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Brahma Singh
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Unlike other aspects of agricultural sciences, little literature is available on protected cultivation in India. Protected cultivation in India has vast potential under changing environmental parameters and reducing land and water resources. The book contains consolidated and concise information on design, construction and maintenance of protected structures and production technologies under protected cultivation with contributions from eminent scientists and researchers from institute like DIHAR- DRDO, ICAR, CIAE, CIPHET, CPCT, IIVR, CAZRI, NRCs and various SAUs.

0 Start Pages

Preface The 120 stakeholders, farmers, researchers, planners, students, policy- makers and supporters of protected cultivation in India were brought on a single platform by the Indian Society for Protected Cultivation (ISPC-registered in March 2012), New Delhi on 21 March 2013 in a seminar "Advances on Protected Cultivation" at NASC, Complex, Pusa, New Delhi, to deliberate and discuss together the research and developmental activities. The response to the seminar was very encouraging having all India participation. The seminar has laid very strong foundation for the activities of the society keeping in view the emerging importance of protected cultivation, particularly in horticulture where it has already shown its potential of high and quality yield per unit investment and time. Use of reduced inputs, particularly water and land, to maximize productivity under changing and uncertain climatic conditions, has been the major strength of protected cultivation which has been amply exhibited in China, Korea, Japan , Russia, Israel, the Netherlands and other countries, covering large area under protected cultivation of vegetables, cut flowers, ornamental plants and fruits. The horticulture sector, presently contributing around 31% of the GDP and 38% of the total exports of agricultural commodities from 14% of the area, has vast potential to contribute to the GDP and agriculture export by adopting protected cultivation in selected crops, particularly producing disease- free nursery and off- season crop production. India has its distinct potential of using protected cultivation by adopting lowcost and locally made protected cultivation structures to Hi-Tech greenhouse production in different diverse regions of the country. The unimaginable contribution of plastics to horticulture in protected cultivation, covering microirrigation, mulching, packaging, transportation and storage is worth acknowledging besides being unfriendly to environment because of non-degradable nature. The one-day seminar having 20 invited speakers on design, construction and maintenance of protected structures and production technologies under protected cultivation went on well. There were 143 abstracts meant for poster presentation. An exhibition on the subject was put up which attracted appreciation of participants and dignitaries. The proceedings of inaugural session and recommendations emerging out the seminar are part of this publication. The recommendations highlight the need to cover one million hectare area under protected cultivation in coming ten years in India besides developing human resource on the subject on priority. On behalf of the organizers, my colleague editors and my own behalf, I thank all the contributors, organizers and participants to the seminar and invite them to contribute regularly to the activities of this society. I respectfully thank the Indian Council of Agricultural Research , particularly its Chief Dr S. Ayyappan, Secretary, DARE, and DG, ICAR; Defence Research and Development Organization to Co-sponsor the Seminar and National Academy of Agricultural Sciences, New Delhi, particularly Dr Anwar Alam, Vice President of ISPC and Secretary NAAS to extend much needed support to the society. It would have not been possible for me to edit this publication without the timely help rendered by Dr Som Dutt Tyagi, Editor (Indian Horticulture), KAB-1, Pusa, New Delhi. All our Editors are grateful and thankful to him. I would like to put on record the support extended by Defence Research and Development Organisation, New Delhi; National Horticulture Board, Gurgaon; M/S R S Products Pvt Ltd, New Delhi; M/S Harvel Agua India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi; M/S Bayer Crop Science, Hyderabad; M/S Classic Agricon, Chandigarh; National Horticultural Research and Development Foundation, Nasik; Noni Biotech Pvt Ltd, New Delhi; Sri Ram Solvent Extraction Pvt Ltd, Jaspur, Uttarakhand; Rajdeep Agri Products Pvt Ltd, New Delhi; Greenways Nursery, Fatehpur Beri , New Delhi; and United Phosphorus Pvt Ltd, Santacruz, Mumbai; without which it would have not been possible to organize the seminar and bring out this publication. I am confident that the publication would stimulate interest in protected cultivation in peri-urban and urban agriculture, and be useful to concerned scientists, students, farmers and other stakeholders.

