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Dr. Rajaneesh Singh, Dr. Bijendra Kumar Singh
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The book is primarily meant for the student of graduate and post graduate in the field of horticulture of all agricultural universities in India and neighbouring countries. The information included in this book is considered to be of utmost value to student of horticulture fruit growers, nursery man, gardeners, subject matter specialist and other person’s engaged in the field of horticulture. In this edition author shared my personal experience on fruit crops acquired during last nineteen year. The book will proved boon for student contesting Indian Council of Agricultural Research Junior and Senior Fellowship, Agriculture Research Services examination and NET in the field of horticulture.

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Preface Fruits are the nature’s gift to mankind. They are not only delicious and refreshing but are also the chief source of vitamins, minerals and proteins. It may not be exaggeration to say that 80-90 per cent of problems arising from under nutrition or malnutrition can be well managed with indigenous medicines and fruits are an important part of these.   The book is primarily meant for the student of graduate and postgraduate in the field of horticulture of all agricultural universities in India and neighbouring countries. The information included in this book is considered to be of utmost value to student of horticulture fruit growers, nursery man, gardeners, subject matter specialist and other person’s engaged in the field of horticulture. In this edition I have shared my personal experience on fruit crops acquired during last nineteen years. The book will proved boon for student contesting Indian Council of Agricultural Research Junior and Senior Fellowship, Agriculture Research Services examination and NET in the field of horticulture. I am highly thankful to management of the college and principal for providing me always moral support in writing of this book. We have great pleasure in acknowledging moral support, encouragement valuable suggestion and connective criticism received from Dr. Hari Baksh, Mr. Raj Pandey and all agriculture faculty members, T.D. College. I am highly grateful to Prof. Anil K. Singh (BHU), Prof. Ranveer Singh, Prof. J.P. Tiwari and Prof. Harihar Ram who always encouraged me for preparing this manuscript. 

1 Introduction

1.    The term Horticulture is derived from two Latin words  Hortus meaning = Garden and Cultura meaning = Cultivation. 2.    In ancient days the gardens had protected enclosures with high walls or similar structures surrounding the houses. 3.    The enclosed places were used to grow fruit, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants. Therefore, in original sense “Horticulture refers to cultivation of garden plant within protected enclosures”. Definition: Horticulture is the branch of science which deals the cultivation, utilization and management of horticultural crops eg. fruits, vegetables, flowers, spices, plantations, medicinal and aromatic plants.

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2 Importance and Scope of Horticulture

1.    Total horticulture covers an area of 27.1 m ha and production 305.8 m ton in the country annually (Indian Horticulture Database, 2018). 2.    Fruit crops cover an area of 8.4 m ha and vegetable crops 12.2 m ha. Accordingly, 98.7 m ton of fruits and 182.1 m ton of vegetables are produced in the country annually (Indian Horticulture Database, 2018). 3.    Apart from fruits and vegetables, floriculture industry in India comprising of florist trade, nursery plants, potted plants, seed and bulb products is being observed as sunrise industry. 4.    The developed flower market in the country during 2018 is with area of 0.32 m ha with a production of 2.7 m ton flowers. 5.    The traditional flowers are grown on a large area on a commercial scale. These flowers are mostly grown for loose flower purpose. 6.    Area under cut flowers like rose, chrysanthemum, gladiolus, carnation and orchids is increasing day by day. 7.    Plantation crops are another potential sector with lot of opportunities for employment generation, foreign exchange earnings and overall supporting livelihood sustenance of mankind at large.

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3 Horticultural Zone of India

The Indian subcontinent is bestowed with a great variety of climate and soil conditions. Broadly the country can be divided into tropical, subtropical and temperate regions, within each broad category there are differences due to rainfall, humidity, altitude etc. Considering these aspects six different horticultural zones have been identified so that appropriate choice of the crops can be made and development is planned. They are; Temperate: Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, North Uttarakhand, Sikkim and part of Arunachal Pradesh. N.W. Subtropical: Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Central Uttar Pradesh and North Madhya Pradesh. N.E. Subtropical: Bihar, Jharkhand, Assam, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Manipur. Central tropical: South Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Orissa and West Bengal. Southern tropical: Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Coastal tropical humid: Konkan, Goa, Kerala, Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.

