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Dr. Bikarma Singh
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This book reports the potential plants for human survival, explored medicinal aspects of the ongoing research and development for discovering new molecules, new drugs, new leads, ethnic-traditional applications and nutraceutical values of plants. It provides a baseline data and information on plants and their hidden knowledge for human health. This is build upon based on twenty-five excellent research articles and main focused plant species are Boswellia serrata, Butea monosperma, Colebrookea oppositifolia, Cymbopogon khasianus, Dendrophthe falcata, Dysoxylum binectariferum, Echinacea purpurea, Grewia asiatica, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Saussurea costus, Withania somnifera, Zanthoxylum armatum, different species of Aconitum and Panax, Ashtavarga groups (Habenaria intermedia, Habenaria edgeworthii, Malaxis acuminata, Malaxis muscifera, Lilium polyphyllum, Polygonatum verticillatum, Polygonatum cirrhifolium and Roscoea procera), and hundreds of potential life-saving plants used by different ethnic tribes of Himalaya as food, shelter and medicine in their day-to-day life. Various research studies and clinical trials mentioned in the book will add and contribute a lot in discovering quick leads for medicine formulations and products development. In addition to research suggestions and valuation of plants for humans contained within each of the articles, an introduction section emphasizes particular research avenues for attention in the drug development programmes. As the reader will note, these compilations represent a wide collection of views, reflecting the diversity of sciences and interests of thousands of ideas that enabled thoughtful deliberations from a wide range of scientific perspectives.

0 Start Pages

Preface Human, animal and plant living are inter-twined since the beginning of human civilization. The usages of plants for food, shelter and medicine is an age-old practice of human. In ancient time, humans learned to cultivate plants for food as well as to live alongside with them as natural gifted companions. Traditional herbal formulations and local home-made medicine have been used throughout history and within all welfare to prevent and cure diseases. People coming using plants that were available within their geographical boundary to cure diseases addressing their local health related issues. Actually cultural tradition were exposed due to people immigration for trade and business, and gets often overwhelmed by modern scientific concepts and medications relates to various culture of different country. Since time immemorial, people believe that a plant keep the mind in tune with nature and maintains proper balance of thinking and health. As we enter the new decades of twenty-first century, drugs and medicines continue to constitute one of the essential components of health care system in promoting health and preventing illness. Usually a severe disease causes staggering amount of suffering and death in humans and animals, and with time proceeds humans committed itself to alleviate the suffering caused by pathogens and microbes. Scientific research on plants and their application for human health care is once again assuming a prominent position. This book deals with ’Plants for Human Survival and Medicine’ is the outcome of ongoing R&D for discovering new molecules, new drugs, new leads, ethnobotany and nutraceuticals in relation to tribe, nature and climate change directly or indirectly leads to affect or effect human population. The main objectives of the present book is to provide a baseline data and information on plants and their hidden secret relates to human health and survival. Scientific data obtained from the plants always remain the basis for commercial medication and product formulation for the treatment of chronic diseases such as heart problem, blood pressure, inflammation, arthritis, rheumatism and other associated human related issues. Plants have been recognized as a rich source of novel drugs that form the ingredients in traditional system of medicine, and approximately 90% raw botanicals of ayurveda, amchi, siddha and unani formulation were manufactured and prepared by using plants as a main source of ingredient. It is proven that the use and the search for medicine, and nutrients supplements derived and prepared from plant have accelerated the discovery. In recent decades, the discovery of several molecules such as artimisinin from Artemisia annua, tetrahydrocannabine (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) from Cannabis sativa, diosgenin (phytosterol sapogenin) from Costus speciosus, trihydroxy benzoic acid glycoside (bergenin) from Bergenia ciliata, foskolin from Coleus forskohlii, withanolides and withaferin from Withania somnifera, santonin from Artemisia maritima, morphine from Papaver somnifera, n-triacontane from Colebrookea oppositifolia, taxol from Taxus baccata, campothecin from Campotheca acuminata, Nothapodytes foetida and Nothapodytes nimmoniana, curcuminin from Curcuma longa, and glycyrrhizin and licorice from Glycyrrhiza glabra, galegine from Galega officinalis, spilanthol from Heliopsis longipes and Spilanthes acmella, indole alkaloid (yuehchukene) from Murraya paniculata, and several others bioactive molecules from ethnobotanical plants which has long history of use for human needs and wants are the best examples of drug discovered for human health and survival. Illustrating further, the most widely sold and consumed dietary supplement chyawanprash is the best example of plants serving as source for human survival and energy boost ingredient. The product so called chyawanprash is prepared as per the instruction suggested in ayurvedic text. Historically, various Indian holy books such as Mahabharat and Puranas mentioned that Ashwini Kumar brothers who were Raj Vaidya to devas during the Vedic age first prepared chyawanprash formulation for Chyawan rishi in his ashram at Dhosi hill situated near Narnaul (present Haryana), and hence the name of chyavanprash comes in focus. Amla, Astavarga plants, Ashwagandha, Satawari, Bhumi-amalaki, Long Pepper, Malabar nuts, Punarava, sugar, honey and other total 30-100 ingredients are usually used in this formulation and today serving as the most life saving product for humans. Scrutiny of literature reveals that in traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine, herbal botanicals were usually prepared by mixing different plants, which used to be flowering twigs, leaves, leaf exudates, gums, fruits, barks, roots, rhizomes or tubers. The first chapter of this book starts with Himalayan herbs used by human as food and medicine followed by chapter that focused on Ashtavarga plants, heptatoprotective properties of plants in treatment to liver toxicity. It is then followed by chapters shift on focus to the clinical arena, and the usages of plants in relation to cancer, diabetes and skin disorders. There is published report that 122 compounds of defined structure, obtained from only 94 species of plant, that are used globally as drugs and demonstrate that 80% of these have ethnomedical applications identical or related to the current use of the active elements of the plant (Daniel S. Fabricant and Norman R. Farnsworth. 2001. The Value of Plants Used in Traditional Medicine for Drug Discovery. Environmental Health Perspective 109: 69-75). Therefore, this book also contains few chapters on plants that have tremendous potentials as ethnomedicine used by different tribes spreading in different geographic locations from Kashmir to Arunachal Pradesh and vice-versa. Today traditional herbal formulations, drugs, food supplements, nutraceuticals, pharmaceutical intermediates, bioactive natural products and lead compounds derived from synthetic drugs are of high demand. Herbs contain many compounds with powerful antioxidant properties as evidence from the scientific data, and herb-induced change in biomarkers that assess antioxidant status and oxidative stress are of interest in relation to the mechanism of herbal protection. In cell culture studies, direct cytotoxicity, gene expression, protein synthesis and transport mechanism can be measured, and the morphology and the growth of cells could be assessed, which is a great achievement of science today. In animal studies, tumor occurrence and size can be examined which can prevents deadly diseases such as cancer and AIDS. This book also focuses on presenting the current scientific evidence of bio-molecular effects, agrotechnology and other parameters of medicinal and nutraceutical aspects of selected plants such as Boswellia serrata, Butea monosperma, Colebrookea oppositifolia, Cymbopogon khasianus, Dendrophthe falcata, Dysoxylum binectiferum, Echinacea purpurea, Grewia asiatica, Northeast Panax species, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Saussurea costus, Withania somnifera, Zanthoxylum armatum, and most important Ashtarvarga group of plants such as Habenaria intermedia, Plantathera edgeworthii, Malaxis acuminata, Crepidium muscifera, Lilium polyphyllum, Polygonatum verticillatum, Polygonatum cirrhifolium and Roscoea purpurea were discussed and presented in this book for human needs and wants. The present book is based on twenty five excellent research articles provided by fifteen topmost research organizations of India. I am sure and confident that this book will serve as the baseline information server for future research in the field of drug discovery and new nutraceuticals for human health. The biological, chemical pharmacological and clinical studies mentioned in this book will add and contribute in discovering quick leads for medicine formulations and products development relates to pharmaceutical industries. In addition to research suggestions and value of plants for human survival contained in each of chapter, an introduction section emphasizes particular research avenues for attention in the drug development programmes, and role of plants in human survival. The Editor tried to convey maximum knowledge through this book ’Plants for Human Survival and Medicine’ regarding potential plants for human needs and medicine discovery. Readers are considered as the best panel of judges to evaluate the content of any writing and also applies to this particular book. I am sure and full confident that the readers have a moral obligation to convey their suggestions on this book in near future for its better improvement. It would be a great pleasure for me if this book could attract civilians, scientists, research scholars, strategies planners like forest department, tourists and industries who have ideas in their mind and take forward the economic plants for human survival and looks for local traditional medicines that can prepared from nearby their surroundings and forests to heal diseases. It would be worthless to mention that this book will have a way of providing a new level for future perspectives in understanding different areas of sciences and humans.