1 Strategies for Promoting Protected Cultivation in India
R. S. Paroda

Since ancient times, agriculture is an outdoor or open field production of crops. Open field production is climate and weather dependent. In fact, growth and development of crops under a particular set of climate parameters defines geographical location, productivity and production period of different crops. The magnitude of impact of climate and weather on agricultural productivity and quality of produce is appreciated by farmers and the scientific community, including horticulturists. Abiotic and biotic factors govern crop production potential and quality of products. Among the major constraints in production of horticultural crops are temperature (hot or cold), sunlight duration and quality, water deficiencies or excesses, atmospheric moisture (relative humidity), weeds, deficiency of nutrients, heavy winds, carbon dioxide and host of diseases and insect pests. There are ecological optima for obtaining production potential of each of the crops. Deviation from these conditions results in yield losses partially and sometimes totally. However, near optimal climatic conditions could be created by controlling the climate with the help of greenhouse using The article is the Inaugural address delivered by Dr. R.S. Paroda at Indian Society for Protected Cultivation (ISPC-registered in March 2012), New Delhi on 21 March 2013 in a seminar ‘‘Advances on Protected Cultivation’’ at NASC, Complex, Pusa, New Delhi different protected structures/methods/devices and such cultivation under controlled environmental conditions is termed as as protected cultivation.

1 - 10 (10 Pages)
2 DRDO—Harbinger of Protected Cultivation of Vegetable Crops in India
Brahma Singh

Protected cultivation of vegetable crops refers to creation of favourable environmental conditions around vegetable plants, offsetting or minimizing the detrimental effects of prevailing or expected to prevail abiotic and biotic factors. In open fields, vegetables face several abiotic and biotic stresses, resulting in lower or poor or no yield. This condition is altered by using different protected structures for cultivation and/or nursery production. Vegetables which are transplanted using seedlings should be produced by raising seedlings under protected conditions. Protected conditions ensure production of healthy seedlings. The use of healthy seedlings ensures better and higher production of vegetables both under protected conditions and open field conditions. Nursery grown in nursery trays can be transported long distances and can wait till field is ready or human resources is available for transplanting. Structures are ideal for production of plug plants/transplants in different sizes of portable trays.

11 - 24 (14 Pages)
3 Automation for Climate Control in Protected Structures
Pitam Chandra

Protected structures such as cloches, low tunnels, greenhouses, livestock housing, aquaculture facilities and phytotrones provide varying degrees of climate control for agricultural production. While cloches and low tunnels provide only passive modification of the growing environment, all other protected structures have the possibility of active and precise growing environment control. GREENHOUSE TECHNOLOGY Greenhouse technology permits the management of both biotic and abiotic stresses related to plant growth to maximize the productivity and quality. Resultantly, profitability per unit area per unit time increases by two to three orders of magnitude as compared to open field cultivation. Introduction of greenhouse technology in India for commercial production is only about three decades old, whereas it is more than two centuries old in USA, UK, Holland, France, Italy, etc. A greenhouse is a framed or inflated structure covered with a transparent or translucent material where plant environment could be, at least partially controlled and which is large enough to permit a person to enter and carry out cultural operations. A greenhouse is called a glasshouse, when covered with glass, and plastic house when plastic is the glazing material. Materials of construction and cropping activities are also used to identify greenhouses. In addition to the growing facility, a commercial greenhouse complex has a head house, an input storage and a sales area. All these components are so arranged that unwanted movements of man and material are obviated.The greenhouse complex should have adequate wind breaks on the upstream side of the wind direction to provide protection against heavy winds.

