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S. Padmavathi, M. Prakash, S. Ezhil Kumar, Sathiyanarayanan and A.Kamaraj
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A Text Book of Seed Science and Technology: Seed Science and Technology is the science of new discipline which deals with the principles and methods of production of Quality Seed and improving the quality of the seed by various seed enhancement techniques starting from sowing till the storage. The Importance of Seed Quality can be felt by the proverb “what are known as Seeds of Hope may turn into Seed of Frustration if Quality is not maintained”. The Multidisciplinary development of the subject has necessitated an up to-date knowledge of this aspect of science in order to truly comprehense synthesis of the whole field of seed. The splendid growth of this science has catered to the development of related areas viz., Biology, Physiology and Biochemistry which has direct and indirect impact on Seed Science and Technology. The s of this book have been formulated to help the reader in acquiring the knowledge of Seed Technology starting from Seed Biology to seed Processing and care is taken to cover the basic and fundamental aspects of Seed Technology. It also includes the area of applied science and covers the area of seed legislation, law governing the seed production and marketing of the produced seeds.

0 Start Pages

Preface Seed Technology is an interdisciplinary science dealing with superior crop varieties, their evaluation and release, Seed Production, Seed Processing, Seed Storage, Seed Testing Seed certification, Seed Quality control, Seed Marketing and Distribution. For achieving increased seed production “Quality seed” is one of the basic and cheapest inputs. Government of India passed seed act during 1966, to make available right quality of seed to the Indian farmers in adequate quantities at reasonable price in time. The value of pure improved seed can hardly be over emphasized. To ensure this elaborate seed programme, Government of India established the National Seed Corporation, State Seed Corporation and State Seed Certification Agency.

1 Introduction

Seed technology is defined as “that discipline of study having to do with seed production, maintenance quality and preservation (Cowan, 1973). Feistritzer (1975) has defined seed technology as the method through which the genetic and physical characteristic of seeds could be improved. It involves such activities as variety development, evaluation and release, seed production, seed processing, seed storage, seed testing, seed certification, seed quality control and seed marketing etc. So seed technology in widest sense, includes development of superior crop plant varieties, their evaluation and release, seed production, seed processing, seed storage, seed testing, seed certification, seed quality control, seed marketing, seed distribution and the related research on these aspects, The major goal of seed technology is to increase agricultural production through the spread of good quality seeds of high yielding varieties. To achieve this goal, the quality seeds must be rapidly multiplied and supplied to the farmers at proper time with the reasonable price.

1 - 4 (4 Pages)
2 Seed Structure and Development

Seed A true seed is defined as a fertilized mature ovule consisting of embryo, stored material and protective coats. The seed strictly speaking is an embryo a living organism embedded in the supporting or the food storage tissue. A seed stands for any of the following used for sowing or planting. 1.    Seeds of food crops including edible oil seeds and seeds of fruit and vegetables. 2.    Cotton seeds 3.    Seeds of cattle fodder 4.    Jute seeds 5.    Seedlings, tubers, bulbs, rhizomes, roots, cuttings, all type of grafts and other vegetative propagated material for food crops or cattle fodder.

5 - 18 (14 Pages)
3 Seed Multiplication

Multiplication and distribution of high quality seed of improved varieties is a crucial step in agricultural production of any country. When an entry is identified by the workshop of the concerned project, the breeder begins the seed multiplication of the strain in the following crop season. The seed produced by the breeder after a strain is identified, but before it is released as a variety is termed as the “stock seed”. This seed is known as breeder seed after it is released and notified. In the crop season following notification foundation seed of newly released variety is produced. In the second crop season following the release of variety, certified seed of the variety is produced. Thus the farmer is able to obtain certified seed of a newly released variety for commercial cultivation only in the third crop season following in the notification of the variety. However the seed of such variety reach the farmer even before its release through mini-kit trials. Many other farmers would obtain the seeds from those farmers who conducted the mini kit trials and so on in the next two years. Thus an outstanding variety is likely to reach many farmers even before its certified seeds have been put on sale.

