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C.B. Pandey, O.P. Chaturvedi, Dr. C. B. Pandey
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The book includes total 26 s; the first 10 s describe traditional agroforestry systems found in different parts of our country. Homegardens, having a multi-tire in structure, are another example of traditional agroforestry system found generally in northeast and southern part of our country. s 11 to 14 deal with some modern agroforestry models, and mechanism of competitive interaction in found in agroforestry systems. 15 to 19 describes nutrient cycling and natural growth resources conservation by agroforestry systems. Tree has both protective as well as productive role. Tree canopies protect soils from rain beating and wind blowing whereas fine roots bind soil particles together and thereby protect soils from erosion. Trees recycle leaf and root litter and nutrients and make system at least semi-sustainable. Different models of agroforestry like shelterbelt and wind breaks are known to help protect environment from dust and sand dunes drifting; some models like medicinal plant based system that provide medicinal and other high value crops. These service oriented functions of agroforestry are described in 20 to 23. Tree improvement is an important aspect of agroforestry study. It helps develop plus trees for different agroforestry models. Multiplication of propgules and planting materials are equally important for development of agroforestry. These information are provided in s 24 and 25. But, agroforestry systems require much more parameters owing to their perennial nature. The last describes economic parameters like NPV, IRR, annuity, sensitivity etc. in detail.

0 Start Pages

Preface Agroforestry is an ages old practice, being followed throughout the world particularly more in developing countries in the tropics. World over, studies are being conducted to understand structure and functioning of the ages old and time tested agroforestry practices and improve their productivity. In India, studies on agroforestry date back to 1979 when Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi organized a seminar on Agroforestry at Imphal. Keeping in view the diversity in climate and edaphic conditions in our country a network project that included scientists and institutes of different agroecological regions, were considered; this paved way to the development of All India Coordinated Research Project (AICRP) on Agroforestry in 1983. In the beginning head office of the AICRP was at Krishi Bhawan, New Delhi, which later on 1997 shifted to National Research Centre (Agroforestry) at Jhansi, U.P. There were 20 centres in the network project, which included 12 State Agricultural Universities (SAU) and 8 ICAR institutes. Later more coordinating centres were added; at present there are 27 State Agricultural Universities and several ICAR institutes, which are working systematically in different aspects of agroforestry in major agroecological zones of the country. Today, more than 25 years after meticulous studies, agroforestry has emerged as a robust land use which advocates crop diversification, soil and soil-water conservation, cycling of organic matter and sequestration of CO2 in plant and soil. Different area wise agroforestry models are available now, which enhances unit land productivity and fulfil, fuel, fodder, fruit and timber needs of farmers. Area specific researches undertaken by SAUs and ICAR institutes have generated volumes of information but their availability is limited; hence the information do not become available to agroforesters and students pursuing their studies in the field of agroforestry. During our tenure as a Professor we felt a need for lucid compilation of such research material for use by agroforesters and students undertaking the study of agroforestry. Thus we felt compelled towards compilation of the available information on agroforestry systems prevailing in various agro-ecological conditions across the country. We sincerely wish that this book will help planners, agroforesters and undergraduate and postgraduate students.

1 Traditional Homegarden Agroforestry: Structural Diversity and Functional Dynamics in Aizawl District of Mizoram, Northeast India
A.R. Barbhuiya and U.K. Sahoo

Abstract: The size of the homegardens ranged between 0.10-1.00 ha; they were located in tropical region with multi-storied structure, commonly containing three layers but sometimes with four layers. Individual households were the sampling units and for each homegarden, the area was measured and crop composition, species richness and uses of plant species was enumerated through direct observation and interviews with the farmers. The composition and richness of species varied between the homegardens but was related to site characteristics and size of the garden. A total of 231 plant species (105 tree species, 50 shrubs and 76 herbs) belonging to 88 families were recorded from the gardens among which 27% species were common to all gardens. Among the trees, as many as 24 species (23%) were common to all the homegardens. The vegetable species constituted the major functional group followed by fruits. Homegardens were found to be a good reservoir of plant genetic resources that preserve diverse landraces, cultivars, and many more ecologically and economically important plant species. Our study depicts that the homegardens can play an important role in food security and sustainable livelihood support of this hilly people in a variety of ways and can be an alternative to shifting cultivation.