25 - 36 (12 Pages)
4 Design and Construction of Greenhouse in India
P. R. Bhatnagar

Greenhouse refers to a structure which provide relatively better environment for plant growth. The goal is to create congenial temperature and relative humidity in desired range. The greenhouse covered with polythene sheet, also called as polyhouse, has polythene sheet (UV stabilized 200 micron LDPE sheet) as covering over a relatively rigid frame (made of GI pipes, angle iron, boomboo or wooden) which entraps the solar energy to increase the temperature and provide light for plant propagation. A normal greenhouse has four basic components: 1) frame made from rigid material like GI pipes, wood or bamboo; 2) glazing material, which is transparent to provide enough light for plant propagation; 3) climate control system, which may be natural ventilation or forced ventilation using fans with or without cooling pads, shading nets, pigment painting, etc. and 4) plant growing medium (soil or artificial media like cocopeats) with needful arrangement for supplying inputs (water, fertilizers, pesticides, etc.). The design of greenhouse involves structural design of frame with enough climate control mechanism. It mainly depends on shape, size, material of frame, local climatic conditions, wind pressure, and desired height from crop production point of view. Fabrication of greenhouse should be such that it provides enough structural stability with wind pressure and other factors, perfect joints, anchoring of polythene, and minimum hindrances in crop production practices.

37 - 46 (10 Pages)
5 Protected Cultivation of Vegetables in Southern India
A.S. Sidhu

Growing population, rapid urbanization and changing climate have created a global challenge to meet the food and nutritional needs. In India, rapid urbanization is not only taking place in larger cities, but satellite towns are competing for food, water, transportation and above all adding to pollution of the environment. As warming of the climate gathers alarming pace, posing a danger to agriculture, greenhouse cultivation is the only answer to save crops of flowers and vegetables. The yield under polyhouse cultivation can be achieved to the level of 5-8 times as compared to open field cultivation. PROTECTED STRUCTURES Protected cultivation is unique and specialized form of agriculture. Protected or greenhouse cultivation of vegetables is one of the means for clean vegetable production in peri-urban areas. The protected cultivation facilitates year-round production of high- quality produce with minimum labour and irrigation water, and almost wards off pest problem. In peri-urban regions, where climate prevents or does not favour year-round production of crops in open field, vegetable production can be taken up in protected environment. Use of protected structure for cultivation of crops as a commercial venture is a recent phenomenon, especially in the tropical areas.

47 - 50 (4 Pages)
6 Design of Protected Structures and Drip Fertigation System for Indian Conditions
Murtaza Hasan

P rotected cultivation technology envisages immense promise, especially for high-value crops against various biotic and abiotic stresses. The climatic parameters stress conditions like unusually low and high temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind velocity comes under abiotic stresses. The present climate change scenario dealing with various biotic and abiotic stress conditions poses serious threat to agricultural production throughout the world. It is estimated that due to one-degree rise in temperature during rabi season, wheat production declines by 4-5 million tonnes in India. Similarly due to prevailing low temperature and frost like conditions, especially in Northern India, several million tonnes of horticultural crops like tomato, brinjal etc. got wasted every year. Protected cultivation technology deals with following types of protected structures :

51 - 64 (14 Pages)
7 Solar Thermal Modeling of Greenhouse Environment for Protected Cultivation
Dilip Jain

Greenhouse essentially functions based on solar energy to control environment for protecting cultivation from adverse condition. Computer simulation and mathematical modeling are important tools for determining the energy efficient design as well as predicting the overall system performance. The greenhouse climate may be used for crop drying, distillation, biogas plant heating, space conditioning, and aquaculture. Thus, any required configuration of greenhouse can be thermally modeled for predicting and optimizing the performance. The solar energy based greenhouse modeling are useful in evaluation of various applications like greenhouse heating, greenhouse cooling, greenhouse drying and aquaculture greenhouse. Greenhouse clubbed with ground air collector increase in plant and ambient temperature of 5–7°C during night in winter. Whereas, using evaporative cooling pad with greenhouse reduces the ambient temperature of 4–5°C during midday summer. A greenhouse can be very well used for large-scale crop drying, while not in use for cultivation. Some other applications such as covered crop drying and aquaculture are also discussed.

