuri

This study deals with the ethnomedicinal prospects of common weeds thriving in the wide array of terraced paddy fields used for rhizipisciculture by the Apatanis, a unique tribe indigenous to the remote Ziro valley in the Eastern Himalayas. Surveys were conducted in agricultural fields surrounding three villages in order to record the paddy field flora present on the partition bunds. Elderly villagers were also interviewed with the help of an interpreter to document their traditional knowledge about the medicinal uses of these weeds. A total number of 36 species of indigenous medicinal plants were recorded along with the local name, the plant parts used, the modes of preparation and administration of traditional herbal remedies and the illnesses treated. This easily accessible medicinal plant resource, ameliorating a wide range of common ailments, was found to be a reliable means for managing the primary healthcare of this indigenous agrarian community of the Eastern Himalayas.

211 - 224 (14 Pages)
16 A Novel Avenue for Quality Planting Material Production of an Endangered Medicinal Plant, Valeriana Jatamansi
Siddhartha Shankar Sharma, Pratik Saha, Bablu Paul, Abha Manohar K, Gopal Shukla and Hossain Ali Mondal

For the first time, the Quality Planting Material (QPM) production from aerial stem node cutting and its comprehensive growth parameters are being reported in Valeriana jatamansi (Jones) (family: Valerianaceae), a highly endangered medicinal plant and a natural habitat in North Eastern Himalayan Region in the high altitude ranging from 1000 to 8000m Above Sea Level (ASL). The present communication identified a novel avenue exploring the unused plant part, aerial node cutting for producing QPM in a continuous and exponential rate without scarifying the rhizome and root, enriched with active ingredients like Valerenic acid and Valepotriates. This method also assures 100% plant emergence and more than 91±5.56% plant survival in the different field conditions without requiring hardening process as an additional merit. This first-time report for QPM production of an endangered medicinal plant, Valeriana jatamansi through aerial node cutting without following the hormone supplemented MS based tissue culture, a high cost process required sophisticated instruments and aseptic environment. This present process will have potentiality to explore commercially for mass clonal-propagation even at farmer level.

225 - 242 (18 Pages)
17 Potential of Cucurbitaceous Vegetable Crops as Herbal Medicine
Ranjit Chatterjee and Ankita Debnath

1. Introduction Cucurbits are group of plants belongs to family Cucurbitaceae which are mostly creeping or crawling in nature and distributed in tropical and subtropical zone of the globe. The family cucurbitaceae has around 120 genera and more than 800 species (Swarup, 2016). It holds the highest rank amongst all other plant families considering number and percentage of species used for human consumption either as fruit of the tender leaves and stems. Cucurbits have diverse daily use such as salad (cucumber and long melon); dessert (watermelon and muskmelon), curry or boil (bottle gourd, bitter gourd, sponge gourd, ridge gourd, summer squash, squash melon, pumpkin etc.); candy (wax gourd); pickles (pickling cucumber, pointed gourd); jam (pumpkin); utensil (bottle gourd), musical instruments (bottle gourd). From plant breeding point of view, the crops are cross pollinated and entomophilies.

243 - 254 (12 Pages)
18 Value Addition in Medicinal Plants
Soumen Maitra, Gopal Shukla, LC De

1. Introduction Medicinal plants are well known for their secondary metabolites which are alternatively called as active principles responsible for curing of diseases and disorders. India is a biodiversity rich country belongs within 12 mega diversity zones of the world and possesses four biodiversity hot spots, 8 phyto-geographic regions and 10 vegetation zones (Khandekar and Srivastava, 2014). This subcontinent holds 47000 different species of plants out of which 8000 plants are medicinal in nature (Hamilton, 2004, Owolabi et al., 2007). High rate of endemism and 426 habitats for specific species are the unique resource of the country (BSI, 2009; Khandekar and Srivastava, 2014). Still majority of the herbal raw materials are wildcrafted and hence habitat destruction and wildcrafting pose a serious problem to the natural population particularly where roots are the targeted plant part as the percentage of root yielding medicinal plants are higher in the subcontinent. Since these plants are purely industrial and not having alternative uses the commercial production is not flourishing at a higher pace. Still the production of medicinal and aromatic plants in India has reached 1031000 tonnes from 634000 hectares. In the post-CBD regime with global developments in aspects of Plant Genetic Resources and Intellectual Property Rights, the outlook towards these lesser exploited species has been changed to bioprospecting from collection and documentation.Here lies the importance of value addition in medicinal plants. Value addition means a change of state of the produce which will give a manifold return than the additional investment. Value-added products can be obtained through processing of raw herb or crude drug which will improve its look and also increase its quality, longevity, efficacy and obviously the return.