1 - 26 (26 Pages)
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2 Shifting Cultivation in North Eastern Region of India
Anup Das, J.M.S.Tomar, Rajesh Kaushal and O.P. Chaturvedi

Abstract: Shifting cultivation locally called Jhuming is a part and parcel of tribal life of the North Eastern Hill Region of India and it has direct bearing with their socio-cultural system. It is a boon to the farmers as long as the jhuming cycle is sufficiently longer (10-15 years) as this would not only produce a good crop but also gives sufficient time for ecological restoration and biophysical balance. However, with the increase in population pressure on land the jhuming cycle is getting drastically reduced (3-6 years). As a result of this, soil health is getting degraded and overall ecosystem is in threat. Many important flora and fauna are in the verge of extinction. As we cannot run away from the problem at least thinking about posterity, we have to find a decisive solution immediately. Developing improved methods of jhum cultivation like proper bunding, residue recycling, use of high yielding varieties etc. are few short term options. However long term viable options would be proper land configuration like terraces, water harvesting, agroforestry, adoption of integrated farming system approach and above all education and awareness among the tribal farmers which would help in sustaining the ecosystem of the region.

27 - 44 (18 Pages)
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3 Functional Roles and Services of Traditional Agroforestry Systems in the Sikkim Himalaya
Ghanashyam Sharma, Rita Sharma and Eklabya Sharma

Abstract: The adoption of agroforestry systems has gained wider attention in the Multilateral Environment Agreements (MEA), international academia and policy makers for their multifunctional role and dynamics of ecosystem services. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has put forward ecosystem approach while Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emphasized agroforestry as an appropriate means to reduce emissions and enhance sinks of green house gases. Traditional agroforestry systems such as cardamom-based and farm-based practices are good examples in the Eastern Himalayas. We analyzed the management diversities and functional roles of these agroforestry systems for their productive and protective functions, biodiversity conservation, carbon sequestration, reduction of run-off rainfall, improvement of soil fertility, nutrient dynamics, nutrient release through decomposition, N2-fixation, energetics and efficiencies. Use of N2-fixing Himalayan alder (Alnus nepalensis) in large cardamom (Amomum subulatum) and Albizia spp. in mandarin agroforestry are traditional innovations. The agroforestry systems and practices are examples of how fragile and steep slopes of the mountains are converted into ecologically resilient productive zones. These adaptive traditional agroforestry provide options for sustainable management of natural resources from a unit land use types to a landscape level land use stages and offer opportunities for socioeconomic benefits.

45 - 70 (26 Pages)
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4 Traditional Agroforestry Systems on the Garhwal Himalaya
N.P. Todaria and Bhupendra Singh

Introduction Agroforestry refers to practices, which deliberately or intentionally mix or retain woody perennials on the crop/animal production systems. It combines elements of agriculture, crops and/ or animals with elements of forestry in production system in a unit of land, either simultaneously or sequentially. The term woody perennials includes tree, shrubs, bushes, palm, bamboos, etc. which in agroforestry context are often referred to as multipurpose trees and shrubs (Wood, 1988). The word deliberate has significance a few trees remaining during the process of land clearance for agriculture is not agroforestry. To qualify as agroforestry, a system should actively promote the woody perennials for a particular purpose, or purposes, on the farm (Bhatt et al., 2001). This land use system is particularly suitable for resource poor marginal farmers became diverse needs are fulfilled by one system with escape routes during natural calamities. In hill agro-ecosystems, agroforestry plays an important role in sustainable resource conservation and food security. It is also used to diversify and intensify farming systems through integration of indigenous tree-crops.

71 - 92 (22 Pages)
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5 Acacia nilotica Based Traditional Agroforestry System in Central India
C.B. Pandey

Abstract: Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. Ex Del is an important multipurpose tree of traditional agroforestry system in the central India. The present chapter reports influence of tree canopy positions, i.e. mid canopy, canopy edge and canopy gap, of Acacia nilotica (12-yr) on texture, organic C, total and mineral N and P and soil pH, in different depths of soils, on productivity of rice during rainy and wheat during winter season. It also reports how residual nitrogen under the tree influence yield of rice following its felling after completion of rotation cycle. Sand particles are found to decline by 10% and 9% whereas clay particles increase by 14% and 10% under mid canopy and canopy edge, respectively, than in open. Clay particles are not influenced by the canopy positions. Soil organic C, total N, total P, mineral N (NO3- -N and NH4+- N) and P are greater under mid canopy and canopy edge positions than in open. Soil organic C and N pool sizes are maximum in 0-10 cm and decline with depths. Total and mineral P contents are nearly uniform across the depths. C/N ratio increases with soil depth. Despite greater nutrients pools under the tree, density, aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, aboveground biomass / belowground biomass ratio and yield of the rice decline by 27.5%, 27.5%, 19.1%, 14.8% and 24.9%, respectively. Like the rice, yield of wheat also declines under the tree. 