1 Himalaya is a Repository of Wild Food and Medicine: A Close Look on Plants for Human Survival
Bikarma Singh

ABSTRACT Plants play an important role in human survival and contribute to sustainable development as they are the major source of different bioactive compounds such as taxol, digoxin, reserpine and vinblastin used directly as drug and medicines for human diseases. As plants are basic need and requirement for living, they are used as herbal remedy, and known to produce lead compounds for semi synthesis of higher activity or lower toxicity. Indian Himalaya regions are repository of more than 8,000 plants species and out of which 50% are endemic and unique due to thepresence of morphological and chemical structure of peculiar characters. Most of the plant used in Indian traditional system of medicines such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha or Amchi described for different formulations and ethnomedicinal applications had distributional range restricted to the hills and the valleys of Himalayas. Hence, in this communication, an attempt has been made to present economic plants of Himalayan origin used as ethnomedicine, wild food plants as vegetables, herbal teas, homemade soups, wild salads, chutney, underground snacks, alcoholic drinks, nutrients as burnt powder and other human usages. Besides, this unique Himalayan plant has potential to be used as wild source for the development of new drugs and medicines which can sustain future to human survival and had the ability to produce medicine against deadly diseases. It is estimated that 80% of the world population uses traditional medicine made from herbal botanicals to cure disease and illness. It is of the record that 122 compounds obtained from ethnomedicinal plants is globally used as drugs. This indicates that tribal knowledge on plants and drug discovery cannot be separated, and newdrugsfor uniquedeadly diseases can be discovered only from ethnobotanical leads. More than 5,000 species reported from Indian Himalayas are of ethnobotanical values and they are used as medicine or wild food by different tribal communities. It can be concluded that Himalayan tribals are endowed with strong culture associated with botanicals and have age-old tradition with respect to the use of wild plants as food and medicine. Plants provide a real substitute for the primary health care systems in hills and valleys, and definitely going to serve as jewel for mankind in near future to come.

1 - 26 (26 Pages)
2 Endangered Ayurvedic Himalayan Herb: A Review on Chemistry and Pharmacology of Ashtavarga Plants for Scientific Intervention
Venugopal Singamaneni, Upasana Sharma, Prasoon Gupta

ABSTRACT In Ayurvedic system of medicine, the word Astavarga represents eight endangered Himalayan herbs, which includes four orchids Habenaria intermedia D.Don, Platanthera edgeworthii Hook.f., Crepidium acuminatum D.Don, Malaxis muscifera Lindl., three liliaceae members (Lilium polyphyllum D.Don, Polygonatum verticillatum L.,Polygonatum cirrhifolium Wall.) and one zingiber (Roscoea purpurea Sm.). These herbs are popular in various ayurvedic formulations, as for instance, Chyawanprash which is well recognized for strengthening vital force to the body, help in cell regeneration, and build immune system. These plants are repository of various bioactive ingredients such as diosgenin, β-sitosterol, catechin, p-coumaric acid and many more which shows positive biological functions such as anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, antiinflammatory and other associated health promoting activities. In traditional system, different parts of these plants are used for different purpose, and mainly rhizomes are used as herbal formulations. In terms of ecology, these plants are growing wild in Himalaya belts between the elevation ranges of 1200-4000m above mean sea level. Subtropical, temperate and alpine environment provide condusive adaptation and habitat for these species to grow and florish. Due to lack of proper documentation and certification, the identification of most of the species became difficult and illusory. Considering the medicinal importance and endangerment status, attempts have been made in the present communication to provide a comprehensive account on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities associated with astavarga species. The data presented in this communication will put door open for various research activities related to discovery of new drugs and nutraceutical products for human welfare in days to come.

