New Releases

Browse Subject

Buy Now and Pay in EMI's


Dr. Bikarma Singh
  • Country of Origin:

  • Imprint:


  • eISBN:


  • Binding:


  • Number Of Pages:


  • Language:


Individual Price: ₹ 3,600.00 ₹ 3,240.00 + Tax

Add to cart Contact for Institutional Price

Plants are the primary source of food and medicine which directly contribute to the development of new drugs and medicines in addition to agrochemicals, fragrance, flavour, cosmetics, fine chemicals and nutraceuticals. Research on plants and new value added products made from natural herbal botanicals is of human interest. This book reports the present scenario and importance of commercial valuable plant species builds upon the excellent twenty one research articles. Highly prized plants mentioned as domestic and industrial value are Bunium persicum, Dysoxylum binectariferum, Magnolia campbellii, Morchella esculenta, Tinospora cordifolia, Woodfordia fructicosa, Plantago ovata, nobel prized plant Artemisia annua, subsistence of Spinifex littoreus, tissue culture raised banana, plant growth promoting bacteria, systematic of starch grains, scientific propagation techniques for improvement of plants, sustainability of Mucuna pruriens and phytochemical screening of Eulaliopsis binata, Himalayan rhododendrons, Cyperus pangorei and Vigna radiata. Aromatic plants are valued for their aromatherapy, flavour and fragrance. Besides chemical constituents, uses and diversity of aromatic wealth of Himalaya is also discussed. Current investigation reports of biological, chemical, pharmacological and clinical parameters mentioned in different section of this compilation will add and contribute more values in discovering new leads for product development from plants. As the reader will note, these book represent a wide collection of views, reflecting the diversity of sciences and interests of thousands of ideas that enabled thoughtful deliberations for future aspects