93 - 114 (22 Pages)
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6 Homegarden Agroforestry: Structure and Function in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands
C.B. Pandey and Lalita Singh

Abstract: The study reports the influence of biophysical and socio-cultural factors on composition, diversity and distribution of plant species in the homegardens of the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago of India. In Nicobar mostly an aboriginal tribe the Nicobari predominates. The Nicobaries are Christians. However, in the Andamans people from different parts of Indian subcontinent have been rehabilitated in the mid twentieth century. Mixed culture prevails in South Andaman, but in the other Andaman islands either Bengali or Tamil culture predominates. Biophysically, South Andaman is hilly whereas Nicobar is flat. Rests of the islands lie in-between the two extremes. But, all are similar climatically. Twelve to thirty-four plant species are found in the homegardens that are planted, cared and harvested. These plants are: palm, fruit, spice and forest trees, formed three-storey structure in Andaman and two-storey structure in Nicobar’s homegardens. Floristic similarity among the homegardens of the Andamans is 82 to 92%. However, it is only 12-18% between the homegardens of Andaman and Nicobar. Compared to Nicobar, species richness is greater in the homegardens of the Andamans. But, diversity is higher and evenness lower in the homegardens of Nicobar. All plant species in the Nicobar’s homegardens are spontaneous in regeneration. Among the Andamans, proportion of spice trees is higher in the homegardens of South Andaman, mango and citrus in North Andaman, and pineapple and vegetables

115 - 142 (28 Pages)
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7 Integrated Farming System for Island Conditions: A Case Study from The Andaman and Nicobar  Islands
M. Din, S.K. Ambast and R.C.Srivastava, N. Ravisankar, S. Jeyakumar, S.C. Pramanik

Abstract: Agro-ecosystem analysis of the island farming system revealed four distinct micro farming situations (MFS) viz., Hilly (MFS I), Slopping hilly upland (MFS II), Medium upland valley (MFS III) and Low lying valley (MFS IV). The enterprise combination study indicated the suitability of plantation based cropping sequences + backyard poultry and livestock in hilly areas, Short and medium duration paddy, vegetables, floriculture, plantations, fodder + backyard poultry + goat,  fish cum poultry cum duck and cattle in slopping hilly uplands, vegetables, plantations + backyard poultry, fish cum poultry cum duck in medium upland valley and long and short duration paddy, vegetables + backyard poultry, fish cum poultry and cattle in low lying valley micro farming situations. Productivity and profitability analysis of different farming systems under various micro farming situations revealed that net return obtained from cropping was Rs 3,26,408,  livestock and poultry was Rs 64,300 in MFS I where as under MFS II, it is Rs. 1,53,989 from cropping, Rs 77,176 from livestock and backyard poultry and Rs 12,465 from poultry + duck + fish. In MFS III, net return obtained from cropping was Rs 9,297 livestock was Rs 72,306 and poultry was Rs. 2,630 and poultry + duck + fish was Rs 24,957. Similarly, in MFS IV, net return obtained from cropping was Rs 57,760 where as Rs 90,893 was obtained from livestock, Rs 11,000 from backyard poultry and Rs 14,872 from poultry

143 - 172 (30 Pages)
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8 Agroforestry Practices in Tamil Nadu
M.P. Divya

Introduction Agroforestry has vast potential not only to meet the demands of fuel, fodder, timber, medicine and other Non-wood Forest Products but also to enhance green cover, soil and water conservation and reduce pressure on forests. The objective of agroforestry is to take advantage of the complimentary relationships between trees, crops and livestock in such a way that the productivity, stability and sustainability of the total system are maintained. It has great potential in improving degraded and affected sites and has been recognized as a restoration agent, rehabilitation process, and bioremediation mechanism, in addition to increasing farm income. Agroforestry is not a new practice for the farmers of Tamil Nadu.  It has been in practice in various forms e.g. growing Acacia leucophloea in the grazing lands with Cenchrus ciliaris in the Kangayam tract of Tamil Nadu exists from time immemorial to meet the mixed farming in that tract. In late 60’s farmers in coastal areas of Chengalpattu and Cuddalore districts started growing Casuarina to be sold as firewood.  This effort was entirely of the farmers without any support from the Government.

