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H. K. Sharma, Ashutosh Upadhyay
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Food Engineering & Technology: A Practice Book deals with objective type questions and answers. The book is aimed to provide number of questions related to almost all the main aspects of the Food Technology. Efforts have been made to cover wide range of topics in accordance to the syllabus of various competitive examinations like JRF, SRF, ARS, GATE, etc. It is expected that the book will be much sought by the students of Food Science/Technology/Engineering and related disciplines who can prepare themselves for both written as well as oral examinations. At the same time, this can be used as a readily available handbook for quick reference by practicing researchers/technologists and engineers. Besides faculty members involved in teaching Food Technology will find the book useful as a good question bank.

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Preface Food processing sector is the fast developing industrial segment all around the world and has brought significant changes in the research and academic curricula. To be able to maintain pace with this progress and development/academic institutions have been increasingly impelled to introduce courses on Food Technology/Food Engineering/ Food Science/Food Engineering … Technology/Agricultural Process Engineering/ Biochemical engineering/ Biotechnology/ Biochemistry/ Microbiology/ Food … Nutrition related disciplines. Since more and more courses and job opportunities are coming up in this stream and admission to all these is through written examinations, so it was felt that a Practice Book of objective questions will be a welcome move in the field for the students and the professional scientific community alike. There are large number of universities /institutions which have started Food Technology/Science/Engineering and related discipline. This change definitely brought conduction of various written competitive examinations like GATE, NET, ARS etc. We hope that present Practice Book containing multiple objective questions and answers will occupy a significant place and the emphasis will continue. The book is more pertinent due to the non-availability of related book exclusively for the competitive examination in the market for the aspirants. Now-a-days multiple objective type questions are also asked in various written examinations conducted by the government or private organizations either for recruitment of the young scientists, technologists or engineers. With the objective of providing a number of questions related to almost all the main aspects of Food Technology, this book has been presented. Questions incorporated into the book exhaustively covers syllabi of various competitive examinations like JRF, SRF, ARS, GATE etc. This book will primarily be helpful for fresh graduates and postgraduates of Food/ Agricultural Processing/ Dairy Science/ Technology/Engineering and allied streams who can prepare themselves for both written as well as oral examinations. At the same time, this can be used as a readily available handbook for quick reference by the students persuing a degree/diploma course in the above cited disciplines. There can be long list of questions on different aspects, which is not possible to cover. The authors therefore devised questions while keeping in center the GATE syllabus. Hence, questions releated to those aspects may be found reasonably well. However other syllabus for different competitive examinations have also been tried to incorporate. Authors have gone through large number of books and soft material to prepare the questions. Therefore, contributions from all authors in any form is greately acknowledged. The suggestions/ drawbacks shall be appreciated. An exhaustive exercise has been carried out to bring out this book, still any drawback, observed by the readers shall be positively looked at.

1 Carbohydrates

1.    Carbohydrates can be represented by (a) Fischer projection formula (b) Haworth cyclic structure (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these 2.    If a compound has got four chiral centers then it will have isomeric structures. (a) 4 (b) 8 (c) 16 (d) 64 3.    The sugar, which does not possess chiral center is (a) Glucose (b) Fructose (c) Glyceraldehyde (d) Dihydroxyacetone

1 - 22 (22 Pages)
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2 Proteins

1.    The basic building block(s) of proteins is/are (a) Amino acids (b) Phenolics (c) Carboxylic acids (d) Fatty acids 2.    Alpha helix and ?- pleated sheet are characteristic of protein structure? (a) Primary (b) Secondary (c) Tertiary (d) Quaternary

23 - 36 (14 Pages)
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3 Lipids

1.    A lipid is (a) Insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents (b) Insoluble in both water and nonpolar solvents (b) Soluble in water but insoluble in nonpolar solvents (d) None of the above 2.    Fats are (a) Esters of fatty acid with glycerol (b) Esters of fatty acid with long chain monohydroxy alcohols (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) Esters of fatty acid with alcohols

37 - 50 (14 Pages)
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4 Pigments

1.    The function of myoglobin is to store in living animal’s muscle. (a) Oxygen (b) Nitrogen (c) CO2 (d) Oxygen + carbondioxide 2.    Myoglobin is in color when not carrying an oxygen molecule. (a) Red (b) Blue (c) Purple (d) White

51 - 64 (14 Pages)
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5 Enzymes and Food Flavours

1.    The organic molecules which increase the rate of metabolic reactions are referred as (a) Coenzymes (b) Enzymes (c) Reactants (d) Apoenzymes 2.    Enzymes are (a) Organic compounds produced by living organism (b) Inorganic compounds (c) Both (a) & (b) (d) None of these

65 - 84 (20 Pages)
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6 Nutrition, Vitamins, Minerals and Anti-Nutritional Factors