27 - 54 (28 Pages)
3 Colebrookea oppositifolia Sm., An Important Hepato-protective Phytopharma Plant in Drug Discovery
Anil Kumar Katare, Inshad Ali Khan, Durga Prasad Mindala, Naresh Kumar Satti, Bal Krishan Chandan, Bikarma Singh, Gurdarshan Singh, Mowkashi Khullar, Neelam Sharma

ABSTRACT Drug discovery is the process to identify the active ingredients from traditional remedies as new candidate for medications. It involves the sources, identification of screening hits, medicinal chemistry and optimization of those hits to increase the affinity, potency, reduce the potential of side effects, increase the half life and oral bioavailability followed by clinical trials. While studying and screening the plant resourses of Himalaya, Colebrookea oppositifolia Sm. is identified as an important Heptoprotective Phytopharma plant. This is an important Indian medicinal plant of the family lamiaceae endemic to the Southeast Asia. The active ingredients of this species possess antimicrobial, antifungal and antioxidant properties as evident from experimentation which may be due to the high content of flavonoids and polyphenols as a major chemical constituents. In Ayurvedic traditional system of medicine, leaves of C. oppositifolia is used for the treatment of wounds and fractures, where as roots helps in curing epilepsy. Chemical investigations on the petroleum ether extract of the leavesof C.oppositifolia, some active molecules suchasn-triacontane, acetyl alcohol, 32-hydroxydotriacontyl ferulate, β-sitosterol and 5,6,7,42 -tetramethoxy flavones have been identified which has hepatoprotective properties as evident from biological investigation. Structures of these compounds were interpreted on the basis of spectral (IR, NMR, MS) data. While studying acute toxicity of these bioactive ingredients, the species can be classified as category V as per GHS of OECD test guidelines and principles of GLP. In the present communication, an attempt has been made to provide scientific data on biology, natural products, constituents of volatile oils, salient markers, medicinal chemistry, results showing hepatoprotective activity and future direction for research to be carried out on this plant species. It also provide data on lyophilized extract or at least one bioactive fraction obtained from leaves of C. oppositifolia and treatment of liver toxicity caused by the conditions hepatoprotective against alcohol induced and tetrachloride (CCl4) models. The presented data will be helpful in future for drug discovery.

55 - 82 (28 Pages)
4 Dysoxylum binectariferum Hook.f., An Indian Medicinal Plant as a Source for Anti-Cancer Agents
Shreyans Kumar Jain

ABSTRACT Dysoxylum binectariferum Hook.f. (Meliaceae) is phylogenetically related to the Ayurvedic plant D. malabaricum. D. binectariferum has been identified as an enriched source of rohitukine, an alkaloid. Two synthetic flavones, flavopiridol (Alvocidib; L868275; HMR-1275; NSC 649890 of Sanofi-Aventis + NCI) and P-276-00 (Piramal) are advanced in clinical trials for the treatment of cáncer. These two molecules are considered as potent Cdk inhibitors. Cdk has been discovered as a key regulator of cell cycle. Therefore, Cdk inhibitors or modulators are of great interest to explore as novel therapeutic agents. These two molecules can be considered as rohitukine inspired drugs since their stuructural novelity originated from a compaign to develop a route of total synthesis of rohitukine. Recently a semisynthetic derivative of rohitukine; IIIM-290 has been emerged as potential preclinical cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor. Moreover, phytochemical investigation of D. binectariferum yielded dysoline a new region-isomer of rohitukine. Dysoline seems to be a potent inflammatory and cytotoxic compound. Similarly, camptothecine and 9-methoxycamptothecine were isolated from Dysoxylum binectariferum for the first time by bioassay-guided fractionation. Present chapter is reviewing some original work which were carried out at CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine, Jammu, India. The present studies focused on the phytochemistry of Dysoxylum binectariferum; dysoline, camptothecin and 9-methoxycamptothecin and medcinal chemistry and preclinical evaluation of IIIM-290 a semi-sythestic derivative of rohitukine.

83 - 118 (36 Pages)
5 Zanthoxylum armatum DC., Perspectives of Biology and Chemistry in Medicine Discovery
Sushil Kumar, Bikarma Singh

ABSTRACT Zanthoxylum armatum DC. is a plant species belonging to flowering family Rutaceae which has medicinal application in traditional Ayurvedic system of medicine. It is characterized by trifoliolate leaves with leaf-stalk winged, branches with straight prickles, and fruits are small reddish brown. In India, tribal community used this species as carminative, dyspepsia, tooth curing, treating malaria fever, stomach pain and expelling roundworms. Chemistry indicates that Z. armatum is a repository of many chemical compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols and triterpenoids. Zanthonitrile, berberine, α-sitosterol, armatamide, limonene and linalool are major constituents. Leaves and young shoots yield essential oils which act as anti-bacterial, antifungal and anthelminthics, and has tremendous potential in development of value added products. Volatile oils are active constituentsof linalool, limonene and ligan. Z. armatum has been declared as an endangered species as per International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources(IUCN) Red List category. Conservation practices needs to be adopted to conserve this valuable medicinal plant. There is a need to study on ecology, adaptive biology, chemistry and biotechnological intervention for future propagation and conservation of this medicinal plant species.

119 - 138 (20 Pages)
6 Grewia asiatica L., an Important Plant of Shivalik Hills: Agrotechnology and Product Development
Rajendra Gochar, Bikarma Singh, Mamta Gochar, Rajendra Bhanwaria, Anil Kumar Katare

ABSTRACT Grewia asiatica L. locally called ’Phalsa’ (Family Tiliaceae) is a multipurpose gregarious plants species native to Asian belts, grows profusely in tropical and subtropical forests. Plant yield berries rich in calories, proteins, carbohydrates, dietary fibers, vitamins, macro-and micro-nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus and sodium. Their parts can be used as herbal medicine for treatment of various diseases. Recently, CSIR-Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine Jammu (IIIM) has developed and released a variety of this plant for rural upliftment and for development of value-added products such health drink and nutraceuticals. From its matured fruits of cultivated variety, a value added product called Shivalik Health Drink was developed by IIIM. For extension, agrotechnology of this plant has been transferred to various geographic regions of India such as Punjab, Rajasthan, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. This species prefers hardy and can be able to withstand in drought environment. For development of drugs and value added products, several therapeutic research works have been carried out which suggested that this plant species possess antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, antifertility, antifungal, analgesic and antiviral activities. Further, there is a need to focus on biotechnological intervention with aim to develop seedless varieties and new nutraceutical products.