173 - 180 (8 Pages)
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9 Production and Functional Aspects of Agroforestry for Enhancing Livelihood Support in Indian Dry Regions
G. Singh

Abstract: Dry land ecosystems cover about 41% of the earth’s land surface including hyper arid region. There is a considerable difference between them, in which arid region covers 7% of global lands. These are barely productive and provide a meager existence to small populations, usually nomadic with little settlements as in Thar desert. In addition to hyper arid, other types are arid, semi and dry-subhumid, which are in danger of becoming desertified. Environmental conditions are harsh affecting agriculture production. People of Indian arid zone are well acquainted about agroforestry- an age old practice in India, but maintaining only a few trees on farmlands does not serve the growing demand of fodder, fueldwood and food. Adoption of alternate land use systems like alley cropping, lay farming, tree farming, dryland horticulture etc. may intensify crop production and sustain the rural livelihoods. The selection of tree/shrub species may be based on the tolerance towards drought, salitnity/alkalinity prevailing in the region. Based on arrangements and combinations of trees/shrubs with associated crops, agroforestry are categorized into: agri-silviculture, agri-horticulture, agripasture, silvipasture, hortipasture and silviherbal. Common trees are P. cinreraria, T. undulata, Salvadora oleoides, Acacia nilotica, A. tortilis, Ailanthus excelsa, Zizyphus nummularia, Z, mauritiana etc.

181 - 222 (42 Pages)
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10 Status and Scope of Agroforestry Practices in Bihar
D.K. Das, R.K. Jha, and O.P. Chaturvedi

Abstract: Economy of Bihar is solely dependent on agriculture. Only 7% area is under forest as against a minimum 33% required for ecological balance. To counter the environmental degradation and to provide fuel, fodder and timber, different tree-crop combinations were tried for accessing their compatibility. As a result some agroforestry systems have been recommended and are discussed in this paper. Economics of some of the successful system has also been discussed. A detailed account of prevalent agroforestry practices in Bihar is also given. Agri-horticulture system is most popular system adopted by large and medium farmers in the region. Finally, constraints in adopting and carrying out research in agroforestry along with future strategies to extend agroforestry in Bihar are also given in the paper. Introduction Agroforestry land use system is one of the most important means for improving productivity of rural resources. People’s perception about agroforestry varies with their use perspectives. Only 7 % area is under forest as against a minimum 33 % required for ecological balance. Per capita consumption of wood fuel in Bihar is 0.27 m3 per year and industrial wood is 0.054 m3. One of the studies, on demand and supply of wood in Bihar conducted by Division of Forestry

223 - 246 (24 Pages)
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11 Poplar Based Agroforestry Models on Trans-Gangetic Plains of India
Baljit Singh, G.P.S. Dhillon and Navneet Kaur, K.S. Sangha, R.I.S. Gill

Abstract: The Trans Gangetic Plains of India is a large fertile tract of north-west India where intensive rice-wheat based farming has led to soil and water problems.  Agroforestry is among the viable options to overcome these problems. It has already shown positive effects such as increasing tree cover, augmenting wood needs of industries and ameliorating socio-economic status of farmers. Poplar based agroforestry models have been widely accepted by farmers. Site specific superior poplar clones have been developed for superiority, growth and resistance to pest and diseases. Farmers successfully grow the annual crops (sugarcane, turmeric), seasonal crops in winter (wheat, potato, mustard, mentha etc.) and summer season (cotton, moong, pearl millet, sorghum etc). The reduction in wheat grain yield varied from 10.2 to 46.6 per cent from first to sixth year as compared to open field. Selection of shade tolerant crop variety, appropriate sowing time, irrigation, seed and fertilizer dozes help to mitigate these losses. Wheat sown during first fortnight of November produced significantly higher grain yield than other sowing times. Wheat variety PBW 502 performed better amongst the six wheat varieties tested under poplar. Tree crop interactions influence the damage caused by insects and diseases. Cultural practices reduce the number of hibernating pupae of poplar leaf defoliators (PLD) which subsequently leads to lower incidence of these defoliators. Percent damaged leaves were more in fallow (5.44 - 60.53) and less in intercropped plantation (2.49 - 49.20). PLD adult emergence percentage was significantly less in intercropped and ploughed (49.5 and 67.5) than fallow (83.0) plantations

247 - 272 (26 Pages)
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12 Silvopastoral System in the Andaman Islands
C.B. Pandey

Abstract: Stall feeding to cattle is not practiced in the Andaman Islands since generations. In the morning, after milking, cattle are allowed to go for free range grazing in the nearby forest or coconut arecanut orchards. But, like mainland territory the cattle do not form herd. They are trained in such a way that come back home during evening where they are fed with concentrate before the milking. Coconut and arecanut orchards occupying more than 14000 ha land are second major land use after forest in the Islands. The forage production in the grazing lands are not sufficient to meet out the demand of huge livestock population particularly during the lean period, form January to April. An attempt has been made to know the effect of four N fertilizer levels (0, 60, 80 and 120 kg ha-1 N) on net soil N mineralization rate (NMR) and soil moisture (SM), and shoot biomass (SB), FP, shoot biomass/root biomass ratio (SB/RB), N concentration in SB, N uptake and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of three grasses [Guinea (Panicum maximum Jacq.), Para (Brachiaria mutica (Forssk) Stapf) and Hybrid-napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.)] under three canopy positions [under canopy (UC, representing high shade), between canopy (BC, representing low shade) and open] of coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.) in a coconut based silvopastoral system in the Island conditions. The study has revealed that the tree reduces light 59% under UC and 32 % under BC positions, but the N fertilizer levels increase NMR by 11 to 51 % under UC and 3 to 44 % under BC positions compared to the open. SM does not differ across the canopy positions