255 - 264 (10 Pages)
19 Intellectual Property Rights with Special Reference to Medicinal Plants
Bidhan Roy, Priyanka Sharma, Monish Roy, Gadge Sushant Sundarrao, Pallabi Saha

1. Introduction Intellectual property is a term referring to creations of the intellect for which a monopoly is assigned to designated owners by law. While intellectual property law has evolved over centuries, it was not until the 19th century that the term Intellectual Property began to be used, and not until the late 20th century that it became commonplace in the majority of the world. Agriculture (including horticulture) and forestry are the two most important sectors in the land use system of India covering know 46.1% (141.2 m ha) and 22.2% (69.02 m ha), respectively of total geographic area of the country. Intellectual Property Right (IPR) was of limited significance in cultivation and improvement of agricultural, horticultural and forest crops and aggregation of these three sections comprises the Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs). IPRs were not applied to plants in earlier days. PGRs are the foundation for the development of food and nutritionally secured nation. Food is the foremost important to sustain life and livelihood followed by shelter and cloth. Thus, the slogan of 3Fs may be modified as, “Food, Frame (shelter) and Fibre (cloth)” instead of Food, Fodder and Fire-wood. All these 3Fs we get from PGRs.

265 - 304 (40 Pages)
20 Pest Management in Some Commercially Important Medicinal Plants in India – An Appraisal
Suprakash Pal, Umesh Das, Debabrata Sarkar

1. Introduction Over the centuries, the use of medicinal herbs has become an important part of daily life despite the progress in modern medical and pharmaceuticals research. It is estimated that 40% of the world populations depends directly on plant based medicine. India is one of the world’s 12 biodiversity centres. Herbal industry in India uses about 8000 medicinal plants. Indian export of raw drugs has steadily grown at 26% to Rs.165 crores in 1994-’95 from Rs.130 crores in 1991-’92 and this is likely to touch US $5 trillion by 2050. Thus, India has a great role to play, as supplier of herbal products not only to meet the domestic needs, but also to take advantage of the tremendous export potential. Biotic stress related problems are important bottlenecks for the successful commercial cultivation of any crop. Medicinal plants are not the exception and are vulnerable to be attacked by several pests and pathogens resulting crop loss in terms of both quantity as well as quality. Therefore, the “health of these healthy plants” should be concerned. Without proper identification and prior knowledge of the pests and diseases, the management will be a waste of time and money and can lead to further plant losses.

305 - 312 (8 Pages)
21 Diseases of Chirata (Swertia Chirayita) and Their Management Practices
Sibdas Baskey

1. Introduction Chirata (Swertia chirayita) belongs to the family Gentiniaceae, a potential medicinal plant used as bitter tonic in treatment of fever and for curing various skin diseases, is a perennial herb and distributed throughout the eastern Himalayan region of India. The plant is a native of temperate Himalayas, found at an altitude of 1200-3000 m (4000-10000 ft), from Kashmir to Bhutan and in the Khasi hills at 1200-1500 m (4000 to 5000 ft). It can be grown in sub-temperate regions between 1500 and 2100 m altitudes. It is used in traditional medicine to treat numerous ailments such as liver disorders, malaria, and diabetes and are reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Its medicinal usage is well-documented in Indian pharmaceutical codex, the British, and the American pharmacopeia’s and in different traditional medicine such as the Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Horopathy and other conventional medical systems. This ethno medicinal herb is known mostly for its bitter taste caused by the presence of different bioactive compounds that are directly associated with welfare of human health. The increasing high usage of Swertia chirayita, mostly whole plant, as well as the illegal overharvesting combined with habitat destruction resulted in a drastic reduction of its populations and has brought this plant to the verge of extinction. The increasing national and international demand for Swertia chirayita has led to unscrupulous collection from the wild and adulteration of supplies. The bitterness, antihelmintic, hypoglycemic and antipyretic properties are attributed to amarogentin (most bitter compound isolated till date) 1, swerchirin, swertiamarin and other active principles of the herb. Due to the high demand, this plant is being cultivated in many places of Darjeeling district both for domestic use within India and for exporting purpose. During our roving survey (2011-2014), it was observed that this high value medicinal plant facing a number of diseases (like seedling blight, leaf spot, Leaf blight etc.), ultimately, cultivation of Swertia chirayita is getting hampered. The quality of plant is affected due to the occurrences of diseases as whole plants part being used as medicinal purpose and also affects the marketing scenario; the demand of good quality chirata is increasing at a rate of 10% annually. To harvest the benefit of megabiodiversity zone of eastern Himalaya needs urgent attention to combat the upcoming epidemic of diseases of chirata. Here, we are trying to throw some light related to present status of diseases of chirata and standard management practices.