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4 Classification of Fruit Plants

Classification of fruits: Classification is the system of grouping or placing of an individual according to nomenclature. It is very useful to the pomologist, it helps to: •    To identify and naming the crop. •    To study the close relationship. •    To know their hybrids and crossing behavior. •    To know their compatibility & inter grafting ability. •    To know their adoptability to soil & climate. Pomology: Pomology is a branch of horticulture which deals the cultivation utilization and management of the fruit crops. eg. Mango, Banana, Citrus, Papaya, Guava etc. The term pomology is a combination of two words “Poma” in Greek means Fruits later subsequently transfer in to “Pome” in Latin word means Fruits and Logos means Study.

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5 Nursery Management

Nursery: Nursery is a place where seedling, saplings or any other planting materials are raised, propagated, multiplied and sold out for planting. Importance of a Nursery 1.    The young seedling requires special attention during the first few weeks after germination. It is easier and economical to look after the young and tender seedling growing in nursery bed in a small area than in the large permanent site. 2.    Majority of fruit crops are propagated by vegetative means. The propagules require special skill and aftercare before transferring them in the main field in a controlled condition in nursery, all these can be provided successfully by skilled labours. 3.    Direct sowing method is not successful when compared with transplanting of seedling raised in nursery. 4.    Nursery hardened plants are preferred for causality replacement in orchards. 5.    Besides these, raising of seedling or sapling in nursery provides more time for replanting preparations. 6.    Seasoning of seeding against natural odds is only possible in nursery.

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6 Plant Propagation

Plant propagation: Plant propagation means multiplication of plant by sexual or asexual method. There are two type of plant propagation 1.    Sexual propagation 2.    Asexual propagation  A. Sexual propagation: Sexual propagation means multiplication of the plant by seed. It is also known as seed propagation. Advantages of sexual propagation 1.    This is the easier and cheaper method. 2.    Some of the plant does not response well by asexual method (Papaya) this type of plant only propagated by sexual propagation. 3.    Sexually raised plant are long lived have extensive root system and bear heavily as compare to asexually propagated plants. 4.    Hybrid can develop only by seed propagation. 5.    Seed can be store for longer duration.

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7 Orchard Planning and Management

Orchard: Establishment of orchard is a long term investment. It is require a proper planning, any mistake during the selection of site, planting distance, choice of crop/variety, quality of nursery stock etc. reflect greatly on the orchard performance and efficiency. Following points are keep in mind at time of orchard planning- 1.    Road- Orchard should be well connected with the road for facilitate transportation of material to the orchard and produce of orchard to the market. 2.    Orchard structure- In structure office, implementshed, go-down come store etc. are required. Area under these structures is not more than 10% of total area. 3.    Fencing and wind break- Before planting of plants, installation of fence is necessary for protecting the undesirable element. Fencing can be done by erecting a wall or by fixing iron angle or concrete cement pillar and titening with running 4 to 5 times at a distance of 30-40 cm barbed wire.

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8 Planting System

Layout plan- Main objective of layout is maximum number of plant accommodated in per unit area without affecting the efficiency of production. If more than one fruit is included in the orchard plan, each kind should be grouped into individual block. Similarly fruit ripened in particular season should be grouped to facilitate convenience in watch and ward, harvest and post harvest handling. Some kind of fruit trees need pollinators/pollinisers for improving the fruit set.

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9 Soil and Climate

Soil: Soil is the upper most crust of earth surface which supports plant growth. It is defined as a three phase system in which plants grow. These phases are solid, liquid and gas and are essential. Solid part is frame which provides space for other two. This consists of minerals, clay minerals and organic matter. The soil is also a living system with millions of microbes that breakdown organic matter and builds it again. Some points are following •    Microbes are essential and survive only when soil is well aerated and rich in organic matter and avoid of waterlogged conditions. •    Texture of soil depends on the size of solid particles and classified as gravel, coarse and fine sand, silt and clay. •    Soils are classified according to relative distribution of these particles and there are 12 textural classes. •    Likewise, arrangement of these particles is referred as structure, and both texture and structure land soil physical properties like water holding capacity, aeration and bulk density.

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10 Water Management

Water: Water is one of the most important inputs essential for the production of crops. Plants need it continuously during their life and in huge quantities. It profoundly influences photosynthesis, respiration, absorption, translocation and utilization of mineral nutrients etc. Both its shortage and excess affects the growth and development of a plant directly and consequently its yield and quality. Soil needs the application of water to: •    Remove stress condition. •    Release nutrients in the soil solution for absorption by plants. •    Leach or wash out injurious salts from the soil. •    Preparation of land for raising crops. •    To maintain the temperature and humidity of the soil micro-climate and the activity of soil microbes at optimum level.

