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Sachin Tyagi
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Horticulture plays an important part in today's agriculture and there are new avenues that are being achieved by horticulture. The subject has transformed from only being about vegetables, fruits, flowers and postharvest technology and has moved towards disease, breeding, pathology, physiology, greenhouse technologies and other areas which were never heard for. The book series: Hi-Tech Horticulture has been worked out keeping the above mentioned issues in mind with contribution by eminent professors and scientists. The volumes on: 1. Crop Improvement Nursery and Rootstock Management 2. Organic Farming and Sustainable Development Techniques 3. Improved Production Techniques 4. Plant Protection and Stress Management 5. Value Addition and Post-Harvest Management 6. Advance Techniques

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Preface Horticulture plays an important part in today’s agriculture and there are new avenues that are being achieved by horticulture. The subject has transformed from only being about vegetables, fruits, flowers and postharvest technology and has moved towards disease, breeding, pathology, physiology, greenhouse technologies and other areas which were never heard for. The book series: Hi-Tech Horticulture has been worked out keeping the above mentioned issues in mind with contribution by eminent professors and scientists. The volumes are on: 1. Crop Improvement Nursery and Rootstock Management 2. Organic Farming and Sustainable Development Techniques 3. Improved Production Techniques 4. Plant Protection and Stress Management 5. Value Addition and Post-Harvest Management 6. Advance Techniques

1 Canopy Management and High Density Planting in Fruit Crops
Sachin Tyagi, Rishav Kumar, Rajni Sinha and Ankit Singh

Introduction High density planting in fruit trees was first introduced in case of apple in Europe during the nineteen sixties, with the development of Malling and Malling - Merton rootstocks. Subsequently, this was experimented in other temperate fruit crops like peach, plum, pear and sweet cherry. Today, majority of new orchards of apple and to some extent that of other fruit crops in Europe, New Zealand, USA and Australia use this intensive system of fruit production profitably Iyer and Kurian (2006). The successful management of trees in any high-density planting system depends on maintaining a balance between vegetative growth and fruiting.

1 - 14 (14 Pages)
2 Plant Architecture - A Way to Produce Quality and Higher Vegetable Production
Pranali Bhaisare, Suchand Datta, Ranjit Chatterjee and Ravi Kiran Thirumdasu

Abstract Plant architecture, plays a crucial role in gathering multiple resources from the environment. As a plant grows, they change its architecture with the surrounding environment for altering available resources. The architecture of the plant is modified through the distribution of assimilate, which conclude the growth rates of different organs. Plant roots expand to acquire soil water and nutrients (e.g. nitrogen, phosphorus) from different soil layers by adjusting their direction in order to growth which transported and allocated to whole plant for maintenance and expansion of plant organs. All plants gradually develop their architecture according to source–sink activities and endogenous signals. This adaptation can result in complex structures. This chapter deals with the importance, different method for changing the architecture   of vegetable crops for improving their yield and quality.

15 - 32 (18 Pages)
3 Canopy Management in Tamarind Plantation for Enhancing Fruit Production – A High Tech Cultivation Technique
C.N. Hari Prasath, A. Balasubramanian and S.Radha Krishnan

Canopy management is the manipulation of tree canopies to optimize the production of quality and quantity fruits. The canopy management, particularly its components like tree training and pruning, affects the quantity of sunlight intercepted by trees, as tree shape determines incoming radiation. Light is critical for growth and development of trees and their fruits. The green leaves harvest the sunlight to produce carbohydrates and sugars which are transported to the sites where they are needed – buds, flowers and fruits. Better light penetration into the tree canopy improves tree growth, productivity, yield and fruit quality. The density and orientation of planting also impact light penetration in an orchard (Proietti et al., 2000). Generally, in close planting, quicker shading becomes a problem. An east-west row orientation results in more shading as compared to the western and southern orientation of trees. The problem of a fruit grower is initially to build up a strong and balanced framework of the trees, then equips them with appropriate fruiting.