0 Start Pages

Preface Plant systems are the primary source of food and medicine directly contribute to the development of new drugs in addition to agrochemicals, fragrance, flavour, cosmetics, fine chemicals and nutraceuticals. Earth is a repository of 2,97,326 plant species distributed on every continent except Antarctica, and of these 21,000 species listed by World Health Organization (WHO) is medicinal plants. It is of record that only one-third of medicinal plants discovered across the globe are studied for their chemical composition and medicinal application for product development. According to WHO 25% prescribed drugs considered essential for human survival and animal health care is obtained from plants. As we enter the new decades of twenty-first century, research on plants and their application for human health care is once again assuming a prominent position. This book deals with the commercial valuable plant species and ongoing R&D to highlight their importance in current scenerio. To understand the biodiversity across the earth requires understanding the importance of usages and environmental role of plants. It is the objective of the present book to provide this understanding to industries and pharma companies for discovery of new drugs and medicines. Renewed emphasis on developing medicinal and aromatic products from native plants has encouraged new botanical endeavors. Efforts to feed the growing populations in the most developing countries have positioned biological scientists at the cutting edge of genetic engineering with the creation of transgenic plants and chemical researchers for development of botanical medicine by using herbs for therapeutic values. Major pharmaceutical companies are currently conducting extensive research on plant materials collected from high altitude forests of himalayan regions and other geographic locations for their potential medicinal, aromatic and nutraceutical values. Substances obtained from the plants and microbes remain the basis for a large proportion of the commercial medications used today for the treatment of chronic illness such as heart disease, high blood pressure, pain, asthma and other associated human problems. As plants and fermented microbes are rich source of novel drugs that form the ingredients in traditional system of medicine, and approximately 90% raw botanicals used in the manufacture of Ayurveda, Amchi (Tibetan medicine), Homoeopathy, Siddha and Unani systems of medicine is largely prepared by using plants from wild and captive cultivated source from agriculture at farms and gardens. The usages of plants for human food and medicine is an age-old tradition of civilization, and there is a strong well proved belief that plants keep the mind in tune with nature and maintains proper balance. The use and the search for medicine and nutrients supplements derived from plants have accelerated the discovery in recent years, and well established example is nobel prize winner, Professor Youyou Tu in 2015 for key contribution to the discovery of artimisinin from a plant called Artemisia annua for treating malaria. Discovery of artimisinin has saved millions of lives and represent one of the significant contribution of China to global health. Botanists, natural product chemists, pharmacologists and microbiologists were from plants combing their research investigation for phytochemicals that could be developed for treatment of chronic illness of human kind. Interest in various natural products obtained from plants for diverse useful is attributed to their different bioactivities, low toxicity and environmental sustainability. Today's, folklore herbals, drugs, food supplements, nutraceuticals, pharmaceutical intermediates, bioactive natural products and lead compounds from synthetic drugs are of high demand. Biotech plants have emerged amazingly fast as a boon for science and society. Genetic engineerings are playing a significant role in modern agriculture, pharmaceutical and environmental sectors, to meet the increasing demands of food, fuels, fibers, perfumes, cosmetics, minerals, vitamins, antibiotics, narcotics and other health-related drugs and fine chemicals. It is mentioned in literatures that the people of earlier civilization distinguishes plants suitable for nutritional purpose from others with a definitive pharmacological action observed by applying plants in their daily use. This relationship has grown between plants and humans, and many new plants have come to be used as drugs and nutraceutical. Himalayas, Indo-Myanmar (former Indo-Burma) and Western Ghats of India is a repository of unique medicinal and aromatic plant species. Interactions between the advance science and understading of natural ecosystem helped lots in maintaining the richness of species and genetic materials for discovery and for sustainance to man-kind. Different human societies use plants according to their beliefs, knowledge, and earlier experiences gathered from their ancestor. Their knowledge about the usages of the plants is not known to scientists, unless and until, such records dessiminated through publications or any other permanent records. These hidden sacreds need to be explored in future for planning and new discoveries in science. Biotechnological intervention, molecular investigation and new science analysis on the usefulness of plants in recent decades have resulted in portrayals of relationship that have impacted understanding and interpretations of origin and diversification of commercial valuable plants. Therefore, it has been challenging issues to keep track of all new developments especially that deals with value addition and product formulations. It has been relevance for the scientists and the researchers for asking and being able to answer the significant scientific questions related to discovery and future strategies on commercial values and societal benefits. Content of this book attempts to fill this need of the hours. I, on behalf of all authors, confident that this particular book will be a useful tool for academia and industries. The present issue, therefore, builds upon the excellent research articles given by fifty nine scientists of fourteen topmost research organizations and institutes of India. This book, therefore, is