139 - 152 (14 Pages)
7 Taxonomy, Ecology and Phenology of Panax Species in North-Eastern India
Lucy B. Nongbri, Saroj Kanta Barik, Ladaplin Kharwanlang

ABSTRACT Panax L. is an important medicinal plant species complex, which is commonly known as ginseng. Ginseng has high commercial value for itsginsenoside contents and is collected from the wildin the subtropical-temperate forests of north-eastern India. Taxonomy, ecology and phenology of five species of Panax found in north-eastern India viz., P. assamicus R. N. Banerjee, P. bipinnatifidus Seem., P. pseudoginseng Wall., P. variabilis J. Wenand P. sokpayensis Sharma& Pandit, have beendiscussed in this paper. The distribution of these species is restricted to the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Sikkim and Darjeeling HillsofWest Bengal.P. pseudoginseng hasextended distribution range in Nepal. P. variabilis was reported from Nagaland, which is a new record for India. All the species of Panax prefer shady and moist habitat. The species grow in the soil texture that ranges from loamy sand to sandy. The pH ranges from 4.3-7.1. The species is perennial and pereniates through its underground rhizome. The phenophase starts with emergence of seedlings in the late March and senescence takes place in the middle of October after seed setting. Monitoring of the populations of all Panax species revealed that the population size have decreased by 40-50% over a period of 10 years due to over-harvesting from the wild by the local people for its medicinal value. Sustainable use of rhizome and its cultivation practice need to be standardized to address the conservation issues related to the plant.

153 - 172 (20 Pages)
8 Validated LC-MS Method for Quantitation of Phytochemicals of Butea monosperma
Vikas Bajpai, Bikarma Singh, Brijesh Kumar

ABSTRACT Butea monosperma (Lam.) Taub, knownas ’Flameof the Forest’is used in Indian traditional system of medicine, such as Siddha Ayurveda, and Unani due to its medicinal properties. It is used in treatment of diabetes, diarrhoea, sore throat and reported to possess several biological activities such as anti-asthmatic, anti-diabetic, antifertility, anti-tumor and osteogenic. Recent studies revealed the phytochemicals responsible for osteogenic activity in the bark of B. monosperma. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for identification and simultaneous quantitation of bioactive compounds from B. monosperma. Validation of the developed method was performed according to international conference on harmonization guidelines. Quantitative interpretation showed significant variations in the content of bioactive compounds in different parts of the plant and samples collected from three geographical regions. Principal component analysis was also used to study the quantitative variations of markers.

173 - 194 (22 Pages)
9 Diversity, Bioprospection and Commercial Importance of Indian Magnolias
Aabid Hussain Mir, Licha Jeri, Krishna Upadhaya, Nazir Ahmad Bhat, Rajib Borah, Hiranjit Choudhury, Yogendra Kumar

ABSTRACT The current paper discusses the diversity, distribution and commercial importance of Indian Magnolias. Globally, these species are found in tropical, subtropical and temperate forests of southeastern Asia and tropical America. In India, there are 25 species of Magnolias and most of them are distributed in Northeast India, with highest number in Assam. Of all the species, two (Magnolia gustavii and M. pleiocarpa) are critically endangered, one (M. pealiana) endangered, two (M. manii and M. nilagirica) vulnerable, nine least concern and ten data deficient at global level. The highly threatened nature of most of the magnolias species calls for their immediate conservation and protection measures. Members of this genus are known to be rich in a wide variety of biologically active compounds including alkaloids, flavonoids, lignans, neolignans and terpenoids. Many of the species have been found to possess potent procognitive activity, anti-oxidative, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, diuretic, anti-ulcer, analgesic, anti-helmintholytic, and anti-cancer activities. The species have huge economic potential and are used for a number of purposes including ornamental, medicinal, culinary, timber and joinery works.

195 - 218 (24 Pages)
10 Traditional Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Dermatological Disorders in District Udhampur, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Harpreet Bhatia, Yash Pal Sharma, Rajesh Kumar Manhas

ABSTRACT Dermatology is the branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of skin disorders. Owing to the lack of proper hygiene and sanitation, incidence of skin diseases is a major health burden particularly in developing and under-developed countries. The study aimed at documenting the plants traditionally used to cure different types of dermatological disorders by the tribals and natives of district Udhampur. Ethnomedicinal data was collected by interviewing 91 infomants between the age group 26-89 years. Quantitative approaches were used to determine Use value (UV). The study revealed that a total of 64 plant species belonging to 59 genera and 43 families were used by the tribals and natives of district Udhampur for the treatment of 25 ailments of skin disorders. The most prevalent families were Asteraceae, Convolvulaceae, Rosaceae, Solanaceae and Euphorbiaceae. Majority of the taxa were growing in wild. Among the different plant parts used, leaf was the most frequently used. About 90% of medicinal preparations were applied topically. The most important medicinal species as per the use-value (UV) included Phyllanthus emblica, Aloe vera, Ficus carica, and Cannabis sativa. The present investigation may serve as a baseline data to initiate further research for the discovery of new bioactive compounds, thereby, providing important leads in the development of novel drugs for the treatment of such disorders.

219 - 232 (14 Pages)
11 Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex Benth, a Therapeutically Important Himalayan Plant for Drug Discovery
Simmi Sharma

ABSTRACT Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex a perennial herbaceous plant species of the family Scrophulariaceae growing at high altitude regions of Himalayas, and recorded to have a wide application in Ayurvedic system of medicine known by the name of kutki. In traditional system, this plant species is used to cure disorders of liver, respiratory tract fever, dyspepsia, chronic diarrhea and scorpion sting. P. kurroa is a growing source of interest because of having number of interesting activities such as immnunomudulatory, hepatoprotective and anticancer, highly used by pharmaceutical companies for development of new molecules and herbal botanical formulations. It has been scientifically validated that this species is a repository of bioactive chemicals such as picrosides, kutkoside, and cucurbitacins isolated and characterized mainly from the roots of this plant. This communication deals with the chemistry and biological activities associated with its main chemical constituents, and can be helpful in development of new drug as medicine. This communication will provide a baseline information and useful tool for researchers who work on the area of natural products, and look for new direction in drug discovery.