33 - 44 (12 Pages)
4 Ultra High Density Planting (UHDP) with Fertigation System in Mango
S. J. Makhmale, A. N. Makwana, A. V. Barad and B. K. Yadav

Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is one of the most important tropical fruits of the world and is commonly known as the ‘King of fruits’ for its high quality fruits which are very popular among the Indians (Sharma et al., 2008). It is an oldest and extensively cultivated fruit crop in India having high socio-economic significance. India is the home of about more than 1000 mango varieties, which originated in the Indo-Burma region (Mukherjee, 1958). India is the largest producer of mango, grown in about 2.3 million hectares with an annual production of 15.02 million tonnes. However, its productivity is only 6.5 tonnes ha against 30 tonnes per ha in Israel. Improvement of productivity in mango continues to be the foremost issue in mango production (Sauco, 1993). Of late, all the mango importing countries are considering the India as a source of quality mangoes due to its varietal wealth and availability. Hence, it is imperative to improve the productivity and quality of Indian mangoes to meet the global need (Balamohan and Gopu, 2014).

45 - 58 (14 Pages)
5 Crop Management by Chemical Means “Paclobutrazol”– As a Boon in Mango Production
Rajni Sinha, Pushpa Kumari, Sachin Tyagi Kumari Karuna and V.B. Patel

Abstract Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is the one of the most important fruit crop of tropics and subtropics. Mango belong to group of plant in which there is an antagonism between vegetative vigour and flowering intensity. Therefore, any factor that reduces vegetative vigour without altering the metabolic activity and favors flowering which can be possible by the use of growth regulator. Growth retardant that has been widely used in mango crop is paclobutrazol (PBZ) or cultar. Paclobutrazol is N-containing heterocyclic, trizole compound which stimulate flowering by inhibiting gibberellic acid pathway by inhibiting oxidation of ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid by blocking cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase enzyme. It is applied at the rate 2-5g/m of canopy diameter 3-4 months prior to desired date of flowering either by foliar spray, soil drench or trunk application. However, soil application is found more efficient on mango quality production than other. Paclobutrazol has pleiotropic response on mango cultivars. It has been found that application of paclobutrazol is effective in enhancing the protein mobilisation, starch, carotenoid, lycopene, phenol and cytokinin, abscisic acid and enzyme content in treated plant that induce flowering. It has been found that paclobutrazol is capable to reduce mango malformation and make plant tolerant in stress condition.

59 - 68 (10 Pages)
6 Induction of Flowering and Fruiting in Seed Raised Populations Through PGR’S in Tamarind Plantation
A. Balasubramanian, C.N. Hari Prasath, S. Radhakrishnan and Deepak Srivastava

The first step of sexual reproduction (Flowering) is of paramount importance in agriculture, horticulture and plant breeding. The change from the vegetative state to the reproductive state is one of the most dramatic events. Flowering leads to an exciting succession of events like anthesis, fruit set, fruit development, maturation and ripening. It provides for the propagation of the species and assists in crop improvement through genetic recombination. Plant growth regulators have remained an important component in horticulture, agriculture from time immemorial, because they were effective means of quantitative as well as qualititative improvement in growth and development of crops. Plant growth and development as well as the responses to environmental factors, are highly regulated by complex and coordinated action of the endogenous hormones (Reddy and Bhagwan, 2014).

69 - 80 (12 Pages)
7 Crop Regulation in Fruit Crops
Jagveer Singh, Govind Vishwakarma, Ravindra Kumar Singh and Kuldeep Pandey

Introduction Crop regulation is also known as flowering/ fruiting cycle management. It can also be termed as management of vegetative-reproductive balance. Some of the fruit crops bloom throughout the year without any resting period and produces two or three crops (bahar) in a year but yield and quality is not so good in all crop harvest. It is very essential to understand the flowering and fruiting behavior of crops and which bahar will give good crop with considering all the factors associated with a particular bahar. It is important for the available time to be partitioned to give an appropriate balance between the making of sources of resources which capture and utilized resources efficiently in generating harvestable yield and the filling of sinks for resources; and sink must mature in desired time for harvest. Apart from their importance in the determination of crop yield

81 - 100 (20 Pages)
8 Multi Storied Cropping System – A Perspective Modern Approach for Sustainable Productivity of Horticultural Crop
Preeti Kumari and Sachin Tyagi

Introduction The demand for agriculture commodity is growing world over and meets the ever increasing targets as per the demand, productivity needs to be raised further. This can be realized in two ways- by increasing area of cultivation and/or through increased efficiency of inputs (both natural and manmade). The scope for the farmer is very limited worldwide and for the latter, the primary input is the solar energy which is most abundant except in few cases like colder regions. In the coming future, the availability of land for cultivation will be a major impendent due to rapid urbanization, hydroelectric projects, dams and rivers, highway roads and also there is a degradation of fertile land due to soil erosion (120.72 million ha), soil salinity and water logging (8.4 million ha) Nath et al., 2007 and Hegde et al. (2015).  Under this situation, multi-storied cropping system will be a viable option to provide food, nutrition and income security to people Awasthi et al., (2008). The available arable land could be effectively utilized for production of field and horticultural crops to achieve nutritional security for the growing population and sustainable income for the farming community. Increasing food production with limited natural resource is a great challenge to the scientific community. Thus, production per unit area of land, time and inputs can be increased by improving efficiency of the rate and extent to which solar energy is harvested for conversion to economic produced.