273 - 298 (26 Pages)
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13 Alley Cropping System: Traditional and Modified Version for the Humid Tropics
C.B. Pandey

Abstract: Alley cropping system is known for several services like fodder and fuel production, nutrient management, and soil erosion control from hilly terrain in humid tropics, but it could not make in farmers field. This study explores the role of Gliricidia leaf manure on nitrogen management in soils. Simultaneously, the system is modified to make it highly profitable, so that it may become farmer’s friendly in humid tropics. For nitrogen management in soil, two methods (leaves being incorporated into soil vs. surface) and three times of application, i.e. zero week after sowing (0 WAS), two week after sowing (2 WAS) and four week after sowing (4 WAS), of Gliricidia leaf in soil was considered. Two additional treatments, urea (120 kg ha-1, equal to the leaves) and control (no urea + no leaves) are also maintained to compute recovery of nitrogen from the leaves by the crop, and to know if the leaf manure could produce grain yield equal to that of equivalent urea. The study reveals there is no effect of the method of application on the decomposition and release of nitrogen from the leaves, soil N mineralization, nitrogen uptake, shoot biomass and yield of the crop, but time of application affects these parameters significantly. Maximum 50 % nitrogen is released quickly from the leaves within 15 days and remaining 48-49 % gradually in 60 days. Rate of soil N mineralization; nitrogen uptake, shoot biomass and grain yield in maize are the highest in 2 WAS and lowest in 4 WAS treatment. Recovery of nitrogen from the leaves is very low ranging from 4.5 to 9.3 kg ha-1. The leaves do not produce yield in maize equal to that of equivalent urea. However, for synchronization of maximum release of N from Gliricidia leaves and it’s 

299 - 320 (22 Pages)
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14 Mechanism of Competitive Interaction in Agroforestry: A Case Study from An Alley-Cropping System
C.B. Pandey

Abstract: Trees are known to reduce growth and yield of crops under their canopy in agroforestry systems through competitive interaction. This chapter describes the mechanism of competitive interaction between Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam) De Wit in an alley cropping system. To know the mechanism of competitive interaction in agroforestry, three competition situations are created: crop + Leucaena shrub neighbour, crop + L. hedge neighbour and sole crop. In this study competitive interaction is studied in an alley cropping system having two alley width sizes i.e. 4m and 8m. Sunlight at ground, soil organic C and total N are measured in all the competition treatments at different distances from shrub and hedge neighbors. Sunlight is not reduced in crop + hedge treatment like that in sole crop treatment. Sunlight is reduced in crop + shrub treatment (36 to 82%), being the highest in 4m alley and the lowest in 8m alley size. Soil organic C is high but total N is low in crop + hedge and crop + shrub neighbour than in sole crop treatment. Comparing the two competitive treatments (crop + hedge and crop + shrub neighbour) it is observed that growth rate (42 to 55%) and crop yield (71 to 72%) are reduced greater due to aboveground than belowground competition. Belowground competition is 3.6 times greater in 4m than in 8m alley, suggesting that spacing is an important factor, which regulates tree/crop competition so does the crop yield reduction in an agroforestry system.

321 - 332 (12 Pages)
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15 Agroforestry Systems for Resource Conservation and Sustainable Agriculture in Arid and Semi-arid Conditions
M. Osman and A.K. Parandiyal, R.K. Singh

Agroforestry systems essentially involve a perennial component and provide cover to the soil through litter fall and tree canopy, which contribute to the conservation of soil and water resources in arid and semi-arid areas. Moreover, arid and semi-arid areas are exposed to extensive soil erosion by wind and water, respectively.  Planting of trees on erosion control structures as windbreaks, boundary plantations and tree-based systems are some of the potential ways for conserving natural resources (Singh, 2003).  Agroforestry and soil conservation have major role to play in the context of global climate change likely to occur from extremes of weather events and erratic rainfall behaviour.       •    Provide  permanent vegetative cover to the soil or land surface and thus substantially control erosion caused by both runoff and wind.     •    Improve soil quality through increased soil organic matter addition from litter fall and root turnover; and  improved  environment for soil microbe and earthworm activity. 