233 - 242 (10 Pages)
12 Plant Resource Used by Riparian Communities of Dhir and Diplai Wetlands in Assam, Northeastern India
Miniswrang Basumatary, Tapati Das

ABSTRACT Wetlands play an important role in provisioning of numerous goods and services for mankind. However, the type and the quantum of ecological services differs amongst wetlands. In the present study, we documented the various plant resources used by the riparian communities of two well-recognized wetlands, Dhir beel and Diplai beel, located in Brahmaputra Valley of Assam. The findings of study indicate that the riparian communities are dependent on wetlands for various purposes. The riparian communities uses 48 plant species as vegetables, fruits, fodder, fuel wood, medicine, roofing materials, craft making materials, bio-fertilizer and fish poisoning agent. Some of the plant species such as Enhydra fluctuans, Lasia spinosa, Colocasia esculenta, Diplazium esculentum, Ipomoea aquatica and Monocharia hastata aresold in the village market as local vegetables. The wetlands generate income for the riparian communities and save cashof many households settled plant near the wetland. Nevertheless, this study also revealed that some near the wetland resources are declining due to population pressure, encroachment near the wetlands, deforestation and over-exploitation of the wetland habitats for creation of many fishery ponds within the wetland and cultivation practices on wetland edges. The socio-economic condition, unemployment, easy accessibility and lack of alternativesources are plausibly themajor factors, whichare leading to the decline and depletion of the wetland resources. Therefore, appropriate management strategies are required for the conservation and the sustainable utilization of these plant resources.

243 - 260 (18 Pages)
13 Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr., a Multiferous Medicinal Plant Used as Anti-Cancerous and Anti-Inflammatory in Drug Discovery
Rakesh Kumar Nagar, Govind Yadav, Bikarma Singh

ABSTRACT Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. known as ’Indian Frankincense’ is a multiferous medicinal plants known for boswellic acid and it has application in traditional ayurvedic formulation. The plant possess anti-rheumatic, anti-pyretic, anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-coronary, analgesic and hepatoprotective properties due to the presence of several loaded bioactive compounds such as α-amyrins, β-boswellic acid, acetyl-β-boswellic acid, 11-ketoβ-boswellic acid, acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid, tetracyclic triterpenoic acids and several others in minor quantities in different parts of plants. Mostly oleo-gum resin is usually used in Indian system of medicine, and acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) is the most potent 5-lipoxygenase enzyme inhibitor responsible for inflammation, anti-cancer (G1 phase arrest) and other group of enzymes liable for allied activities. Besides, it yields essential oils and its major constituents are monoterpenoids such as pinene (2.05-64.7%), cisverbenol (1.97%), trans-pinocarveol (1.80%), borneol (1.78%), myrcene (1.71%), verbenone (1.71%), limonene (1.42%), thuja-2,4(10)-diene (1.18%) and p-cymene (1.0%). The copaene is the only sesquiterpene reported in minor quantities from essential oils of this species. Its essential show different actvities in relation to anti-cancer and antiinflammatory. From future perspectives, there is a need to carry out more research on its constituents for the development of value added products and drugs. Investigation on ecology and application of biotechnological intervention would helps in varities improvememnt, cultivation and conservation of this species.

261 - 274 (14 Pages)
14 Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Isolated from Agricultural Soils of Delhi Shows Mineral Phosphate Solubilizing Ability
Rhituporna Saikia, Ratul Baishya

ABSTRACT Phosphorus is a macro nutrient, acts as a limiting factor in most ecosystems. Phosphorus immobilization is a major issue in most agricultural soils of India. Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) help in the solubilization of insoluble mineral phosphates by the production of organic acids. The aim of this research was to isolate, identify and characterize phosphate solubilizing bacteria from different agricultural crop soils of river banks of Yamuna, Delhi. Experiments were established in the laboratory to isolate phosphate solubilizing bacteria from various soil samples. Biochemical tests were performed to identify and characterize phosphate solubilizing bacteria. The phosphate solubilization efficiency of bacteria was measured. Organic acid production by different PSB for solubilization of insoluble phosphates were estimated. PSB from the soils of four agricultural crops such as Fennel, Spinach, Coriander and Mustard were isolated, identified and their ability to solubilize mineral phosphates by the production of organic acids were studied. Different PSB isolated were characterized as Citrobacter sp., Pseudomonas sp., Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. The PSB varied in phosphate solubilizing efficiency and production of organic acids. Pseudomonas sp. produced the maximum amount of organic acids and hence was the most efficient PSB. These PSB can be used as biofertilizers instead of chemical fertilizers and lead to sustainable agriculture.

275 - 282 (8 Pages)
15 Investigation of Plants Utilization by Tribal Communities of Arunachal Himalayas in India
Anup Kumar Das, Wishfully Mylliemngap, Nako Laling, Om Prakash Arya, R.C. Sundriyal

ABSTRACT Arunachal Pradesh in Northeastern India covers a major portion of the Eastern Himalayas and is well-known for its rich biological and cultural diversity. The indigenous communities of the state living in close vicinity of forests depend upon wild plant-resources for meeting their various needs like medicine, food, fodder, fuel, etc. The present paper deals with documentation of plant species used by Monpa and Adi community residing in vast ecological range starting from subtropical to alpine ecosystems. A total of 346 species belonging to 215 genera and 102 families used by the two communities as wild vegetables (97 species), wild fruits (39), dye and color (13), spices and condiments (51), hunting and piscicide (40), paper pulp and fiber yielding plants (5) and medicinal use were reported (165). This study highlights the rich diversity of indigenous knowledge among the local communities in utilizing the diverse plant resources around them for their sustenance. Documentation of this knowledge is of utmost importance for identification of useful plant species for value addition, promotion as well as to formulate strategies for their sustainable utilization and conservation. This would also enhance the livelihood of the indigenous communities contribute to biodiversity conservation in these fragile mountain ecosystems.

