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A. Bhattacharya
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This book is intended to cover all known abiotic stresses and their effects on the various aspects physiological processes in plants. The first chapter deals with introduction and the introductory remarks on abiotic stress and overall effects of different factors on crop. Second chapter deals with aspects of seed germination, seedling growth and root development under stressful condition for different factors of abiotic stress. Third chapter is a contributory chapter and deals with different aspects of biological nitrogen fixation under abiotic stress. Fourth chapter deals with growth, development and phenology of crop plants under environmental stress condition. Various aspects of photosynthesis under abiotic stress have been discussed in the fifth chapter. Mineral nutrition under abiotic stress condition and roles of different nutrient to overcome abiotic stress has been discussed in Sixth chapter. Seventh chapter discussions have been provided regarding transgenic approach to enhance drought tolerance and it is a contributory chapter. Eighth chapter is about the effects of different factors of abiotic stress on respiration processes of plant have been discussed. These review chapters addresses how knowledge of the physiological mechanisms of crops can improve crop yield. The study of crop physiology can assist cereal breeding by: i) improving our understanding of the factors that determine crop yield and adaptation through the syncretic concept of ideotype and, consequently, improve crop simulation models; ii) defining particular “secondary” traits to select (analytical breeding) when choosing: iii) indicating the kind of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) with potential for development and how to test them; and iv) phenotyping associated with marker-assisted selection.

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Abiotic stresses are serious threats to agriculture and the environment which have been exacerbated in the current century by global warming and industrialization. According to FAO statistics, more than 800 million hectares of land throughout the world are currently salt-affected, including both saline and sodic soils equating to more than 6% of the world’s total land area. Continuing salinization of arable land is expected to have overwhelming global impact, resulting in a 30% loss of agricultural land over the next 25 years and up to 50% loss by 2050. Overall, it has been estimated that the world is losing at least 3 ha of arable land every minute due to soil salinity. Some of the most serious effects of abiotic stresses occur in the arid and semiarid regions where lower rainfall, higher evaporation, native rocks, saline irrigation water, and poor water management all contribute in agricultural areas. In the current millennium, an international initiative focusing on increasing our productivity per unit of water has been launched to achieve “More crop per drop”. Efforts to improve the efficiency of agricultural water use while simultaneously reducing adverse environmental impacts will need to draw on results of extensive and diverse research in several areas.

1 Abiotic Stress: An Introduction

A. Bhattacharya 1.1.    Specific and Unspecific Reactions to Stress

1 - 4 (4 Pages)
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2 Seed Germination, Seedling Growth and Root Development Under Abiotic Stresses

A. Bhattacharya 2.1.    Seed Germination          2.1.1.        Drought Tolerance in Plants     2.1.2.        Osmotic Adjustment     2.1.3.        Cell membrane Stability     2.1.4.        Epicuticular Wax     2.1.5.        Partitioning and Stem Reserve Mobilization     2.1.6.        Salt Stress and Seed Germination      2.2.    Seedling Drought Traits      2.3.    Seed Germination Under Abiotic Stress 2.4.    Salt Stress and Seed Germination 2.5.    Seedling Growth 2.6.    Stress Effects on Seedling Growth          2.6.1.        Temperature     2.6.2.        Nutrition, Salinity, and pH     2.6.3.        Water     2.6.4.        Under Flooding Condition      2.7.    Drought Stress and Abscisic acid (ABA)      2.8.    Salt Stress on Seedling Length          2.8.1.        Salt Stress on Seedling Dry Weight     2.8.2.        Mechanism of Salt Stress on Germination     2.8.3.        Root Establishment Methods      2.9.    Root Development          2.9.1.        Root System Development and Abiotic Stress      2.10.    Root Development Under Abiotic Stress          2.10.1.        Drought Stress     2.10.2.        Regulation of Root System Architecture by Water Availability and Salinity Stress     2.10.3.        Regulation of Root System Architecture by Nutrients     2.10.4.        Phosphate Starvation     2.10.5.        Nitrogen     2.10.6.        Potasium and Iron     2.10.7.        Meristematic Activity Regulation by Abiotic Stress     2.10.8.        Waterlogging Stress     2.10.9.        Salt Stress     2.10.10.    Temperature Stress     2.10.11.    Illumination Stress     2.10.12.    Nutrient Deficiency or Excess     2.10.13.    Heavy Metal Stress     2.10.14.    Elevated Atmospheric Levels of CO2     2.10.15.    Mechanical Stress      2.11.    Biochemical Regulation of Root          References