a coherent statement of the current status and title ‘Plants of Commercial Values’, and goes beyond the papers presented here in different chapters for globalization. This book starts with first chapter on medicinal-cum-nutraceutical mushroom, Morchella esculenta, which is one of the richest sources of proteins, fibers, vitamins, amino acids and calories, because of its nutrient composition, mycologist called it as the costliest and the superior mushroom. This chapter is followed by medicinal usages of Woodfordia fructicosa in curing peptic ulcer of human- being and Tinospora cordifolia as multifaceted elixer plant in Arurvedic system of medicine. Modelling and conservation status of one of the rare plant of Himalaya, Magnolia campbellii is discussed in the fourth chapter of this book. Bunium persicum is yet an important plant of temperate regions and its seeds used as carminative substances in various food recipes, is presented in chapter fifth of this publication. It was then followed by Dysoxylum binectariferum, one of the threatened and important lead molecule plants of Northeastern India and Western Ghats of South India, and, biochemical analysis of hemiparasitic taxa at mitigator of pollutants in chapter six and chapter eight, respectively. Recently a tissue culture raised variety of banana was first time introduced by CSIR-IIIM Jammu for commercial cultivation with aim to double the income of the farmers and chapter nine discussed the importance of tissue culture banana as commercial scale in this book. Chapter nine discussed about the commercial value of the husk derived from seeds of Plantago ovata, an important medicine herb, used as emollient and laxative in the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea, and dried seeds contain over 30% mucilage. Nobel prized plant Artemisia annua is known for the content of anti-malarial drug called as artemisinin is presented in chapter ten. This plant species is widely distributed in the subtropical and temperate zones worldwide and also known for its usages in traditional system of medicine for the treatment of various ailments associated with mankind and animal health care. Threatened subsistence of Spinifex littoreus, value of plant growth promoting bacteria, systematics of starch grains, techniques for improvement of commercially valuable plants, sustainability of Mucuna pruriens and phytochemical screening of Eulaliopsis binata are also explained by different authors in chapter eleven to sixteen of this book. Rhododendrons are one of the most important multiferous flowering plants of Himalayas, and commonly known as Burans. Flowers and leaves of Rhododendron exhibits many nutritional, medicinal, and aromatic properties and has a number of uses in folklore medicine. Chapter seventeen presented in this book provide information on the checklist of Indian rhododendrons, their traditional usages, phytochemistry and potentials for value addition in near future. Chapter eighteen and nineteen deals with Cyperus pangorei and biosynthesis of nanoparticles using leaf extacts of three medicinal plants (Spondias mombin, Stachytarpheta jamaicensis, Syzygium samarangensis) as commercial plants for rural prosperity and pollution indicator. An important technique required for biotechnological intervention is plant tissue culture techniques, and is presented in chapter twenty with special reference to commercial crop improvement. Aromatic plants are valued for their aromas, tastes and their applications in treatment of various illness, and mostly prefered in cosmatics, perfumes, confectionery foods and medicines. Chapter twenty- one deals with aromatic wealth of Himalaya, potential of value addition and product development from essential oils. Before, all these twenty one chapters, this book starts with introduction section where importance of plants, their value addition, and future perspectives are discussed as editor choice. We are sure that this book will serve as a stimulus for continued research in biological sciences, chemical sciences, pharmacological and clinical studies on plants and microbes which will add and contribute to value addition in the form of medicine discovery and products development. In addition to research suggestions contained within each of the chapters, an introduction section emphasizes particular research avenues for attention. One of the most challenging is how to deal effectively with endangered and commercial viable plants presented in this book such as Morels, Giloy, Woodfordia, Panax, Bunium, Magnolia, Plantago, Cyperus, Dysoxylum, Mucuna, Rhododendron, high yielding variety Banana, Artemisia, Spondius, Stachytarpheta, Syzygium and others. Detail studies presented in different chapters on biology, chemistry, pharmacolgy and commercial aspects will help more precisely test biogeographic theory and chemical hypothesis. Examining chemical constituents of particular species will also be more feasible by studying this book. We have tried to convey a maximum of knowledge through this book regarding potential plants for medicine and product values in a minimum of words, and believe that there is always scope for improvement. Readers are the best panel of judges to evaluate the content of this particular book. I, on behalf of all team members, hoping and believe that the readers have a moral obligation to convey suggestions on this book entitled “Plants of Commercial Values’ in near future for improvement. It would be of greatest pleasure for me if this book could attract students of botany, ecology, chemistry, pharmacology, zoology and strategies planners like forest departments, tourists and industries, who have something in their mind in relation to drug discovery, value addition and product development. This book will have a way of providing a new level of future perspectives in understanding different areas of sciences. Research should be continually encouraged to successfully achieve such objectives so that we can take maximum advantage of what could be offered in a sustainable way that will be beneficial in and of itself. Without contributions from fifty nine authorities, it would have been hard for me to imagine a more thorough explanation on the content and prosperity of this renouned publication.