283 - 310 (28 Pages)
16 Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, a Potential Indian Medicinal Plant with Multifarious Biological Activities
Gourav Paudwal, Prem N. Gupta

ABSTRACT Herbal systems of medicine have been acceded by various drug regulatory authorities across the globe. In modern days, people prefer herbal medicines for the cure of various gentle to extreme and chronic disease, and another option is of allopathic system of medicine. In the present communication, the herbal formulations utilize extracted constituents of the various parts of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, a member of the famly Solanaceae, and commonly known as Ashwagandha, Indian ginseng, Asgand or winter cherry. This is a principal medicinal plant that has been used in various Ayurvedic formulations from more than 3000 years. Wide distribuion of this species have been reported from the various Indian states like are Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and mountainous regions of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu. This plant is commonly used, either alone or in combination, with other herbs for the cure of various conditions e.g stress and inflammation. The major phytochemicals of this species are alkaloids and steroidal lactones, and due to presence of various bioactive compounds, this plant species possess various multitudinous biological activities such as adaptogenic, antibiotic, aboritifacient, aphrodisiac, astringent, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, sedative, deobstruent, anti-stress, anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, anti-aging, cardio protective, hypothyroid activity, immunomodulatory. Keeping these aspects into consideration, this herb has enormous potential for the management of a number of diseases. In the market, W. somnifera is available in various forms including decoctions, infusions, ointments, powder, tablet, capsule and syrup. This communication provides an account of various chemical constituents and their associated various biological functions.

311 - 338 (28 Pages)
17 Volatiles Profiling and Agronomic Practice of Cymbopogon khasianus [IIIM (J) CK-10 Himrosa] for Commercial Cultivation and Value Addition
Rajendra Bhanwaria, Bikarma Singh, Rajendra Gochar

ABSTRACT Cymbopogon khasianus (Hack.) Stapf. ex Bor. variety [IIIM (J) CK-10 Himrosa] is a commercially important aromatic grass of the family Poacae and contains high valued volatile constituents which has high demand in pharmaceutical, flavour, fragrance and cosmatic industries. This plant variety is one of the rich source of two monoterpenoids, geraniol and ocimene. Geranoil is an alcohol frequently used as terpenoid fragrance material, and ocimene is a group of isomeric hydrocarbons. The present communication deals with the herb yields, volatile constituents and agrotechnology of CK-10 Himrosa. The volatile constituents vary from season to season and from geographic locations of cultivation. Data presented were collected from field trials and experiment works conducted on farmer field at Balesar area of district Jodhpur (Rajasthan). It has been observed that [IIIM (J) CK-10 Himrosa] is rich in geraniol whose percentage varies from 70-80%, cisocimene (10-11%) trans-cimene (5-6%) geranyl acetate (2-3%), and various others constituents present in minor quantities. For analysis of volatile constituents, Gas Chromatography–Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and GC-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) methods were developed. Agronomic data indicate substantial variations in the essential oil compositions, which varies due to season of harvest and place of cultivation. This crop is hardy in nature and from future perspectives; extension of these aromatic crops in rainfed and saline areas could brought un-utilized barenlands and wastelands under cultivation. Biomass and essential oil obtained from this crop would be helpful in development of new value added products. This may serves as economic crop for marginal farmers and helpful in gaining international recognition after development of products in the form of perfumes, soaps, cosmetics and other products for human use.

339 - 348 (10 Pages)
18 In-vitro Investigation of Anti-diabetic, Phytochemical and Silver Nanoparticles Synthesis of Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ettingsh: A Hemiparasitic Taxa
Ayan Kumar Naskar, Souradut Ray, Amal KumarMondal

ABSTRACT Dendrophthoe falcata (L.f.) Ettingsh, a unique hemiparasitic taxa belongs to the family Loranthaceae, spreads over the entire forest in the South West Bengal. It is generally stem hemiparasitic taxa, as it is found mostly on aerial part of the host plant due to lack of root system. It depend on the host plant for mainly water and to some extend carbon. It synthesizes its own food. This plant has haustoria instead of root, they penetrate their haustoria into the vascular bundle mainly in the xylem tissue of the host plants. This species has numerous medicinal values with a long history of its use in Chinese traditional medicines. The present work deals with the anti-diabetic, phytochemicals and silver nanoparticles properties of D. falcata. The responsible enzyme i.e. Alpha-amylase breaks the large starch molecules which produces free glucose and simultaneously increases the blood sugar level and as a result hyperglycemia occurs. This study also reveals that the plant’s leaves extracts have inhibitory activities on this key alpha amylase enzyme and apart from that aqueous extract of this plant contains some secondary metabolites which is very crucial data for drug preparation and any other research purposes. The maximum amount of silver nanoparticles is present in this plant which is valuable as a silver line in near future implications for different drugs preparations

349 - 364 (16 Pages)
19 Crop-Weather Interactions, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Evaluation of the Phenological Models for Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench under Subtropical and Temperate Environments
Kiran Koul, Bikarma Singh, Mahendra Kumar Verma, Sumit Singh, Pooja Goyal, Govind Yadav, Bishander Singh, Surinder Kitchlu, Rajneesh Anand

ABSTRACT Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench. is a medicinal and nutraceutically important herb of American origin, extended its distribution to other parts of the globe in subtropical and temperate environment. This species is known for various biological properties such as antimicrobial, immuno-stimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties due to the presence to several bioactive compounds loaded in the form of phenylpropanoids, flavonoids, terpenoids, lipids, nitrogenous compounds, carbohydrates and others such as ascorbic acid, sitosterol, linoleic acid, cyanidin glycosides and sesquiterpene esters in different quantities. Published data reveals that its major chemical constituents possess anti-anxiety, anti-depression, cytotoxicity, anti-infective and anti-mutagenicity properties. Besides, plants respond to abiotic and climatic signals that are responsible for various adaptive responses at the cellular level and vary with ecosystem in which the species grows. It may behave differently in different ecological climates, thereby, modifying their gene expressions, and this reveals that the plant growth and the adaptability are mainly affected by microclimatic factors. Experimental trials conducted to collect data on growth phenology in relation to crop-weather interaction and investigated result is presented in this research. Studies on chemical evaluation of E. purpurea under two constrasting environment, subtropical and temperate climate, with reference to cichoric acid and chlorogenic acid undertaken for this plant is also presented. Future studies in relation to the application of biotechnological interventions and chemical evaluation at different time scale would be a great contribution to the science for this species as it has the tremendous potentials which may lead to development of various nutraceuticals and value added products in future for human health and medicines.