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3 Nitrogen Fixation Under Salinity, Low and High Temperature and Moisture

Raj Bahadur      3.1.    Nitrogen Fixation in Saline Soil      3.2.    Legumes and Nitrogen Fixation          3.2.1.    Legumes in Saline Agriculture; Nitrogen Fixation Capabilities     3.2.2.    Legumes in Saline Agriculture; Salinity Tolerance of Legumes     3.2.3.    Improvement of Salinity Tolerance of Legumes     3.2.4.    Legumes of the HALOPH Database      3.3.    Perspective for Saline Agriculture      3.4.    Impacts of Agriculture and Global Climate Change Terrestrial Biogeochemical Cycle of Nitrogen          3.4.1.    Nitrogen Chemistry and Terrestrial Life      3.5.    Nitrogen Fixation          3.5.1.    Decomposition     3.5.2.    Nitrification     3.5.3.    Denitrification     3.5.4.    Bio-geochemical Linkage of Nitrogen and Carbon     3.5.5.    Soil Organic Matter     3.5.6.    Perturbations and N and C Biogeochemistry     3.5.7.    Organic Nitrogen     3.5.8.    Mineralization      3.6.    Factors Influencing Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes          3.6.1.    Temperature     3.6.2.    Soil Water Status     3.6.3.    Nitrogen Concentration in the Root Zone     3.6.4.    Carbon Demand for Fixation     3.6.5.    Seasonal Regulation of Legume Biological Nitrogen Fixation      3.7.    Quantification of Biological Nitrogen Fixation          3.7.1.    Estimation with Empirical Models     3.7.2.    Potential N Fixation Rate     3.7.3.    Impact of Soil Temperature     3.7.4.    Impact of Soil Water Status     3.7.5.    Effect of Soil Mineral N or Internal Substrate N     3.7.6.    Influence of Plant Substrate C or C supply     3.7.7.    Changes in N Fixation with Plant Growth Stage              References

97 - 158 (62 Pages)
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4 Growth, Development and Phenology Under Abiotic Stress Condition

A. Bhattacharya          4.1.    Factors of Abiotic Stress      4.2.    Light      4.3.    Temperature          4.3.1.    Heat-stress Threshold     4.3.2.    Low Temperature Stress     4.3.3.    Plant Responses to Heat Stress      4.4.    Water          4.4.1.    Drought     4.4.2.    Flooding      4.5.    Soil          4.5.1.    Soil Type     4.5.2.    Soil pH     4.5.3.    Soil Fertility     4.5.4.    Soil Salinity      4.6.    Growth and Development          4.6.1.    Phases of Development Sensitive to Temperature or Photoperiod      4.7.    Phenology          4.7.1.    Changes in Phenology of Cropping Systems     4.7.2.    Effect of CO2 on Flowering     4.7.3.    Temperature and Effects on Phenology     4.7.4.    Effect of Salinity      4.8.    Molecular/Genetic Aspects of Flowering Response to Climate Change      4.9.    Simulation of Phenology for Future Climate              References

159 - 224 (66 Pages)
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5 Photosynthesis Under Abiotic Stress Conditions