333 - 342 (10 Pages)
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16 Role of Agroforestry Systems in Biodiversity Conservation: A Case Study from Coffee Based Agroforestry Systems, Karnataka, South India
Kushalappa C.G., Sathish B.N., Syam Viswanatha and S. Raghavendra

Abstract: Agroforestry, is a sustainable land use system being practiced since long time through out the country. A diverse climatic, edaphic, and environmental conditions prevailing in the country has made it possible to practice different kinds of agroforestry systems. Karnataka state has four major agro-ecological regions and coffee agroforests are prevalent in the region of Western Ghats of Karnataka, which has tropical climate. With in Karnataka, Kodagu district has highest area under coffee agroforests with a total area of 1,00,079 hectares and is the largest producer of coffee in the country. The area under coffee agroforests is increasing at the cost of natural forested landscapes, which is considered as a looming threat to biological diversity. But, at the same time there are arguments that these coffee agroforests also supports high level of biological diversity. There are very few studies to justify this argument. With this background the present study is an attempt to enumerate the biological diversity of coffee based agroforests of Kodagu.

343 - 348 (6 Pages)
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17 Soil Erosion Control using Different Vegetative Methods on Hilly Terrain of South Andaman
C.B. Pandey and S.K. Chaudhari

Abstract: This chapter reports soil and nutrient loss due to water erosion from five major land uses, i.e. vegetable fields, coconut plantation, arecanut plantation, home garden and moist evergreen forest on the undulating topography of the island. Soil loss under the land uses was quantified using replicated runoff plots. Vegetative methods, i e Gliricidia hedgerow + crop, hedgerow + mulch + crop, hedgerow + mulch + crop + grass barrier, for vegetable field under till conditions, and Pueraria cover crop (coconut + Pueraria phaseoloides  cover crop) for coconut plantation were tested to know their potential to arrest soil erosion in the respective system. Soil loss from the vegetable field under No till conditions, coconut plantation, arecanut plantation, home garden and forest was 3.8, 12.4, 10.6, 8.4 and 2.3 tonnes/ha, respectively. Soil working in vegetable fields (till + crop treatment) provoked soil loss to124 tonnes / ha. Erodibility was the lowest (0.06) in the forest and highest (0.26) in the vegetable field under till condition.  Among the nutrients, the highest loss, across the treatments, occurred for nitrogen and lowest for phosphorus. The hedgerow alone in vegetable fields reduced the soil loss substantially (66 %). However, it together with mulch and grass barrier reduced the soil loss nearly equal to that found in the forest. Like wise, Pueraria cover crop (19 years old) brought down the soil loss under the coconut plantation equal to that in the forest. These observations suggest that Gliricidia hedgerows for vegetable cultivation and cover crop for coconut plantation may be good vegetative methods for soil erosion control in the island.

349 - 358 (10 Pages)
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18 Agroforestry and its Impact on Soil Fertility Improvement in North-east India
M. Datta

Abstract: North East India has a fragile inaccessible terrain with a sloping topography wherein agroforestry being diversified in nature, has the capability to eliminate the ill effects of land degradation through intensification in land use. Shifting cultivation widely practiced by the aboriginals is mainly instrumental in carrying out deforestation as well as land degradation but many indigenous  land use systems present in practice since time immemorial are proven considering an approach to achieve eco-sustainability. A number of agroforestry systems such as  agrihortisilviculture, multistoried  homegradens, silvipastoral and agroaquaculture etc are dominantly present in the region.The information on soil fertility improvement by agroforestry systems is documented herein. Organic matter build-up was appreciably high in soils of agroforestry. Similar to soils under shifting cultivation, a low humification of soil humus was noted in soils of uplands without any forest cover but a reverse trend leading to high rate of humification could be initiated in soils under agroforestry systems. Moreover, decline in soil acidity, rise in water holding capacity and augmentation in nutrient  availability were noted in soils under agroforestry systems.