1.    The predominant form of fat within fat (adipose) tissue is stored in humans in the form of (a) Glycogen (b) Triglycerides (c) Diglycerides (d) Monoglycerides 2.    The Thermic Effect of food refers to (a) The ‘heat’ one feels from eating a chili pepper (b) The amounts of energy the body spents to process, use and store (c) The benefits of eating warm foods in cold weather (d) All of the above

85 - 110 (26 Pages)
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7 Food and Microorganisms General Concepts

1.    Evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms are determined using comparisons of (a) Biochemical pathways (b) Nucleotide sequences (c) Structural features (d) All of these 2.    The different bacterial species can be subdivided into (a) Serovarieties (b) Biovarietites (c) Subspecies (d) All of these 3.    Kingdom Prokaryotae include (a) Bacteria (b) Protozoa (c) Fungi (d) None of these

111 - 150 (40 Pages)
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8 Food Spoilage and Food Borne Illness

1.    In milk and milk products, non bacterial ropiness or sliminess may be due to the stringiness/sliminess caused/resulted (a) Due to thin film formation of proteins, when cooled (b) From cream thickness (c) By mastitis, fibrin and leucocytes from the milch animal’s blood (d) All of the above 2.    In milk, bacterial ropiness is caused by slimy capsular material from the cells usually (a) Lipids (b) Proteins (c) Gums or mucins (d) Polysaccharides

151 - 188 (38 Pages)
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9 Microorganisms in Food Production

1.    Yoghurt usually contains total milk solids in the range of (a) 12-15% (b) 8.5 to 11.5% (c) 15-19% (d) 20-25 % 2.    Yoghurt is usually manufactured by heating the pre-mix to pasteurize it to (a) 61-62°C for 20 minutes (b) 80-85°C for 15 to 30 minutes (c) 80-85°C for 15 sec (d) 71-72°C for 15 sec

189 - 212 (24 Pages)
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10 Processing : Principles and Methods

1.    Substantially used metal for manufacture of tin container for heat processed food is (a) Aluminum (b) Steel (c) Iron (d) Glass 2.    The steel used for the manufacturing of tin free plate metal food cans is (a) High carbon cold rolled steel (b) Low carbon hot rolled steel (c) Low carbon cold rolled steel (d) Moderate carbon hot rolled steel 3.    Which are the processes primarily used to fabricate the plastic containers used in sterilization process? (a) Molding and injection (b) Blowing and injection (c) Cutting and heating (d) Conditioing and calendering

213 - 246 (34 Pages)
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11 Food Additives and Preservatives

1.    Food Additives are (a) Nutritive substances added to enhance flavour, texture or storage properties (b) Non-Nutritive substances added to enhance flavour, texture or storage properties (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) Chemicals, added for preservation 2.    Which is an acceptable application of a food additive? (a) As a fat replacer (b) As an antioxidant (c) As a food colorant (d) All of these

247 - 260 (14 Pages)
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12 Food Packaging

1.    Which of the following plastic film is not utilized for metalized flexible packaging? (a) Polyester (b) Low-density polyethylene (c) Bakelite (d) PVDC 2.    Tin-coating applied to steel base is carried out by (a) Hot- dipping method (b) Electrolytic deposition (c) Cold-dipping method (d) None of these

261 - 272 (12 Pages)
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13 Grains and Oilseeds Processing

1.    The outer layer of cereals is called (a) Pericarp (b) Germ (c) Seed coat (d) Endosperm 2.    The grain or edible seed of a cereal is known botanically as a (a) Testa (b) Caryopsis (c) Seed coat (d) Endocarp

273 - 292 (20 Pages)
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14 Fruits, Vegetables and Plantation Products Processing

1.    Almost all liquid foods are concentrated before drying due to (a) Technical advantages (b) Preservation (c) Nutritional advantages (d) Both (a) and (c) 2.    Which of the following compound mainly possesses anti-microbial property in garlic and onion? (a) Acrolein (b) Eugenol (c) Allyl isothiocynate (d) Terpenoid 3.    Which of the following fruit juices concentrates are prone towards spoilage? (a) Acid (b) Non-acid (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) None of these

293 - 342 (50 Pages)
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15 Animal Products

1.    Pasteurization can be used to destroy (a) Soamtic cells (b) Bacteria (c) Antibiotics (d) All of these 2.    The higher amount of total solids in milk will result in (a) Increased heat stability (b) Decreased heat stability (c) Both (a) and (b) (d) Decreased or increased heat stability depending upon temperature

343 - 394 (52 Pages)
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16 Food Safety and Regulations

1.    HACCP was developed by (a) Pillsbury and NASA (b) FDA (Food and Drug Administration) (c) USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) (d) FSIS (Food Service Inspection Service) 2.    Which is not one of the hazards in HACCP? (a) Biological (b) Physical (c) Bodily (d) Chemical 3.    Which is not a physical hazard? (a) Staples (b) Fingernails (c) Bandages (d) Parasites

395 - 414 (20 Pages)
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17 Basic Concepts