65 - 76 (12 Pages)
8 Greenhouse Technology for Vegetable Cultivation in Cold Desert Environment: Learnings from Ladakh
R B Srivastava, Dorjey Angchok

In India, risk-prone, high altitude area constitutes the easternmost trans-Himalayan part of Ladakh and Zanskar range (Jammu and Kashmir) and some parts of Lahoul Spiti (Himachal Pradesh). Truly described as cold desert with low population density, Ladakh constitutes the easternmost trans-Himalayan part of Jammu and Kashmir in India, comprising two districts, Leh and Kargil, bordering Pakistan and China (Fig. 1).

77 - 84 (8 Pages)
9 Vegetable Nursery Raising under Protected Environment
S.N.S. Chaurasia, P. S. Naik

R aising of healthy vegetable seedlings is most important aspect in vegetable production, because, up to a large extent it determines the productivity and profitability. Nursery raising under open field conditions suffers by a number of biotic and abiotic factors like, continuous rains, too low and too high temperatures, disease and insect-pest etc. For the early establishment in the field and to reduce the cost of production, vegetable seedlings are being raised in plug trays under controlled conditions round the year. Under this system, each transplant grows in an individual cell to reduce the competition among transplants and maintain the uniformity. Plug transplants establish better in field because roots are not damaged in pulling, transplants often result in better stands, and their growth can be controlled more easily through fertility and water management. With the passage of time, a lot of advances have been made in this direction and a number machines have been developed like media sterilizer, media mixer, plug trays filling, seed sowing machine, growth chamber etc. by which the raising of seedlings under controlled environment becomes easier and labour intensive. The growth is insulated to allow for heating or cooling according to specific germination needs of the seed. This technique reduces fluctuations in temperature and moisture that can occur in an open house. The growth chambers are usually an insulated room in which temperature and relative humidity can be maintained at a precise level. Air circulation is important to ensure uniform temperature and humidity throughout the chamber. Grafting in vegetables is a recent practice to control soil-borne diseases and nematodes, for both field and greenhouse grown crops. In addition, grafted vegetables can produce higher yields and have improved tolerance to environmental stresses, soil salinity and low soil temperatures which is only possible under protected conditions. Thus under present scenario, raising of seedlings under controlled environment offers opportunity to go for commercial nursery with different machines.

85 - 92 (8 Pages)
10 Breeding Solanaceous Vegetables for Protected Cultivation
Raj Kumar

Tomato varieties produced 50% in plastic house cover more than what they produce in open air (Diez et al., 1985). Nevertheless this production increase is not, by itself the reason for the use of protected cultivation which requires higher expenses. The key factor is the cost increase of final product obtained during off-season, which created an interesting margin in spite of high production costs. The effect of cost of seed in total cost is negligible, which permitted the use of hybrid seed. The new hybrids have brought about production increases which can be calculated to be over 50% more than what the greenhouse varieties produced with the cost of hybrid seed giving an effect on total production costs of only 6-7%. So that under these circumstances, production increase associated with hybrids is certainly very advantageous, apart form other benefits to be derived from hybrids.

93 - 102 (10 Pages)
11 Production Technology for Vegetables under Protected Conditions
Balraj Singh

In spite of considerable progress achieved during the last four decades in vegetable production in India, average productivity of vegetable crops is still low as compared to national and world level, indicating the scope to enhance their yield potential of quality produce. This is because of an appealing gap between potential yield and actual yield. In many vegetables, yield realized is even lesser than 50 % of potential yield. Sometime, farmers growing vegetable crops during main season do not get back their cost of cultivation. The prices of the same vegetable produce is very high during off-season. Several biotic and abiotic stresses are major factors responsible for low productivity and poor quality in different vegetable crops under open field cultivation, especifically in rainy and post-rainy seasons. The increasing demand of off-season high quality vegetables in various markets of big cities has called the attention of vegetable growers for diversification from traditional techniques of vegetable cultivation to modern systems of cultivation. Protected cultivation of vegetable crops offers best choice for diversification. Production of crops under protected conditions has great potential in augmenting production and quality of vegetables, in main and off-season, maximizing water and nutrient-use efficiency under varied agroclimatic conditions. This technology has great potential especially in peri-urban areas, since it can be profitably used for growing high- value vegetables like tomato, cheery tomato, coloured Capsicum and parthenocarpic cucumbers, and healthy and virus-free seedlings in agri-entrepreneurial models.