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11 Digging and Filling

Digging and Filling of Pits 1.    Marking of pits and planting should always be done with the help of planting board. 2.    The guide pegs are installed at both the ends. 3.    One meter deep pits of one meter diameter should be dug. 4.    Top 30 cm soil should be kept on one side, which is used for refilling the pits as it is fertile soil. 5.    Bottom 70 cm soil should be kept on other side, which is discarded. 6.    The pits should be left exposed for a few days before actual planting. 7.    These pits should be refilled with mixture of topsoil, 2-3 baskets of silt and 2-3 baskets of well-decomposed farmyard manure. 8.    The refilled pits should be watered a few days before planting the tree. To each pit add carbofuron (25g) for control of white ants.

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12 Training and Pruning

Horticultral plants are grown for their produce like fruit, vegetable, flower, medicinal, aromatic, spices etc. Therefore, these plants should be managed in such a way that human desires for the purpose of growing them are fully satisfied in terms of quality and quantity of produce. This demands direct manipulation of plant growth itself or plant environment through various inputs. In manipulation of plant development, training and pruning are important for which our knowledge about plant development and its phenology has to be complete. These practices are important in fruit crops. Training: Physical techniques that control the shape, size and direction of plant growth are known as training or in other words training in effect is orientation of plant in space through techniques like tying, fastening, staking, supporting over a trellis or pergola in a certain fashion or pruning of some parts.

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13 Plant Growth Regulators

The quantitative increase in plant body such as increase in the length of stem and root, the number of leaves etc., is referred to as plant growth whereas, the qualitative changes such as germination of seed, formation of leaves, flowers and fruits, falling of leaves and fruits is referred as development. Utilization of these substances for proper development of the plant is regulated by certain chemical messengers called plant growth substances or plant growth regulators, which in minute amounts increase or decrease or modifies the physiological process in plants. Plant growth substances are the chemical other than nutrient which required in very small amount but without which plant can not complete their physiology. The two sets of internal factors, viz., nutrition and hormone control the growth and development of the plant. The raw material required for growth is supplied by nutritional factors which include the minerals, organic substances the protein, carbohydrates, etc.

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14 Bearing Habits

Growth, Fruiting Habits and Methods for Inducing Fruitfulness in Fruit Crops •    Every plant has two distinct phases of development namely vegetative and reproductive. •    In the vegetative phase, the plant only vegetative growth i.e. leaves, shoots etc., •    In the reproductive phases the plant produces reproductive growth i.e. flowers and fruits. •    In case of annuals, these phases occur for a short period, each phase occurring only once and that too within the same season. •    In perennials, the vegetative phase lasts for several years depending upon the variety and species. This is known as the pre-bearing period. •    Once the perennial tree completes its pre-bearing period, the cycle of vegetative and reproductive phases might occur in each season or the reproductive phase may occur simultaneously along with vegetative phase without much distinction between the two.

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15 Problems of Unfruitfulness

In an orchard all the fruit trees do not bear equally or regularly and sometimes fail to flower and fruit under similar conditions where another fruit tree bears heavily. This failure to set fruits may be attributed to unfruitfulness. To understand the problem of unfruitfulness in orchards a familiarity with following terms is necessary. 1.    Fruit setting: It refers to initial growth of ovary and its associated parts after blossoming and taking it to maturity. 2.    Fruitfulness: It is the state of plant when it is not only capable of flowering and fruit setting but also takes these fruits to maturity and inability to do so is unfruitfulness or barrenness. 3.    Infertility: Ability of a plant not only to produce fruits but develop viable seeds and the inability to do so is referred as sterility or infertility. All fertile plants are fruitful but all fruitful plants are not fertile (Seedless fruits). 4.    Self fruitfulness: Ability of a plant to mature fruits after self pollination.

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16 Pollination

Pollination : Transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma is termed as pollination. 1. Self pollination When pollen grains from an anther fallen to stigma of same flower or same plant is called self pollination or autogamy. In other word when pollen and pistil are from the same plant, often (but not always) from the same flower. In other word when transfer of pollen grain from anther to stigma of a same flower or same plant is called as self pollination. In which development of seed by self pollination is known as autogamy it is the closest form of breeding. Autogamy leads to homozygosity such species develop homozygous balance and do not exhibit significant inbreeding depression several mechanisms which promote autogamy.