365 - 382 (18 Pages)
20 Note on Commercial Valuable Medicinal Wealth in Hamirpur District of Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya
Anjna Sharma, Gurdarshan Singh

ABSTRACT The popular use of local plant wealth among the rural people in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh reflects their greater interest in the traditional medicine and other traditional and commercial purposes. Hamirpur, one of the pioneer Himalayan district is a rich repository of medicinal flora. It is the smallest district of Himachal Pradesh due to its area, surrounded by thick forest area which is rich in diverse vegetation. Medicinal plants are used in the Ayurvedic, Unani and other traditional systems of medicine and in plant-based pharmaceutical industries. The patterns of the use of the local medicinal herbs for the treatment of various diseases and ailments have been an old practice. But the people of the district still depends upon the uses of local plants for their primary health problems treatment. This paper provides the information on the traditional uses of some of the plants such as Asparagus racemosus, Acacia catechu, Albizzia lebbek, Berberis lyceum, Bryonia laciniosa, Azadirachta indica, Adhatoda vasica, Andographis peniculata, Aegle marmelos, Celastrus peniculata, Cymbopogon flexsosus, Cuscuta reflexa and Holarrheana antidysentric of Hamirpur district for the treatment of various disorders such as anthelmintic, anti-fungal, diabetic, antibacterial, cancer, diarrhea, bronchitis, tuberculosis etc. Hence the objective of the study was to document ethnobotanical knowledge primarily of notable herbs employed by the different backward people, whether tribal or rural, in the area under study. Therefore the documentation and recording of traditional knowledge associated is necessary step for the preservation of traditional knowledge about the use of local plant wealth and conservation of plant species of study area. The data would be useful for further scientific exploration.

383 - 396 (14 Pages)
21 Revisiting Himalayan High Altitude Plants for Skin Care and Disease
Javaid Fayaz Lone, Bikarma Singh

ABSTRACT Himalaya represents an importantfocal point of botanical rich diversity, and homeofmanymedicinal plants known for their various therapeutic properties. Since ancient times, several plant species have been used as ethnomedicine, and only a few of these species have beenfully explored and validated scientifically. Today, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries are the fastest growing sectors that use botanical extracts to maintain the health and support integrity of the skin and other parts of human body.Peoplearedemandingcosmeceuticaladditivesfrommarket made from plants as herbal botanicals as these causes fewer or no side effects, and therefore, ethnomedicine are gaining immence importance for cosmetic and value added products development of natural origin. Human and animal skin is the largest covering of the body as it provide barrier to the internal cells ortissues,and protectthebodyfrominfections and toxic chemicals. Keeping in mind the importance of skin, investigations and literatures were consulted to document plants protectingskininfectionsfrom external environment.Thepotential high altitude plants ofHimalaya were screened outto be used inskin care and treatmentofvarious skin pathogens.Inthe presentcommunication, total 81 plants of 72 genera belonging to 40 families are presented that have ethnobotanicalapplicationinskin care and usages incuringskindiseases. This data will provide a base-line information for cosmetic and pharmaceutical companies for developmentof various new value-added products for human and animal health care.

397 - 406 (10 Pages)
22 Forest Resources, Village Livelihood and Investigation of Relic Places in the Fringes of Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary in Sikkim Himalaya of India
Arun Chettri

ABSTRACT The present communication deals with the impact and contribution on livelihood sustainability based on forest resources and sacred places in nine fringe villages of Pangolakha Wild Life Sanctuary (PWLS), located in Sikkim Himalaya. Populations density in villages varies from 23 at Nayabusty and 274 at Padamchen. Populations were categorised under three age groups viz. minor (15-25 yrs), major (26-36 yrs) and elder (over 36 years). Approximate by 27.6% populations had minimal primary education. Agriculture is the main activity in Suvaneydara (86.7%), Agamlok (85.3%) and in Nayabustyy (82.3%). Villagers in Padamchen (12.5%) and in Nathang (12.5%) are either dependent on Government job (38.2%) or seasonal flow of tourist (25%). The educational qualification in these villages is classes 5 to 10 standards. 91.1% of people rely on forest resources. About 70% of the villagers depicts that forest cover of the region is improving. The availability of fodders (70%) and fuel woods (60%) are still in abundance. People depend on tirja (private), khashmal and goucharan areas for grazing and fuel wood collection. Forty nine economical economically by valued plant species belonging to 46 genera and 35 families were documented. Subtropical ecosystems had high number of plant species. Poaceae was the dominant family (17%). Tree life form is abundant (51%). Total 24 species are harvested for edible purpose, 24% are freely sold in the local haats (market) for their livelihood sustenance. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of nine villages with respect to forest resources indicated the village specific use pattern of plant resources. Indigenous inherent knowledge of local plants is decreasing in Lingtam. PWLS and its adjoining villages have important places with religious importance, heritage sites managed by the people. It was observed that exploitation of plant resources, lack of maintenance and fast changing concept of traditional ethics among youths, plant resources were degraded and in regenerating stage.

407 - 428 (22 Pages)
23 Himalayan Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch.: Traditional uses, Phytochemistry, Therapeutic Potential and Conservation Perspective of Critically Endangered Medicinal Plant
Bikarma Singh, Sneha

ABSTRACT Saussurea costus (Falc.) Lipsch. is a perennial rhizomatous herbaceous plant, commonly called as kuth had a wide application in drug discovery programme and indigenously known for its medicinal usage in Indian system of medicine. Wide distribution of this species recorded from Himalayas and Indo-Mynamar hotspot biodiversity regions. This species is traditionally used for treatment of several seasonal diseases happen to occurs in hilly and mountaneous regions. It has been scientifically validated that this species possess various biological activities such as anti-microbial, anti-cancer, anti-arthritic, anti-convulsant, anti-oxidant, angiogenesis effect, hepatoprotective, gastro-protective, anti-obesity, and anti-inflammatory due to the presence of various bioactive principles such as costunolide, germacrene, lappadilactone, isodihydrocostunolide, cynaropicrin, linoleic acid, cyclocostunolide, alantolactone, isoalantolactone, sesquiterpene-saussureamines and several others in minor quantities. This species naturally grows in wild and mostly collected from the wild for its herbal usages, and this wild collection activities put S. costus under threatened and critically endangered categories, hence there is need for the development of agrotechnology for cultivation in large scale. This species has the potential components for developing new molecules in future for drug development. The present communication provides traditional usages, phytochemistry, therapeutic potentials, and future perspectives of S. costus. This baseline information provided in this article will be helpful in future for research to be carried forward in drug discovery programme using this plant species.