1 Morchella esculenta Dill. ex Pers., An Important Medicinal Mushroom of Himalaya: Traditional Usages, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Need for Scientific Intervention
Bikarma Singh, Yash Pal Sharma, Brijesh Kumar, Bishander Singh, TN Lakhanpal

ABSTRACT Mushrooms are in use for centuries in traditional system of medicines, and have importance in greater Chinese and western pharmacopeia. Morchella species are well known across the globe as a popular and prized edible fungi and unique culinary saprophytes. They have a long history of usage in the formulation of different traditional medicine for centuries due to their anti- oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous and immuno-stimulatory properties. Inspite of high demand and day-by-day increasing importance, cultivation of M. esculenta Dill.ex Pers and other morels are limited, however, there is a report that some species of Morchella are successfully cultivated in China. Phytochemical studies reveals that polysaccharide groups, phenolic compounds, tocopherols, ascorbic acid and vitamin D are the most active molecules present in morels. In addition to these compounds, morels are also rich in carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, organic acids and several kinds of macro-and micronutrients. Literature revealed that no data on reproductive biology of M. esculenta are available till date. Future investigation is required to study the life cycle and the ecological association of different morels to high altitude regions, and causes of their association with coniferous and broad leaved trees such as Cedrus deodara, Pinus gerardiana, Picea smithiana, Quercus and Castanopsis species. There is an urgent need to explore all traditional knowledge associated with morels, phytochemistrys and associated pharmological studies of major compounds, reproductive cycle and their basic biology for future conservation of this precious mushrooms for man-kind.

1 - 16 (16 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
2 Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz., a Potent Indian Medicinal Plant in Curing Peptic Ulcer
Anil Kumar Katare, Inshad Ali Khan, Durga Prasad Mindala, Prasoon Kumar Gupta, Surjeet Singh, Bikarma Singh

ABSTRACT Traditional herbal drug preparations are known for centuries to protect several human diseases such as peptic ulcer, diarrhea, piles and dysentery. Current days knowledge about the underlying biochemical mechanism for most of the gastric ulcers and majority of the duodenal ulcers deserve appropriate consideration and due weightage while consolidating regarding the efficacy of a plant extract. The present investgation relates to a pharmaceutical composition comprising an effective amount of lyophilized extract or at least one bioactive fraction obtained from flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa (L.) Kurz, along with one or more pharmaceutically acceptable additives or carriers. The present results provides a composition for treating ulcers such as stress induced ulcer, peptic ulcer, cold restraint induced ulcer, drug induced ulcer and acid induced ulcer, and also the composition used as specific inhibitor of gastric H+, K+-ATPase. Herbal formulation in the form of capsules were conducted on marker-based stability studies as per ICH Q1 guidelines at accelerated and real time stability studies (40±2°C, 75% ± 5% RH and 30±2°C, 65%±5% RH, respectively), and also stability testing investigation was done as per stability specifications at intervals of 0, 3, 6 months for accelerated stability studies and 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36 months for real time stability. The present data reveals that this species is one of the potent Indian medicinal Plant which helps in curing ulcer and associated diseases.

17 - 36 (20 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
3 Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook.f. & Thomson (Giloy), a Multifaceted Elixir Plant of India
Neha Sharma, Naresh Kumar Satti

ABSTRACT Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers ex Hook.f. & Thoms. is a versatile liana rich in various active compounds having diverse chemical structures. Limited research has been done on the biological properties and the probable medicinal applications of the individual isolated molecules actually responsible for the medicinal nature of the plant. Recent advances in the discovery of active constituents from T. cordifolia and their biological impact in disease cure has led to an increase interest on this plant across the globe. The therapeutic virtue of giloy used in traditional and Indian System of Medicine (ISM) has been well established through advance testing and evaluation, both pre-clinical and clinical trials in different diseased conditions. These studies make this indigenous drug plant a novel candidate for bio-prospection and drug development for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, ulcers, liver disorders, heart diseases, diabetes and post-menopausal syndrome where sufficient treatments are still not available. Over the past few decades, a noteworthy progress has been achieved in cancer prevention and treatment, and still there remains a need for effective treatment program. One of the best possible approaches with immense potential is chemoprevention, which involves the use of natural, synthetic or biological molecules to suppress, reverse or prevent cancer or the progression of cancerous cells. It is most likely that many agents present in specific herbs, herbal products and natural dietary factors will have an effect throughout the process of carcinogenesis. Thus, a detailed chemical investigation with the aim of isolating novel molecules, their structure elucidation, quantification, validation and pharmacological evaluation in terms of its anticancer potential was carried out on T. cordifolia. The present study was designed to isolate and identify new promising anti-cancer candidates from the aqueous alcoholic extract of T. cordifolia using bioassay-guided fractionation.