103 - 118 (16 Pages)
12 Advances in Research in Protected Cultivation of Cut Flowers
S.S. Sindhu, Raj Kumar

Floriculture industry comprises of cultivation and trade of cut and loose flowers, potted plants, foliage and bedding plants, and dried flowers under open field as well as protected conditions. Globally, more than 145 countries are involved in cultivation of floricultural crops. Though the art of growing flowers is not new to India, protected cultivation is relatively new in India. Enormous genetic diversity, varied agroclimatic conditions, versatile human resources offer India a unique scope for diversification into new avenues which have not been explored to a greater extent. India also has a strong dry flower industry, which contributes a major share to the overall trade. Other segments like fillers, potted plants, seeds and planting material, turf grass industry and value-added products also contribute a share in overall growth of floriculture industry. Cut flower production is a growing business in most of the Asian countries. Technology for production is well-known and it has been utilized to the maximum in many countries. As a consequence, cut flowers are commercially produced in larger quantities in these countries, resulting in surplus quantity during normal periods of blooming. On the other hand, such prices are much higher during the periods of needs such as certain special occasions, or off-season.

119 - 132 (14 Pages)
13 Advances in Protected Cultivation of Vegetables in Kerala
C. Narayanan Kutty, U. Sreelatha, M. L. Jyothi, T. R Gopalakrishnan

Kerala has a tropical humid weather characterised by high rainfall and humidity. The intense rainfall during June-September is a limiting factor for vegetable cultivation. High cost of labour, rapid urbanisation, small size of holdings and quality conscious consumers are some of the factors favouring protected cultivation in Kerala. Rain shelters and modified naturally-ventilated polyhouses are recommended structures for protected cultivation of vegetables. The important vegetables grown are cucumber, yard long bean, Capsicum, okra, tomato, cabbage, cauliflower and leafy vegetables. The conventional saw-toothed structure has been modified to suit Kerala weather by making variation in height and improving the roof and side ventilation so that temperature variation inside the structure is only 1°C compared to the ambient. The Kerala Agricultural University has also developed an ad-hoc package for protected cultivation of vegetables, considering the soil and weather parameters and is providing necessary technical support to growers and extension officers. The technology for large-scale production of virus-free vegetable transplants in pro-trays has also been standardized. There is a growing demand for quality, disease-free seedlings and technology can be scaled up into a profitable agri-entreprenurial model. Open field precision farming through fertigation and mulching is profitable compared to conventional system of cultivation. Besides maximising water-and nutrient-use efficiency of the crop, this technology offers scope for mechanisation in vegetable cultivation saving human labour requirement by almost 50%. Rain shelters are useful for year-round production of vegetables in homestead for small growers.

133 - 142 (10 Pages)
14 Improved Vegetable Varieties/Hybrids for Protected Cultivation in India
D.K. Singh

Protected cultivation was introduced in India during 1985 but its progress is slow during the last 25 years due to lack of suitable varieties and hybrids for protected cultivation. Presently, area under polyhouse in India is 2000 ha, therefore, knowledge of polyhouse vegetable production technology of tomato and cucumber with intervention of drip irrigation and fertigation along with suitable varieties will be quite effective for enhancing their productivity. Therefore, it is imperative to develop hybrid seed and production of suitable varieties/hybrids at affordable prices to small and marginal farmers to achieve the targeted production potential of vegetable crops. Keeping in view some genotypes were isolated and pure line and hybrid breeding programme were adopted for improvement of these genotypes. After three years of multilocational testing at tarai, midhills and higher hills under polyhouse condition, four genotypes were identified and released. They are: Pant Parthenocarpic Cucumber 2 (1,755 q/ha) and Pant Parthenocarpic Cucumber 3 (1,605 q/ha) of cucumber and Pant Polyhouse Hybrid Tomato 1 (1,616 q/ha) with average fruit weight of 130-140 g and Pant Polyhouse Tomato 2 (1,291 q/ha) of tomato with single fruit weight 100-105 g. These genotypes were released by Uttarakhand State Variety Release Committee during May 2011 for commercial cultivation.