429 - 446 (18 Pages)
24 Bringing Innovation and Digitization of Web Accessible Herbarium Database to Build a National Resource in India: A Case Study of Plant Inventory Biodiversity Data of Janaki Ammal Herbarium
Bikarma Singh, Sumit G. Gandhi, Harish Chander Dutt, Abdul Rahim, Rajan Sachdev, Yashbir Singh Bedi

ABSTRACT Systematic studies through stored specimens in herbaria and museum of defined geographical areas provide a set of baseline data for understanding the vegetation composition of a defined ecosyetm. A stored plant collection in herbaria offers a rich portrait of biodiversity, making innumerable contribution to science and human society. Digitization coupled with hosting of such information on world wide web (www) system has been accepted as an important tool for the dissemination of the botanical specimens in the form of databasing, imaging and geo-referencing of voucher specimens. In the present communication, we describe the development of the Janaki Ammal Herbarium (JAH) database that contains a comprehensive and searchable data of voucher snaps, historical background and statistical analysis of 23,225 voucher specimens. The information on JAH database is easy to extract data on botanical names, author citation, variety (if any), family, collection number, specific location, collection date, habitat, collector’s name and remarks on morphology. The goal of the present investigation is to digitize (database, image, georeference) all specimensin JAH, enabling themto be made available through a single portal. At concluding, all vouchers of JAH made publicly accessible via world wide web user interfaces, and also linked to PubMed, NCBI Taxonomy, where the site provide information related to Entrez records, comments and references of the particular species, while Wiki species site is linked to the free species directory. It also provide link of online accessible herbarium-based databases of the world.

447 - 466 (20 Pages)
25 Distribution, Conservation and Pharmacological Status of Genus Aconitum L. with Special Reference to Western Himalaya
Sabeena Ali, Sumit G. Gandhi, Yashbir Singh Bedi, Qazi Parvaiz Hassan

ABSTRACT The genus Aconitum is in the limelight of the current scenario of the pharmacopeia and has became the centre of attention in the field of herbal medicines, as is manifested with various biological and pharmacological cores which make the genus most imperative. For vast decades some species of the genus Aconitum and its derivatives were considered as vizulently fatal but were liquidated as intact drug elites through traditional as well as modern system of medicine. The retrospection of the validated information in account of the genus Aconitum represent a pioneering approach to corroborate the scientific studies on almost everyaspect of the herbal genusAconitum, as a number of species belonging to this genus has been enlisted in the Red Data Book of IUCN which have been renowned for their medicinal benefits in various systems of medicine. The tubers some species of Aconitum contain lethal diterpene alkaloids such as aconitine, mesaconitine, and hypaconitine, which easily can be directed into screened harmless alkaloids such as benzoylaconine, aconine, and pyroaconine by heating or alkaline treatment. Currently, the processed tubers are widely and safely practiced for the remedyof pain, neuronal disorders, inflammation, and rheumatism and have a huge therapeutic index for curing ailments like hysteria, throat infection, dyspepsia, abdominal pain, diabetes and also as a cardiac depressant in massive arterial tension of cardiac origin. An important component extracted from some species of Aconitum, Lycaconitine has been found to be effective against multi-drug resistant cancers. The di-terpenoid alkaloids of aconite source and their increasing demand for the active compounds used in different systems of medicine has led to overharvesting of the tubers, resulting in rapid depletion of the natural stocks of this valuable plant. As a consequence, the genus is now on the list of rare and threatened species. Since the commercial demand of this important medicinal plant is very high and hence needs to be conserved as the species density of this genus has been threatned due to many factors. As such diverse efficient and standardized protocols for its regeneration like micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis and some other conventional efforts like storage of seeds as a means of ex-situ conservation must be attributed on the aspects of conservationof genusAconitum. The exploitation of population genetic diversity will provide useful information for the biological conservation of these esteemed species of Aconitum in the regions . Since a complete revision of the genus Aconitum in the region has not yet been carried out and the high level of endemism and a lack of relevant information of the genus Aconitum have made its various scientific studies a very interesting object. The scientific and systematic information about the genus Aconitum generated demands validation as only a little attention has been done on its various aspects from cultivation, conservation, phytochemistry and pharmacological evaluation to the molecular characterization. Consequently species specific measures are needed and a lot of important attributes has to be assigned to the species of this genus which will ultimately help to ensure simultaneously both conservation as well as sustainability in raw material production of the genus.

467 - 498 (32 Pages)
26 End Pages

Glossary of Terms Abscess: Localised collection of pus caused by suppuration in a tissue. Acne: An inflammatory disease occurring in or around the sebaceous glands. Actinomorphic: characterized by radial symmetry, such as a starfish or the flower of a daisy. Acuminate: (of a plant or animal structure, e.g. a leaf) tapering to a point. Aflatoxin: Poisonous carcinogens that are produced by certain molds which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay and grains. Agronomy: The science of crop production and soil management. Aliphatic: Relating to organic compounds whose carbon atoms are linked in open chains, either straight or branched, rather than containing a benzene ring. Alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes are aliphatic compounds. Alkaloid: Class of nitrogenous organic compounds of plant origin which have pronounced physiological actions on humans. Alpine: Relating to high mountains. Amino acid: Organic compounds containing amine and carboxyl functional groups, along with a side chain specific to each amino acid. Anabolism: Synthesis of complex molecules in living organisms from simpler ones together with the storage of energy; constructive metabolism. Anaemia: Lack of enough blood in the body causing paleness. Anaesthetic: Inducing loss of feeling or consciousness. Analgesic: (of a drug) acting to relieve pain.


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