37 - 78 (42 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
4 Modelling the Environmental Niche and Potential Distribution of Magnolia campbellii Hook.f. & Thomson for its Conservation in the Indian Eastern Himalaya
Dibyendu Adhikari, Prem Prakash Singh, Raghuvar Tiwary, Saroj Kanta Barik

ABSTRACT Magnolia campbelii Hook.f. & Thomson is a deciduous tree species belonging to Magnoliaceae and is highly valued for its ornamental uses. The species is threatened by habitat degradation as well as its utility as timber. It is distributed in the eastern Himalaya, southern Myanmar, and Yunnan province of China. However, its exact distribution in the eastern Himalaya is unknown owing to rough terrain and remote location of the Himalayas. We modelled the environmental niche and delineated the potential habitats and distribution areas of the species in this study using ENVIREM dataset and Maxent software. Thermicity Index and Topographic Wetness were the critical environmental variables determining the species distribution in the eastern Himalaya as revealed by Jackknife analysis. Geographical projection of the modelled environmental niche indicates that most suitable areas for its distribution are the western part of Arunachal Pradesh, few pockets in Sikkim, and the central part of Bhutan. The results of the study have implications for in situ conservation of the species as well as identifying suitable areas for reintroduction.

79 - 88 (10 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
5 Bunium persicum (Boiss.) Fedtsch. Distribution, Botany and Agro-technology
Sajan Thakur, Harish Chander Dutt

ABSTRACT Bunium persicum (Boiss.) Fedtsch., (Family: Apiaceae) is an important plant of temperate regions and its seeds are used as carminative substance in various food recipes. The seeds of the species act as a good source of economy to the hilly and mountain people. As the species is restricted in its habitat, therefore, it requires mass cultivation practices. Many attempts are already made to cultivate species near to its natural habitat. In recent years some efforts have been done to domesticate this plant in certain areas of India like Shong area in Kinnaur district of Himachal Pradesh, India, but the cultivation remained very limited. Therefore, in addition to its collection from the wild sources the species needs more scientific intervention in agriculture sector. This species has typical Palaeo-Mediterranean distribution. In India the species is distributed in wild only in North West Himalaya (J&K, HP and UK) which makes its ocurrence rarity in the country. The species restricted its distribution between 1850-3100 meters above mean sea level. Phylogenetically the species is near to Carum carvi L., therefore, C. carvi is the potential adulterant of B. persicum.

89 - 96 (8 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
6 Dysoxylum binectariferum (Roxb.) Hook., a Plant of High Medicinal Value and A Source of Leads for Modern Medicine
Vikas Kumar, Sonali S. Bharate, Ram A. Vishwakarma, Sandip B. Bharate

ABSTRACT Dysoxylum binectariferum (Roxb.) Hook. is an evergreen tree, indigenous to India and widely distributed in different parts of India. Primarily, this plant is used in the timber market for the preparation of furniture and other wooden goods. Apart from utility in timber market, it has tremendous medicinal properties because of its unique secondary metabolites. Its hydroalcoholic extracts possess a wide range of pharmacological activities including immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-leishmanial, etc. The chromone alkaloid rohitukine, the major constituent of the plant, possess anti-fertility, anti-leishmanial, anti-adipogenic, anti-ulcerogenic, anti-cancer and immunomodulatory activities. The most extensively studied and advanced therapeutic property of this chromone alkaloid is its cyclin-dependent kinase inhibition activity, which has a direct link with its anti-cancer effect. Inspired by this natural product, two clinical candidates (flavopiridol and riviciclib) are discovered and studied in human cancer patients for treating various types of cancer. Another preclinical lead IIIM-290, which is directly derived from rohitukine via synthetic modification, has demonstrated promising oral efficacy in animal models of various cancer types. The high-value medicinal applications of this plant have necessitated the need of bringing this tree under captive cultivation. The present chapter discusses the biology pharmacological and secondary metabolites present in Dysoxylum binectariferum. The preclinical and clinical leads derived or inspired from rohitukine are also discussed in this communication.