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17 Post Harvest Technology

Importance of Post Harvest Technology 1.     Proper handling, packaging, transportation and storage reduce the post harvest losses of fruit and vegetables. For every one percent reduction in loss will save 5 million tons of fruit and vegetable per year. 2.     Processing and preservation technology helps to save excess fruit and vegetable during the glut season (off season). 3.     The technology has become a necessity to improve the food safety and strengthen nation’s food security. 4.     The technology helps to boost export of agricultural commodities in the form of preserved and value added products. 5.     Presently mango, pineapple, citrus, grapes, tomatoes, peas, potato and cucumber being processed on a large scale.

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18 Mango

Origin and history: Mango is the king of fruits which is grown in India for over 400 years. More than 1000 varieties exist today. It grown in almost all state, India’s share is about 56% of total mango production in the world. Its production has been increasing since independent contributing 39.5% of total fruit production in India. Andhra Pradesh top in the production and Uttar Pradesh is top in area. Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, West Bengal and Gujarat together contribute for about 82% of total production.  Climate and Soil: Mango thrives well in tropical and subtropical climate. High humidity, rainfall and frost during the flowering period is harmful. The favourable temperature for its cultivation is about 24-27ºC however, it can tolerant to the temperature up to 48ºC.

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19 Grape

Introduction: Grape is an important sub-tropical fruit crop in India. The plant of Vitaceae family divided into two important groups first is Euvitis which have 60 species; some important species which are commercially grown are i.e. Vitis vinifera, Vitis raperia, Vitis rupestris, Vitis labrausca and Vitis champini. Second group is Muscadiana and in this group the important crops are Muscadiana rotendifolia, Muscadiana popenoii and Muscadiana munsoniana. The chromosome number of this group is 2n = 40.

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20 Ber

Origin and history : Ber is an ancient fruit crop of India and is relished for its sweet and sour fruits. It is an ideal fruit tree for arid and semi arid regions in tropical and subtropical climate. It is highly suitable for marginal land and hot arid region. It is distributed in tropical and sub tropical country in the world, including China, Pakistan, Australia and France. In India the major growing states are Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh etc. In Uttar Pradesh, Varanasi, Aligarh, Ayodhya, and Agra are the major growing region. Beside mauritiana other important species like Zizyphus rotundifolia, Zizyphus numuleria, Zizyphus rugosa, Zizyphus xylopyrus, Zizyphus micropyla is also commercially grown for rootstock purpose.

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21 Guava

Origin and history: Guava (Amrud) is one of the most common fruits in India.  It is a very hardy sub-tropical plant and prolific bearer. In India, it is commonly called as “poor man’s apple” widely naturalized in the country. Allahabad has the reputation of growing the best guava in the country as well as in the world. Area wise guava comes under 4th position after Mango, Banana, Citrus, in India. Uttar Pradesh has the largest area fallowed by Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, and West Bengal, however it is generally grown all over India and also grown in South Asia that is Srilanka, Myanmar and tropical and subtropical country. Beside Psidium guajava some other important species which are commercially grown for rootstock purpose that is :

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22 Pineapple

Origin and history: Pineapple is considered as one of the most popular tropical fruit, and is known as “Golden Queen” all over the globe. It can be grown as mixed crop in most of the orchards and also as hedge plant and as a pure crop. It is drought tolerant and suitable for marginal lands. Pineapple contain an enzyme Bromeline and volatile compound three methyl propionate ester. It is widely cultivated throughout the world and country is like Malaya, Hawaii, Brazil, South Africa, Singapore, Mexico and India. In India it is cultivated in eastern part of the country like West Bengal, Assam, Manipur, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Madhya Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

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23 Aonla

Origin and history  : Aonla or Indian gooseberry is also known as Indian amla. Aonla is the tropical South eastern Asia particularly central and southern India. It is commercially grown in Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat. In Uttar Pradesh aonla cultivation is more popular in Pratapgarh, Mirzapur and Barely. It is very rich from nutritional point of view being next to Barbados cherry in terms of vitamin C content (500-750 mg/100g pulp)which is not oxidized due to presence of tannins and even it is least destroyed during storage. Besides, it has an excellent medicinal value. It can be grown successfully in arid climate and in the soils of higher pH and poor fertility wastelands.

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24 Litchi

Origin and history- Litchi is a popular subtropical evergreen fruit; the white translucent flavoured aril is liked very much and is used for table purpose in India. The fruits are available during May–June in northern India. China is the biggest producer of litchi followed by India. In India major litchi producing areas are Mujaffarpur, Bihar mountain area of Saharanpur, Dehradoon, Hoshiyarpur and Gurdaspur district of Punjab. Soil and climate - It can be grown sandy to clay loam and it prefer slightly acidic soil having pH range from 6-6.5 it has been reported that in acidic soil litchi root develop Micorrhyza. Which symbiosis of root fungus and there by Nitrogen fixation take place in atmosphere.