143 - 154 (12 Pages)
15 Production of Quality Seed of Vegetables under Protected Conditions—Technological Advancements
B.S. Tomar, Balraj Singh

India is the second largest producer of vegetable crops with a total production of 146.5 million tonnes (2010-11). More than 60 vegetable crops belonging to, Solanacious, Cucurbitaceous, Leguminous, Cruciferous (cole crops), root crops and leafy vegetables are grown in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. The demand of vegetables will be 225 million tonnes by 2020 and 350 million tonnes by 2030. A larger quantity of quality seed of vegetable crops will be required in order to achieve the demands of vegetables. The limiting factors which reduce seed yield under open field condition are biotic and abiotic stresses, requirement of isolation distance and generation system of seed multiplication etc. These problems can be effectively managed when we go for seed production under protected structures.

155 - 168 (14 Pages)
16 Advances in Protected Production Technologies in Orchids
D. Barman, P. Mohanty, R.P. Medhi

Orchids are known for their exquisite beauty and trade in global floriculture business. The Netherlands is pioneer in roduction and ex ort of tem erate orchid while Thailand and Hawaii are the world leader in tropical orchids, respectively. Recently, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Sri Lanka are catching the international market. The orchid industry is expanding in terms of magnitude in some of the major orchid-producing nations. The global orchid market has passed $ 1 Billion mark in 2010. The leading orchid producing countries in 2010 are: Country Production ($ million) Japan 280 USA 170 Taiwan 130 China 70 Brazil 60 UK 45 Thailand 35 Italy 30 New Zealand 20 Source: Orchid News The world consumption of orchids (potted plants) is valued more than $ 500 million (2000). The Dominican Republic, Costa Rica and India have recently begun to produce orchids for export. Commercial production of orchids has increased dramatically through the world in the past quarter century. The most common genera sold in Japan from 1993 to 2002 were Phalaenopsis (30%), Nobile type Dendrobium (20%), Oncidium (20%), Cymbidium (15%) and Cattleya (10%). The potted orchids sold through Dutch flower auctions increased from 50, 0000 to 18 million pots.

169 - 180 (12 Pages)
17 Protected Cultivation of Flowers in India
T. Janakiram, Namita, P. Pavan Kumar, Sapna Panwar

The beginning of protected cultivation in the country has paved the way for export of horticultural produce, especially of flowers to earn valuable foreign exchange. The technology also became handy for quality production of flowers and F1 hybrid seeds for domestic and export markets. In view of the globalization of international market and tremendous boost that is being given for export of flowers, there has been a spurt in the demand for protected cultivation technology. Low-cost polyhouses are quite popular in the North-East and in the northern plains, flowers are being raised in polyhouses either for capturing the early markets or to improve the quality of seedlings. Several commercial floriculture ventures are coming up in Uttrakhand, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu to meet the demands of both domestic and export markets. There has been a substantial increase in area under protected cultivation of different flower crops. Though there were initial hitches owing to the cost sharing, farmers of some states have taken maximum benefits of the existing schemes and adopted the technology. Protected cultivation technology is one of the most useful technology inputs which hold promise to transform Indian floriculture and bring in the “Colour Revolution”. Nearly, 40 countries are involved in protected cultivation of flower and vegetable crops. New production centers are being added constantly, mostly from developing nations. Today, majority of production is from developing countries like Zimbabwe, Morocco, Kenya, Ecuador, Costa Rica, Mexico, Singapore, Malaysia and India. In developed world, USA has an area of about 6,000 ha under greenhouses which are mostly used for floriculture. The Netherland is traditional exporter of greenhouse grown flowers all over the world. Israel, the largest exporter of cut flowers, has wide range of crops under greenhouses. About 1,000 ha area is under protected cultivation. Approximately, 98% of flowers are grown under open field cultivation and hardly 2% under the greenhouse cultivation.