97 - 120 (24 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
7 Biochemical Analysis of three Species of Hemiparasitic Taxa in the Polluted Area: Significant Role in Mitigators of Pollutants
Shibdas Maity, Souradut Ray, Amal Kumar Mondal

ABSTRACT In the present investigation on three different plant species from pollution and control area were carried act for biochemical analysis such as total chlorophyll content, leaf extract pH, relative water content and ascorbic acid test. The results indicate accordance to order of tolerance index of plant species in air pollution are Macrosolen cochinchinensis, Loranthus parasiticus and Viscum album. The changes in pollution tolerance index are biochemically induced due to the surrounding environmental conditions. Thus, it is observed that Macrosolen cochinchinensis is highly tolerant species among the selected three species. Thus, in future this plant species may play an important role in pollution indicator. APTI analysis show the pollution tolerating decreasing order for there species can be Macrosolen cochinchinensis> Loranthus parasiticus>Viscum album and as ascorbic acid result indicate that Macrosolen cochinchinensis show mostly defence mechanism and highly tolerance level against different kind of pollutant. Besides these three hemiparasite plant species have some valuable ethnomedicinal important. In India tribal people used leaf and stem bark in curing abortion, miscarriage, vaginal bleeding during pregnancy, treat circulatory and respiratory system problems.

121 - 132 (12 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
8 Exploring Commercial Cultivation of Tissue Cultured Raised Banana in Himalayan Shivalik Range
Sabha Jeet, VP Rahul, Rajendra Bhanwaria, Chandra Pal Singh, Rajendra Gochar, Amit Kumar, Kaushal Kumar, Jagannath Pal, Bikarma Singh

ABSTRACT Agrotechnology of banana has been introduced for the first time by CSIR- Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine Jammu for commercial cultivation of banana in Himalayan Shivalik range. The aim of the present investigation is to study the potential of Tissue Culture (TC) banana production in a diverse environment of Shivalik range, to make the state self-sufficient in banana production, employment generation and generate revenue for the farmers and to studies on the post harvest handling and marketing of TC banana. Initially, the sapling of this high quality tissue culture variety {BHIM Grand naine (G-9)} Banana was brought from Agro-division of Cadilla Pharmaceuticals Limited Ahmedabad, Gujarat. The field experimental trial was conducted during 20016- 2017 at CSIR-IIIM Research Station, Chatha Farm, Jammu in which four treatment combination arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). Significant differences were observed among the treatments for all the parameters studied. Among the date of planting, banana planted at 10th August reported significantly highest pseudostem height, pseudostem girth, more average number of leaves/plant, first flower emergence (days), first finger ripening (days), more number of finger per hand, more number of hand/ branch, higher weight of finger/hand (kg), higher weight of single finger (g), more finger diameter (cm), higher length of finger (cm), more weight of finger/ bunch (kg), more percentage of plant harvested at a time, higher yield (64.22 tonnes/ha), gross return (Rs. 12,84,400/ha), net return (Rs. 9,58,730.5/ha) and B:C ratio (3.94) as compared to other treatments. On an average the yield of per plant was 20-30 kg and 50- 64 tonnes per hectare. In terms of economy as per market analysis, price of banana in Jammu is approximately Rs. 20 per kg. Thus, on an average it gave Rs. 250-300 per banana plant. On the basis of market demand, approximately Rs 6.17- 9.50 lakh net return can be obtained by cultivation of one hectare of land which is alternative business for the farmers of the Jammu and Kashmir. This may leads to revolution of banana cultivation in Shivalik range of Himalaya.