359 - 396 (38 Pages)
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19 Nutrient Cycling in Homegarden Agroforestry in the Andaman Islands
C.B. Pandey and Lalita Singh

Abstract: This chapter reports variations in organic C, total N and P, mineral N and P, and exchangeable K, Ca and Mg, and microbial biomass C in soils in relation to leaf litter and root biomass (0 to 10, 10 to 20 and 20 to 30cm) at two canopy positions viz. under canopy and between canopy of homegarden trees i.e. coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.), and clove (Eugenia cariophyllata Thunb) and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans Houtt. Nees) spice trees. It also deals with seasonal variations in pool sizes of mineral N (NH4+-N and NO3--N), and net N mineralization rate (0-15 cm) in relation to rainfall and temperature under the homegarden trees, and examines how high rainfall (incessant rainfall) influences water filled pore space (WFPS), net nitrification and net ammonification rates, pool sizes of NH4+-N and NO3--N and microbial biomass C in the soils and conserves nutrients in humid tropical climate. The chapter also describes how high rainfall makes phosphorus available in high regime of iron in the soils; and perennial cover crop like Pueraria separately and together with phosphorus increases soil N mineralization. Organic C, total N, total P, exchangeable NH4+, NO3- , exchangeable K, Ca and Mg are higher in the under canopy and between canopy positions of all the homegarden trees than that in open. Rate of mineralization is the highest during the post-wet season and the lowest during the dry season (February to April) under all homegarden trees. High rainfall during the wet season, however, reduces the rate of nitrification under all the trees.

397 - 448 (52 Pages)
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20 Agroforestry: An Alternate Landuse for Wasteland Utilization in Central India
S.D. Upadhyaya and Aashutosh Sharma

Abstract: The continouning decline in the availability of cultivable land, rising energy and land casts together with the mounting demand for fruits, fodder and timber have given thrust to the concept of agroforestry plantation in Madhya Pradesh. It is a very intensive form of cropping, which has high relevance to the food and nutritional security of our ever-increasing population. Modern cropping systems differ in many ways from the traditional systems. They require more capital to establish and must be more precocious and productive to be profitable. Agroforestry based land use development in Madhya Pradesh will claim sustainability, increased agricultural productivity besides fruit fuel-timber productivity and also helping small scale farmers by generating employment and income. Therefore, the utilization of wastelands has paramount importance and agroforestry is one of the landuse options.

449 - 476 (28 Pages)
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21 Rehabilitation of Degraded Lands through Silvipastoral Systems: A Balanced Approach for Alternative Land use in the North-Western Himalayas
Charan Singh and O.P. Chaturvedi

Introduction India has about 18% of the human and 15% of the livestock population of the world that needs to be supported from only 2% of the earth’s land area. The per capita land availability has declined from 0.89 ha in 1951 to 0.37 ha in 1991 and is likely to be 0.20 ha by 2035 (Singh, 2005). It is estimated that demand for green and dry fodder would be short by 64 and 24% by 2020, while it was short by 62 and 22% in 2005. The current sustainable production of firewood is 17 million tons from forest areas and 98 million tons from non-forest areas, leaving a net deficit of 86 million tons which is removed illicitly from forest and scrub formations all over the country. Nearly 32.67% of India’s geographical area is affected by various forms of soil erosion and land degradation. The area reported to be degraded in India varies widely, ranging from 63.9 million ha (Anonymous, 2000) to 187.70 million ha (Sehgal and Abrol, 1994), due to variations in approaches used to define degraded lands. The area under wastelands is estimated to occupy 63.85 million ha which is 20% of the country’s geographical area.

477 - 498 (22 Pages)
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22 Role of Windbreaks/shelterbelts for Conservation of Natural Resources in Arid Conditions
R.S. Mertia, and S.K. Dhyani, Rajendra Prasad

Introduction Dry lands cover nearly one-third of the earth’s total surface and characterized by high climatic variability in rainfall and temperature along with higher potential of wind and water erosion (Mainguet, 1991; Okin, 2000). Wind erosion has been identified as one of the overriding factors of desertification in regions characterized by strong and persistent winds through out an annual dry season (Le Houerou, 1996). Clear sweep of strong winds across sandy desert is the great hindrance in sustenance and progress of agricultural activities. The strong blowing winds on one hands takes away top fertile soil thus causing irreparable loss to soil productivity, on the other hand deposition of airborne soil particles (sand, silt and clay) block the roads, railways, water bodies, open canals and burry agricultural fields (Gupta and Aggrawal,1978; Prasad et al, 2004). To minimize erosion hazards of speedy winds and optimize production of agricultural crops, various efforts have been made in the past by adopting different soil conservation measures among which the windbreak/ shelterbelt plantations rank high due to their expected effects on wind velocity, microclimate and productivity. 