181 - 192 (12 Pages)
18 IPM in Vegetable Cultivation in Greenhouses
Naved Sabir

H orticultural crops are most important ones incurring huge amount of pesticides in our country. The intensity of esticides on them is highest per unit area. However research on integrated pest management has not matched the progress and problems of plant protection at large and protected cultivation in particular. The USA, UK, Israel and Russia, pioneers in protected cultivation, are able to harvest productivity of up to 500 tonnes/ha of tomato and 200 tonnes/ha each of cucumber and capsicum, while in India up to 300 tonnes/ha of tomato and 100 tonnes/ha each of cucumber and capsicum are obtained, has compared to normal open field where their yield ranges from 40 to 60 and 10 to 20 tonnes/ha in India, respectively. The sustainability of an agro-ecosystem is represented by its ability to maintain a given level of productivity over time and a given quantitative-qualitative level of environmental resources (Loucks, 1977). The greenhouse is also a form of agro-ecosystem, where unlike other agro-ecosystems, environment has been adapted to crop in order to maximize its productivity. The greenhouse system has to take maximum advantage of natural benefits offered by location in certain latitudes while minimizing the disadvantages (Castilla, 2002). Higher productivity under such protected cultivation is attainable mainly on account of reduced competition, healthy environment, better nutrient management, increased surface area and longer crop duration. However, ideal and stable environment with warm, humid and abundant food under protected conditions provides an excellent platform for pest development often more than open field crops, leading to severe pest situations in greenhouses, as revealed by extensive surveys.

193 - 208 (16 Pages)
19 Bacillus spp. for Management of Carnation wilt under Protected Cultivation
S. Nakkeeran, P. Dhinesh, P. Renukadevi, M. Jawaharlal, E.I. Jonathan

Fusarium wilt of carnation caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.spp dianthi causes severe yield losses under protected cultivation. For the management of Fusarium wilt, 27 isolates of Bacillus strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of different crops including carnation. Among various species of Bacillus, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (BSC7) was identified as a most virulent antagonistic bacterial isolate. Studies on antagonism under Environmentally Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), depicted the presence of rod shaped bacterial cells with biofilm formation at 44847x. Detection for the presence of antibiotic biosynthetic genes reflected the presence of surfactin, iturin, bacillomycin and fengycin genes. The 24 isolates of Bacillus spp. showed positive reaction for surfactin gene. Nineteen isolates were amplified for Iturin A gene except BS5, BS9, BSC1, BSC2, BSC11, BSD1 and BSD2. Strains of B. subtilis BS1, BS2, BS5, BS6 and BS8 expressed Bacillomycin D gene. The genomic DNA of strains BS1, BS2, BS4, BS6, BS7 BS8, BS11 and BS14 showed positive for Fengycin D gene. The isolate of B. subtilis BS2 showed positive reaction for four genes namely surfactin, iturin, bacillomycin and fengycin. In vitro screening of Bacillus, B. amyloliquefaciens (BSC7), P. aeruginosa (P1) and T. viride (TV1) showed highest inhibition against F.oxysporum f.sp.dianthi to an extent of 55.95, 55.29 and 81.61 per cent over the control respectively. The antifungal activity of antagonistic B. amyloliquefaciens BSC7 and T. viride TV1 against F.oxysporum f.sp. dianthi was confirmed under ESEM by observing disintegration, lysis and structural abnormalities of the hyphae of the pathogen at the zone of interaction.

209 - 212 (4 Pages)
20 Problems and Prospects of Floriculture under Protected Cultivation in Hills
Y.C. Gupta, Bhavya Bhargava, Priyanka Sharma