1.    Mass transfer co-efficient is expressed as (a) m/s2 (b) m/s (c) kg/s (d) kg/ms 2.    Heat is related to (a) Flow rate (b) Energy (c) Temperature (d) Momemtum 3.    The units of mass transfer coefficients are (a) Moles transferred / (time x area x concentration) (b) Moles transferred / (time x area x mole-fraction) (c) Moles transferred / (time x area x pressure) (d) All of the above

415 - 422 (8 Pages)
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18 Food Rheology and Pumps

1.    Irrotational flow is (a) Incompressible fluid with shear (b) Newtonian fluid (c) Incompressible fluid with no shear (d) Non-Newtonian fluid 2.    Irrotational flow is also called (a) Potential flow (b) Turbulent flow (c) Laminar Flow (d) None of these 3.    Bernoulli’s equation is based on the assumption that (a) The flow is non-viscous, uniform and steady (b) The flow is steady, non-viscous, incompressible and irrotational (c) The flow is uniform and incompressible (d) None of the above

423 - 438 (16 Pages)
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19 Heat Transfer

1.    Heat transfer by conduction is given by (a) Boyle’s law (b) Stefan’s law (c) Fourier’s law (d) Charles’ law 2.    Heat flow per hour is proportional to change in (a) Area (b) Vapour pressure (c) Mass (d) Temperature

439 - 464 (26 Pages)
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20 Mass Transfer Operations (Properties of Air-Water Vapour Mixture, Humidification and Dehumidification Operations)

1.    Diffusivity of gases at atmospheric pressure is (a) < 1 cm2/s (b) >1 cm2/s (c) > 10 cm2/s (d) > 100 cm2/s 2.    Diffusivity of liquids is of the order of (a) 0.1 cm2/s (b) 10 cm2/s (c) 100 cm2/s (d) 1 x 10-5 cm2/s

465 - 496 (32 Pages)
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21 Unit Operations : Size reduction, Filtration, Separation, Mixing, Agitation and Extrusion

1. Size reduction is also referred as (a) Extraction (b) Communication (c) Leaching (d) Distillation 2. Size reduction causes (a) Decrease in the temperature of the product (b) Increase in temperature of the product (c) Increase in pressure (d) Decrease in surface area

497 - 536 (40 Pages)
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22 Food Processing

1.     Which of the following micro-organism is the most heat-resistant in low acid canned foods and its destruction is considered the criteria for successful heat processing? (a) B.subtilis (b) C.botulinum (c) C.sporogenes (d) B.mycoides 2.    D value represents (a) Doubling time (b) Generation time (c) Decimal reduction time (d) Decimal reduction temperature

497 - 536 (40 Pages)
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23 Numerical Problems in Food Engineering

1.     A fruit juice at 20°C with 10% total solids is concentrated in a single effect evaporator that is operated at a vacuum to allow the product moisture to evaporate at 80°C and steam with 82% quality is supplied at 169.06kPa. The desired concentration of the final product is 45% total solids and the concentrated product exits the evaporator at a rate of 300kg/hr. Calculate the steam requirement for the process when condensate is released at 90°C. The specific heat of liquid feed is 4.05 kJ/kg°C and of concentrated product is 3.175 kJ/kg°C. (a) 3.35 kg/s (b) 3.25 kg/s (c) 4.25kg/s (d) 2.35kg/s 2.     A double effect evaporator is being used to concentrate fruit juice at 35000kg/hr. The juice has 10% total solids at 80°C and requires to be concentrated to 50% total solids. The saturated steam at 1.608 atm is available. What is mass flow rate of water vapors? (a) 7.505 kg/s (b) 8.505 kg/s (c) 5.707kg/s (d)

575 - 588 (14 Pages)
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24 Bakery Products

1.    Major difference between unleavened and leavened bakery products is (a) Unleavened do not form cracks on surface (b) Unleavened do not rise significantly during baking (c) Leavened bakery products are not attractive (d) Unleavened products are much more stable 2.    Unleavened bakery products contain small holes throughout the finished product because of (a) Ingredients contain fats that may swell (b) Air incorporation between cells (c) Incomplete coalescence of mixed ingredients (d) High temperature baking

589 - 624 (36 Pages)
₹38.00 ₹35.00 + Tax
25 Non Thermal Methods in Food Processing

1.    UV irradiation is considered better than other irradiation methods in terms of (a) Physical structure maintenance (b) Chemical structure (c) Sensory quality (d) Microbial quality 2.    Irradiation with UV light is considered as (a) Sterilization method (b) Disinfection method (c) Pasteurization method (d) Cooking method 3.    UV treatment kills bacteria, viruses, fungi due to its effect on (a) Metabolic pathway (b) DNA (c) Signaling pathway (d) ATP generation 4.    Effectiveness of UV radiation on micro organisms depends on (a) Species and strain (b) Spore formation (c) Culture and growth (d) Both (a) and (c)

625 - 650 (26 Pages)
₹38.00 ₹35.00 + Tax
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