313 - 324 (12 Pages)
22 Ethnomedicine for Women Problems
Manjula, R.R. Sandhya Sri B., Suneetha J. Seetharami Reddi T.V.V.

The review deals with 151 species of plants covering 138 genera and 66 families used by the tribes for curing women diseases involving 172 practices. Fabaceae is the dominant family with 13 species followed by Caesalpiniaceae (9 spp) and others curing a variety of ailments. The useful plants be subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological tests to determine the effective constituents and characteristic biological activity. 1. Introduction Primitive man gets much enthusiasm towards green plants and started to examine the property of using plants by trial and error and obtained different beneficial properties. India is one of the 12 megadiversity countries and comprises of two hot spots. The World Health Organization (WHO) has compiled a list of 20,000 medicinal plants used in different parts of the globe. In India the scheduled tribe population is 104,545,716 constituting 8.6% of country total population of 1,210,726,932 (Census 2011) belonging to over 550 tribal communities and 227 ethnic groups. They inhabit about 5000 forested villages and occupying about 15% of country’s geographical area.

325 - 328 (4 Pages)
23 Ethnobotanical Survey of Wild Edible Plants Used By the Indigenous People of East Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, North East India
Nazir Ahmad Bhat, Balasara War, Chester J Nongkynrih Puranjoy Mipun, Nilofer Sheikh, Yogendra Kumar

Several ethnic communities inhabiting in the biodiversity-rich state of Meghalaya are primarily dependent upon the forest for their livelihood needs like food, vegetables, materials for construction of houses, firewood, medicine for curing numerous ailments and many other purposes. They have acquired vast knowledge about the wealth of plant and their utilisation. The present study was aimed to document such less-known wild edible plants used by Khasi people of the state. During the current investigation, a total of 94 species of such importance belonging to 80 genera under 47 families were documented. Among these, 46 are herbs followed by 29 shrubs, 12 trees and 02 are creepers. Based on the availability and commercial potential, 37 species have been sold in local markets for income generation. Of which 17 species are sold as fruit, 11 as leaves, six as root, rhizome and tuber, five species as a stem, two as inflorescence and one species sold as fronds. All the plants are arranged alphabetically in the tabular form, followed by families, vernacular name(s), plant part(s) used, habit (s), distribution and methodology. It has been observed that the knowledge of less known wild edible plants is significantly declining day by day. These plants are known for their importance in as food nutritional supplement and its medicinal value; if the information is not collected and documented, it may not last soon.

329 - 344 (16 Pages)
24 An Insight on Ethnomedicinal Study in North East India
Snigdha Saikia, Bordoloi MJ, Dipanwita Banik

North East India is a hub of ethnomedicinal diversity. Nearly 8,000 flowering plants are distributed and approximately 200 ethnic tribes and subtribes reside in the region. The cross-cultural diversity of the ethnic tribes and subtribes has enriched the ethnomedicinal practice in the region. Due to inaccessible terrains the ethnomedicinal practices are mostly confined to this region than the rest part of the country.More than 175 dialects are practiced in NE India. The ethnomedicinal documentation of the region in universally accepted languages was started in early 21st century. The ethnomedicinal documentation requires multidisciplinary aspects viz., correct identification of plant species, updated nomenclature, geographical area of occurrence, IUCN status, conservational approach, vernacular names of the species, formulations, documentation of traditional knowledge informants, medicine men, specific indications of treatments, mode of preparation, mode of consumption etc, Optimum and sustainable utilization of ethomedicinal practice holds a good future for economic and societal development of the region. An insight covering various factors like challenges, scopes, legislative modalities of ethnomedicinal practices are discussed here along with a compiled list of commonly used ethnomedicinal species of the region.

345 - 360 (16 Pages)
25 End Pages

Annexures Systematic enumeration of Mind-Altering Plants in Maharashtra (Chapter 3, Section 2)


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