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25 Banana

Origin and history : Banana is an important fruit of tropics. The fruit is recognized as the fourth most important global food commodity. India’s share is 32 per cent of the total fruit production. This is the only tropical fruit which is exported in large quantities and is leading fruit in the international trade. It is one of the oldest and commonest of the Indian fruit that has been cultivated since ancient times. Eve was said to have used banana leaves to covers her modesty in the garden of paradise. Banana is thus called apple of paradise. It is also known as “Adam’s fig or tree of wisdom”. It is used as staple fruit in most of the African countries and is used as ripe (table) or raw fruit (cooking). This fruit is available throughout the year. All the plant parts are being used. Banana is monocotyledonous plant true stem is rhizome which is a modified form of stem fruit is seedless due to parthenocarpy and the development of fruit is due to auxin stimulation. India has more than 300 germplasms, out of 600 reported worldwide. Edible banana has arisen as a result of natural crosses between two wild progenitors viz,. Musa paradisiaca and Musa balbisiana. Banana is being grown in many of the African countries between 300 N and 500 S latitudes. Important countries are India (1st place).

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26 Papaya

Origin and history: Papaya has long been known as wonder fruit of the tropics and is one of the five major fruit crops of tropical world, papaya fruits throughout the year and a remunerative fruit crop which is grown in almost every part of the country. It gives maximum yield per unit and income next to banana. It is generally grown as fruit plant in kitchen garden, home garden or nutrition garden and later as commercial fruit. It is also planted as a filler plant in a fruit orchard. India is the second largest producer of papaya in the world after Brazil. It is a fruit native to tropical America and commercially grown in many parts of the world viz., Australia, Hawaii, Taiwan, Puerto Rico, Peru, Florida, Texas, California, South Africa, Pakistan, Bangladesh and India. In India, it was introduced by Portuguese in 1611. It is grown in Karnataka, Bihar, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Assam, Gujarat, Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh etc.

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27 Citrus

Origin and history: Citrus is the leading fruit crop in the world. In India, citrus ranks second in area sharing 12.8% of the total area under fruit crops with 9.6% share in production. Under citrus group, mandarins are the most important, occupying 50% of the total area under citrus followed by sweet orange and limes. Citrus fruits are grown mainly in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Karnataka and North-Eastern region.  1.    Nagpur mandarin was introduced in India in 1894 by Shriji Raja Bhosle.  2.    Kinnow can be grown in high density planting by using the cultivar  Troyer Citrange'  as a root stock by spacing the plants at 1.8 x 1.8 m2.  3.    Classification of citrus was given by Tanaka and Swingle.  4.    Grape fruit is also known as Forbidden fruit, Breakfast food.

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28 Jackfruit

Origin and history: Jackfruit is a common and popular fruit crop of the low land tropics of eastern and southern parts of India. This fruit tree grows well without much care. It is the largest edible fruit (20-40kg), in Srilanka a fruit of about 120 kg was harvested and created the world record. The fruit is also called as poor man’s food in eastern and southern part. The tree has considerable potential, but it is yet to receive due attention in India it is not generally cultivated in regular plantations and is mainly grown in homestead for domestic uses and as a shade tree in coffee or cardamom plantations. The largest area of jack fruit is in Assam, jack fruit can grow in a wide variety of soil but in grow well in rich, deep alluvial soil.

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29 Temperate Fruits

Origin and history: Apple is a “King of temperate fruits” and it’s belonging to family roasaceae. Plants are deciduous in nature. The apple fruits are well known for its sweet, pomaceous fruits. Apples have been grown for thousands of years in Asia and Europe, and were brought to North America by European colonists. Apples have religious and mythological significance in many cultures, including Norse, Greek and European Christian traditions. Apple is the premier table fruit of the world. It is typical temperate fruit tree, about 40 percent of the world’s supply being produced in China. Major apple growing countries are U.S.A, Italy, west Garmany, France, Japan and China. In India a large number of apple variety were introduce in 1887 by Mr. Alexander Coutts in his orchard called hillock head in Mashobra near Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. It was also introduce in Bangalore and Nilgiri hills (Tamil Nnadu). But it was destroy by woolly aphid in 1897. In India apple is commercially cultivated in Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jammu and Kashmir and Arunanchal Pradesh.

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