19 - 32 (14 Pages)
4 Seed Quality

The degree of excellence in regard to the physical and genetical characterstics of seeds is called as Seed quality. Seed lots having high genetic purity and high germination percentage and minimum inert, weed and other crop seed and are free from diseases and pest attack, it is said to be a high quality seeds. If it is lacking in any of these qualities, it is said to be low quality seed lots. Only good quality seeds expected to respond well for fertilizers and other inputs used.   Viability: It is the ability of embryo to live, grow and develop into a seedling under favorable conditions. The seeds attained maximum viability at physiological maturity stage. Later on seeds start to loss viability.

33 - 42 (10 Pages)
5 Seed Production Technology

Seed Production Technology 1.    Paddy 2.    Sorghum 3.    Bajra         4.    Maize               5.    Blackgram     6.    Soyabean                 7.    Cowpea              8.    Redgram  9.    Groundnut 10.    Sunflower 11.    Castor        12.    Gingelly 13.    Tomato 14.    Brinjal 15.    Chilli 16.    Bhendi

43 - 98 (56 Pages)
6 Hybrid Seed Production Techniques

A hybrid is the first generation progeny of a cross between two genetically different identical inbred lines. The individual lines are known as inbreds.  Ineffective cross-pollination is a major constraint in a commercial production of hybrid seeds in many crop species. In such crops manual pollination is the way to produce hybrid seeds. Eg. Cotton. In the case of rice it is highly self-pollinated crop and cross-pollination is a big problem. The increased vigour, uniformity and yield of F1 hybrid have been exploited in most crops where the pollination system allows for convenient and economic cross hybridization.  This system is called breeding tool in exploiting the hybrid vigour. The term heterosis from Greek means hetero different, osis-condition was coined by skull (1914). Heterosis or hybrid vigour, refers to the increase or decrease in vigour of off spring (hybrid) over parents. Usually, theses two terms are used synonymous.   But hybrid vigour refers to increased vigour; Heterosis both increased and decreased vigour. Superiority of the hybrid as hybrid vigour and the mechanism by which this superiority is developed is heterosis (Rangaswamy, 1998).

99 - 104 (6 Pages)
7 Post Harvest Technology for Seed Crop

Need to know Physiological maturity (PM), Harvestable maturity (HM) and harvesting method ·    If these factors are considered, the harvest produce will have the maximum seed quality characters in terms of germination, vigour and storability.  The maturity is of two types depending on the purpose. If the crop is for grain production it is enough to harvest the crop during harvestable maturity. But when the crop is meant for seed purpose it is advisable to harvest the crop during physiological maturity.

105 - 122 (18 Pages)
8 Seed Processing

Seed processing, drying, cleaning and upgrading Seed processing refers to all the steps necessary for preparation of harvested seed for marketing namely handling, drying, shelling, preconditioning, cleaning, size grading testing, and packaging etc. Layout for seed processing plant Layout plan for construction of seed processing plant should be carefully planned to ensure that thorough seed cleaning, upgrading, seed treatment and other seed processing operations are carried out efficiently without mixing and damaging seed lots with minimum equipment, personnel, time and at minimum cost. The following factors should be considered while planning and designing the processing unit:

123 - 158 (36 Pages)
9 Seed Testing

Seed Testing 1.    Sampling 2.    Determination of Heterogeneity 3.    Purity analysis 4.    Germination Test 5.    Seedling Evaluation 6.    Quick Test for Viability 7.    Estimation of Seed Moisture 8.    Grow Out Test 9.    Seed Health Test

159 - 216 (58 Pages)
10 Seed Storage

Seed Storage is an essential process during seed production programme. The purpose of seed storage is to preserve planting stocks from one season to next planting season.Seed storage starts from the moment of maturity and extend until its planting, in the next season.   PRINCIPLES OF STORAGE Primary aim of storage is simply to prevent deterioration of quality seed. The management objective during the storage period is to reduce metabolic activity to such a low level that the seed is sufficiently stable with minimal deterioration. The two alternative methods are 1.    Reduction of moisture content to a safe level and cooling of the seed. 2.    Modification of atmospheric condition of the storage system. Types of storage There are four types 1.    Storage of commercial,  truthfully labelled and certified seed. 2.    Storage of carry-over seeds. 3.    Storage of foundation seed stocks and enforcement seed samples. 4.    Storage for germplasm seeds.