A. Bhattacharya      5.1.    Chlorophyll      5.2.    Response to Drought Stress      5.3.    CO2 Fixation Under Drought      5.4.    Response to High Temperature Stress      5.5.    Response to Low Temperature Stress      5.6.    Effect of Cold Stress on CO2 Fixation      5.7.    Cold Acclimation and its Role in Providing Freeze-tolerance      5.8.    Response to Salinity Stress      5.9.    CO2 Fixation Under Salinity Stress      5.10.    Response to High Light Intensity Stress      5.11.    Stress-induced Changes               5.11.1.    Effects on Photosynthetic Pigments     5.11.2.    Effects on Photosystems     5.11.3.    Effects on Gas-exchange Characteristics             5.11.4.    Effects on Activities of key Photosynthetic Enzymes      5.12.    Improvement in Photosynthetic Capacity Under Stress by Engineering Photosynthesis-related Genes or Transcription Factors          5.12.1.    Transfer of C4 genes/traits to C3 plants     5.12.2.    Role of Transcription Factors in Regulation of Genes Involved in Photosynthesis      5.13    Role of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) in Photosynthesis      5.14    Conclusion and Future Prospects          References

225 - 308 (84 Pages)
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6 Abiotic Stress and Mineral Nutrition in Plants

A. Bhattacharya 6.1.    Macronutrients (Primary)      6.2.    Macronutrients (Secondary and Tertiary)      6.3.    Micronutrients      6.4.    Inter-relationships Between Nutrient Elements          6.4.1.    Synergism     6.4.2.    Antagonism      6.5.    Potassium Inter-relationships with Macronutrients          6.5.1.    Potassium Inter-relationships with Secondary Nutrients     6.5.2.    Potassium Inter-relationships with Micronutrients      6.6.    Nutrient Deficiency      6.7.    Role of Mineral Nutrition Against Environmental Stress      6.8.    Role of Mineral Nutrition Against Drought Stress      6.9.    Role of Potassium in Abiotic Stress Resistance          6.9.1.    Potassium and Drought Stress     6.9.2.    Cell Elongation and Cell Membrane Stability     6.9.3.    Aquaporins and Water Uptake     6.9.4.    Osmotic Adjustment     6.9.5.    Stomatal Regulation     6.9.6.    Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species     6.9.7.    Potassium and Salt Stress     6.9.8.    Potassium and Low-Temperature Stress     6.9.9.    Potassium and Waterlogging Stress      6.10.    Partition of Photosynthates under Nutrient Deficiency          References

309 - 370 (62 Pages)
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7 Transgenic Approaches for Enhanced Drought Tolerance (EDT) in Plants
Alok Das, Shallu Thakur, P.S. Basu and N.P. Singh

7.1.    Single Action Gene          7.1.1.    Osmoprotectants     7.1.2.    Detoxifying Genes     7.1.3.    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Protein     7.1.4.    Transporter Genes     7.1.5.    Multifunctional Genes for Lipid Biosynthesis     7.1.6.    Heat -shock Protein Genes      7.2.    Regulatory Gene          7.2.1.    Transcription Factors     7.2.2.    Signal Transduction Genes      7.3.    Choice of Promoters      7.4.    Physiological Evaluation of Stress Effect      7.5.    Conclusions          References

371 - 392 (22 Pages)
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8 Abiotic Stresses and Respiration in Plants

A. Bhattacharya      8.1.    Glycolysis in Plants          8.1.1.    Oxidative Decarboxylation of Pyruvate      8.2.    Citric Acid Cycle      8.3.    Oxidative Phosphorylation          8.3.1.    Efficiency of ATP Production      8.4.    Photorespiration      8.5.    Effect of Abiotic Stresses       8.6.    Effect of Drought on Respiration      8.7.    Effect of Waterlogging on Respiration          8.7.1.    Plant Metabolism and Energetic Alteration Under          Waterlogging      8.8.    Effect of Low Oxygen on Respiration      8.9.    Effect of Higher Day and Night Temperature on Respiration      8.10.    Respiration Under Low Temperature Stress      8.11.    Effect of Salt Stress on Respiration          8.11.1.    Reactive Oxygen Species     8.11.2.    Physiological and Biochemical Processes      8.12.    Effect of High CO2 Concentration on Respiration          References

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