101 - 116 (16 Pages)
9 Microgreens: Speciality Vegetable for Nutritional Security
Amarjeet Kumar Rai & Kapil Mohan Sharma

Abstract In the recent past we have seen a great upsurge in the production and productivity of food grains as well as horticultural produce which is sufficient to feed our burgeoning population. This way we are self-sufficient to feed our population, but now the major challenge before us is to ensure the nutritional security of each and every individual of the country. Moreover, meeting nutritional security through conventional or molecular breeding demands long time. However, this could be achieved in much shorter period of time i.e., within 2-3 weeks by growing microgreens.Microgreens can be easily characterised by having a central stem with two fully developed cotyledon leaves and mostly one pair of small true leaves.In comparison to their mature counterparts, microgreens of a variety of vegetables and herbs have been reported to be more nutritious. They are rich in ascorbic acids, carotenoids, phylloquinone and tocopherols, which is responsible for its antioxidant properties and also plays a vital role in weight gain modulation, cholesterol metabolism. It may also protects from cardiovascular diseases by preventing hypercholesterolemia. Main problem associated with microgreens are their high price and high perishability and lack of awareness among people about its cultivation practices and health benefits. It demands great attention from the scientific community, to address these problems and make it available in each and every household to ensure the nutritional security of the nation.

117 - 126 (10 Pages)
10 Microgreens (A Novel Approach for Food and Nutritional Security in 21st Century)
T. Thomson, G. Koteswara Rao, K.S. Pandya, M.M. Nagaraju and M. Surendra Babu

Abstract   Ensure enough food and water to the growing world population and preserve the biodiversity of our planet are among the major challenges of our immediate future. These challenges are essentially addressed to the agricultural world, which is constantly evolving to satisfy the most basic needs of the humankind. The approaches and the possible answers to these big challenges are many and, even if partial, each sustainable solution or innovation can contribute to improve the quality of our life. To overcome the barriers for food and nutritional security microgreens is one of the possible innovative approach in this 21st century. A microgreen is a young vegetable green that is used both as a visual and flavor component or ingredient primarily in fine dining restaurants. Fine dining chefs use microgreens to enhance the attractiveness and taste of their dishes with their delicate textures and distinctive flavors. Smaller than “baby greens,” and harvested later than sprouts, microgreens can provide a variety of leaf flavors, such as sweet and spicy. They are also known for their various colors and textures. Among upscale markets, they are now considered a specialty genre of greens that are good for garnishing salads, soups, plates, and sandwiches.

127 - 138 (12 Pages)
11 Production Technology of Roselle
Prasanth, K.Vinod Jatav and Rajasekharan P.E.

Abstract Roselle, or Jamaica sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) is a popular vegetable in many tropical regions, cultivated for its leaves, seeds, stems and calyces of which, the dried calyces are used to prepare tea, syrup, jams, jellies and beverages. It is an annual herbaceous shrub belongs to family Malvaceae originated in old world tropics. The fresh calyces and young leaves are used as a vegetable in various cuisines and the plant also yield industrial bio fibre. It also has nutraceutical potential, high pigment content, and nutritional and medicinal properties. Roselle is a drought tolerant crop and cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics during hot and rainy seasons. China and Thailand are the largest producers and control much of the world supply, where as the best quality roselle comes from Sudan. Many medicinal applications of this plant have been developed around the world. It is used to treat hypertension, pyrexia, dyspepsia, and leukaemia hepato protective, due to its high content of protocatechuic acid. Leaves are emollient and sedative and also show antihypersensitive, antihyperlipidimic, diuretic and anti oxidant properties. Hence, it is an ideal candidate crop for low input multi-cropping system for the food and nutritional security for developing countries.

139 - 160 (22 Pages)

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