217 - 234 (18 Pages)
11 Seed Certification

Seed multiplication and production was controlled by a legally sanctioned system called Seed Certification. Seed certification procedures and designed to ensure physical and genetic purity, freedom from weed seeds and diseases and good germinability of the certified seed. Seed certification is done by the Seed Certification Agency (SSCA) of the concerned state or by NSC.   Objectives of Seed Certification The objective of seed certification programme was formulated by Douglas, 1971   i)    to ensure genuineness and quality of seed. ii)    The identification and their rapid increase of new varieties under accepted names. iii)    The systematic increase of superior varieties iv)    Continuing supply of quality material and their maintenance.

235 - 244 (10 Pages)
12 Seed Legislation

The basic aim of seed legislation and its subsequent enforcement is to regulate the quality of seeds sold to farmers. So long as Agriculture remains tradition and static, there is little justification for regulating seed quality. However with technological advancement and the systematic application of science to Agriculture, it becomes compulsory to regulate the quality of seeds through seed legislation and its subsequent enforcement to ensure that seed buyers are not made to run undue risks. TYPES OF SEED LEGISLATION Seed legislation can be broadly divided into two groups. 1.    Sanctioning legislation 2.    Control legislation Sanctioning Legislation Which authorizes, establishes or otherwise legally sanctions such activities as formation/establishment of advisory bodies, seed certification agencies, seed testing Labouratories, foundation and certified seed programmes, recognition of seed certification agencies of foreign countries, appellate authority etc.

245 - 264 (20 Pages)
13 Seed Village

INTRODUCTION High crop productivity depends on quality of seed as without good quality seed even if we apply manure, Plant protection measure and other cultural practices it is not possible to produce good quality seed. So the basic seed used for sowing must be healthy and good in quality. It is different from commercial production as it need proper care, good quality basic seed, timely cultural operations, thinning, roguing, timely application of pesticides and fertilizers and maintenance of seed quality through inspections.  Seed production requires technical skill to achieve all the above advantages for which the best approaches Compact Area Approach or Seed Village Concept. It is selection of compact area by organizing the seed farmers in the selected area. The selected area must be fertile and suitable for reproduction of good quality seed such areas can be organized for self and cross pollinated crops (Groundnut, Paddy, Pulses, Sorghum) especially for the varietal seed production. But the variety should be one another for whole of the selected area. Advantages of Seed Village Concepts 1. Isolation and Roguing For maintenance of genetic purity of the crop it requires isolation and proper rouging. This can be achieved in the compact area programme, as it will be the mutual benefit to the farmers who are concentrating growing on single variety on compact area.

265 - 268 (4 Pages)
14 End Pages

Bibligraphy Abdul-Baki, A.A. and J.D Anderson. 1972. Physiological and biochemical deterioration of seeds. In Seed Biology (Ed. T.T.Kozlowaki), Academic Press, New York, pp.283-315. Abdul-Baki, A.A. and J.D. Anderson. 1973.  Viability of leaching sugars from germinating barley. Crop Sci., 10: 31-34. Agarwal, P.K. 1993.( edited). Handbook of seed testing. Department of Agriculture and Co-operation, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, New Delhi. Agarwal, P.K., J.L. Karihaloo, S.M.M.Ahmed and P.C.Gupta. 1973. Predicting germinability in maize, wheat and paddy seeds on the basis of tetrazolium test. Seed Res.,1: 83 –85. Agarwal, R.L. 1977. System of sampling seed lots at Pantnagar, India. Seeds & Farms, 3: 5 -13. Agarwal, R.L. 1982. Seed quality and its evaluation. Indian Farmers Digest, 14(4) 33 - 37. Agarwal, V.K.1983. Quality seed production at Pantnagar, India. Seed Sci. Technol. 11:1071. Agarwal,R.L. 1980. Seed technology. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co., New Delhi.


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