499 - 512 (14 Pages)
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23 Scope and Potential of Medicinal Plants in Agroforestry: An Appraisal
P.S. Thakur and C.L. Thakur

Abstract: This article gives an overview of the possibility and scope of successful cultivation of medicinal and aromatic herbs as intercrops with multipurpose tree species under agroforestry conditions. The challenges are many. Sustainable production under any agroforestry system is the main goal to be achieved through short and long term strategies. Diversification of the existing conventional cropping sequences coupled with developing of suitable technology packages is the need of the hour to cope up with ever increasing demand for diversified products. The hypothesis is, if intercropping of annuals, biennials and perennial medicinal plants in association with fuel, fodder, timber, pulp, fruit trees including tree species with medicinal values on the farmland, an alternate land use system; can provide economically viable option for sustainable systems. This chapter describes the potential and benefits of medicinal plants based agroforestry. Our experience is that planting timber, fuel and fodder or fruit tree species in combination with medicinal crops paves the way for diversified products and better economic returns to the farmers. Multipurpose tree species outside the forest have played very important role in catering to the day to day requirements of the rural population. Different farming systems consisting of crops + trees have yielded encouraging results and have not only helped diversification but enhanced productivity of land per unit area. Intercropping medicinal and aromatic herb species further makes agroforestry more remunerative.

513 - 526 (14 Pages)
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24 Tree Improvement in Tamil Nadu
M.P. Divya, R. Jayaramasoundari and N. Chandra Sekaran

Introduction   Historically, foresters did not view trees as typical plants having the systems of heredity similar to all other living organisms. Previously it was felt that the tree development depended only upon the environment in which it was grown. Recently, the “forest tree parentage” in the tree improvement programme has gained importance.  Although there are several breeding methods for improvement of any crop, the most commonly used breeding method in tree improvement is “selection” of superior trees from existing or established population. The objective of selection programme is to obtain significant amount of genetic gain as quickly and inexpensively as possible, while at the same time maintaining a broad genetic base to ensure the future genetic general principle; that is choosing the most desirable individuals for the use as parent in breeding and production programmes. The most successful tree improvement programmes are those in which proper vegetative propagules and provenances are used. Success in the establishment and productivity of forest plantations is determined largely by the species used and the source of seed or vegetative propagules used within the population.

527 - 548 (22 Pages)
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25 Package and Practices of Mass Production Through Vegetative Propagation and Cultivation of Bamboos
J.M.S. Tomar and O.P. Chaturvedi, R. Kaushal, R.L. Banik, S.K. Tewari

Introduction Bamboos are group of woody perennial evergreen plants in the true grass family Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae. Bamboos are the fastest growing woody plants (up to 60 centimeter/day) in the world. Bamboo cultivation, especially in intensively managed and productive plantation has attracted a great interest in recent years leading to huge demand of good quality planting material. The easiest and most common method for propagation is seeds. However, in bamboo due to a long flowering cycles, seeds are not available every year and being a cross-pollinating species seedling population show much variability in characters. Species like Bambusa vulgaris and Bambusa balcooa flowers rarely and do not produce seeds making propagation absolutely dependent on vegetative means. Vegetative propagation offers a tremendous scope for mass multiplication of many commercially important species. Bamboos are vegetatively propagated through clump divisions, rhizomes, offsets, layering, marcotting, culm cutting, branch cutting, macroproliferation and through in vitro techniques. Propagation through clump divisions, rhizomes and offsets yield limited number of plants. Layering and marcotting techniques are not fit for commercial production. In vitro methods offer great scope for mass multiplication, but require high initial cost and skilled manpower and thus are not viable for decentralized forest nurseries.

549 - 564 (16 Pages)
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26 Economics of Traditional Agroforestry Models in Orissa, India
P.K. Singh and S.M.S. Quli

Abstract: The Santhals of Orissa raise Teak (Tectona grandis) and Cashew nut(Anacardium occidentale) on their marginal and wastelands randomly to meet their contingencies. Upland is utilized for short duration upland paddy cultivation for food. The sporadically grown Teak and Cashew is used as insurance crops for meeting the high risk of dry land paddy. This work is unique and innovative as it was carried out in participatory mode on the pooled land from 14 Santhal households.  It is a maiden attempt in Orissa to develop Agroforestry models using forestry (teak) and horticulture (cashewnut) interventions into the paddy cultivation on uplands by Santhals without much alteration in their age old traditional agricultural practice. The basic objective of this research is to develop most profitable Agroforestry system(s) to provide best land use option for the risk prone dry land paddy cultivation to improve the farmers’ economy with simultaneous natural resource conservation.   The Agroforestry models Silvi-horticulture (Teak and Cashewnut)  Agri-silviculture (Paddy and Teak), Agri-horticulture (Paddy and Cashewnut) and Agri-silvi-horticulture (Teak, Cashew nut and Paddy) were developed by the Santhal tribe in Mayurbhanj District of Orissa. The inputs and planting material were sponsored by a leading NGO- Gamin Vikas Trust, which is working on poverty alleviation through Natural Resource Management of the State.

565 - 578 (14 Pages)
₹160.00 ₹144.00 + Tax
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