Global demand for cut flowers is increasing steadily at around 10 per cent per annum. The share of India in this flourishing trade estimate at over US$ 40 billion per annum is negligible at 0.4 per cent. Floriculture include cut flowers, pot plants, cut foliage, seeds, bulbs, tubers, rooted cuttings and dried flowers or leaves. At international cut flower trade, flowers such as rose, carnation, Chrysanthemum, gerberas, gladiolus, gypsophilla, liatris, nerine, orchids, anthurium, tulips and lilies are preferred. Roses, gerberas and carnation are grown in greenhouses. The open field crops are Chrysanthemum, roses, gaillardia, lily, marigold, aster, tuberose etc. In India, floriculture is emerging as an important economic activity, earning foreign exchange. It has become a potential farm income enterprise. The domestic markets for high-quality flowers have been growing at 10- 20 per cent per year for the last few years. India’s flower business is estimated to be worth $ 400 million at retail, and about $ 100 million in international trade. Flower exports are about $ 30 million, constituting mainly of roses and dried flowers. Both Central and State Governments have been more than proactive and have made large investments in this industry in assisting production and marketing. A large variety of floricultural crops can be produced in protected environment as economic cash crops for the benefit of farmers. Problems associated with floriculture in hills are small, scattered land holdings and sparsely located population. There is a lack of irrigation facilities due to scarce availability of water resources; widespread natural vagaries like drought, hail storms, frost etc. There is a serious gaps in application of advanced floricultural technologies for improving quality and productivity; high pressure on land use for different purposes like cereal crop production, fodder production, etc. due to low per capita land availability; difficulty in technology dissemination due to difficult terrain, hostile climate, poor communication facilities and sparsely located population. Consuming markets within the state are very less which result in dependence upon distant markets of the county. There is a high post-harvest losses due to lack of modern post-harvest management system; very high temperature differentials in production areas and consumer markets; perishable nature of flowers, resulting in high post-harvest losses during transportation; and distant location of production areas from main roads. High cost of marketing, lack of organised system of marketing, lack of bargaining power with individual growers due to small production levels; inadequate availability of market intelligence to farmers resulting in imbalances in distribution of produce in different markets.

213 - 220 (8 Pages)
21 Proceedings and Recommendations of the National Seminar on Advances in Protected Cultivation
Balraj Singh, Brahma Singh, Naved Sabir, Murtaza Hasan

The Indian Society for Protected Cultivation (ISPC) has organized a National Seminar on ‘Advances in Protected Cultivation’ at the NASC Complex, DPS Marg, Pusa, New Delhi, on 21 March 2013, with an objective of collection and collation of scientific advances made in protected cultivation in India and dissemination of these among policy-planners, farmers, students, scientists, industry and other stakeholders. In spite of the fact that protected cultivation is in its state of infancy in the country in terms of scientific engagements, more than 120 delegates from distant parts of the country registered for the seminar besides good number of policy-planners, recognized names in agriculture and higher officials from industry particularly corporate associate life members of the society. In the inaugural session, Dr Brahma Singh, President, ISPC and Chairman, Organizing Committee welcomed the Chief Guest Padama Bhushan, Dr R S Paroda, formerly Secretary and Director-General, Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi and Chairman Haryana Kisan Ayog, Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University , Hisar ; Guests of Honour Dr M M Pandey, Deputy Director-General (Agricultural Engineering), ICAR and Dr H S Gupta, Director, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, other dignitaries on and off the dais, delegates, press and media. He also highlighted that this seminar intended to review the advances made in protected cultivation in India with a purpose to accelerate the same. He emphasized that protected cultivation offers opportunities to earn more from the limited land, water and other resources. It also enables production of quality products which fetch more prices and pride, besides being a potential practice for provisioning disease-free quality planting material for horticultural crops.

221 - 232 (12 Pages)
22 End Pages

List of Contributors R. S. Paroda Former Secretary, DARE & DG, ICAR, and Chairman, Haryana Kisan Ayog. Brahma Singh President, Indian Society for Protected Cultivation, Former Director, Life Sciences, DRDO, New Delhi. Pitam Chandra Director, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal 462 038, Madhya Pradesh P. R. Bhatnagar Project Coordinator, AICRP on Application of Plastics in Agriculture, Central Institute for Post- Harvest Engineering and Technology, P.O. PAU, Ludhiana 141 004, Punjab A.S. Sidhu Director, Indian Institute of Horticulture Research, Bangalore, Karnataka Murtaza Hasan Senior Scientist, Centre for Protected Cultivation Technology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110 012

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