133 - 146 (14 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
9 Advent of Isabgol (Plantago ovata Forsk.) Husk as a Cost Effective and Promising Gelling Agent in Plant Tissue Culture Experiment
Sougata Sarkar, Sana Khan, Janhvi Pandey, RK Lal

ABSTRACT Due to the exorbitant price of the popular gelling agent agar, Plant Tissue Culture (PTC) has gradually become a costly technique in recent times. So, alternative sources of agar needs to be popularized which at one hand should be able to meet all the positive properties of agar and on the other hand be cost effective as well. The seed husk obtained from Plantago ovata Forsk. is such an alternative which was successfully used as a gelling agent for media preparation in PTC experiments for in-vitro shoot and root development in Nicotiana tabacum L. and Ocimum gratissimum L. The nodal explants were grown in MS basal medium (MSo) supplemented with 3% sucrose and were gelled with progressive concentrations of isabgol husk to ascertain the optimum concentration for better survival and growth response, while 0.8% agar acted as a negative control. The response of the explants on media gelled with husk was compared to that of media gelled with 0.8% agar. It was inferred that 0.3% husk in the medium was optimum for best growth response which was comparable to that of agar. Consequently, the estimated cost of a liter of MSo reduced by almost Rs.61.15/- (compared to Himedia’s Agar) to Rs.177.57/- (compared to Sigma’s Agar) after using isabgol seed husk as a gelling agent in media preparation.

147 - 166 (20 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
10 Medicinal Importance of Artemisia annua L. and Discovery of Artemisinin
Praveen Kumar Verma, Aliya Tabassum, Sanghapal D. Sawant

ABSTRACT Artemisia annua L. is known for the content of anti-malarial drug, artemisinin. It is widely distributed in subtropical, temperate and subtropical zones worldwide and traditionally used for the treatment of various ailments. Artemisinin has been the frontline treatment since the late 1990s and saved countless lives, especially among the world’s poorest children. The major chemical constituents of Artemisia annua L. are sesquiterpenoids and some phenolics. The essential oil of Artemisia contains artemisia ketone, camphor, caryophyllene oxide, 1,8- cineole and -pinene, and these essential oils constituents are known for their medicinal properties.Artemisinin was discovered in 1971 bya Chinese Medicinal Chemist Youyou Tu (Nobel Prize in 2015). As the demand for artemisinin remains high worldwide, exploring the chemical and the genetic variation especially knowledge, about its mechanisms for high-yielding would be more important. The plant extract is also known for other biological activities such as anti- hypertensive, anti-microbial, immuniosuppresive, and antiparasitic activities. To increase the production of artemisinin and to investigate the effect of climate change on artemisinin content will be the major research area in future from Artemisia genus. Exploring the alternative resources such as microbial production and semisynthetic approaches from other easily available natural molecules would be of high demand. Some other molecules from Artemisia should also be focused for the future development of man kind and in drug discovery science. An overview of present status of medicinal applications, phytochemistry, and future perspectives for the research possibilities on the active ingredient Artemisinin from A. annua is discussed in this chapter.

167 - 182 (16 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
11 Threatened Subsistence of Economically Important Spinifex littoreus (Burm.f.) Merr. Family-Poaceae
Amal Kumar Mondal, Tamal Chakraborty, Sanjukta Mondal Parui

ABSTRACT The deeply rooted coastal grass Spinifex littoreus (Burm.f.) Merr. is a potent soil binder having capability to form a strong and stable dunes. However detailed features of this species has not been thoroughly studied till date. In this communication, salient morphological features along with different crucial micro-morphological peculiarities have been discussed. The comparative analysis of gradual degradation of population of Spinifex littoreus and native dune vegetation of the coastal belt in East Medinipur of West Bengal and adjacent Balasore district of Odisha are provided, along with different biodiversity indices. Plants were characterized as stout, dioecious, stoloniferous grass upto 90 cm tall, with rigid and sharp spiny leaves. Spikelets in racemes subtended by large bract-like spatheoles which are fascicled into large capitate spiny structures 30-37 cm in diameter. S. littoreus is fairly common along sandy shores and dunes. Plants are useful as a sand binder in unstable coastal dunes ecosystem.

183 - 198 (16 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
12 Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria as a Potent Tool in Amelioration of Salinity Stress: A Review
Prachi Sharma, Ratul Baishya

ABSTRACT Soil salinity is one of the most serious environmental issues that limit agricultural productivity. Most of the food crops belong to glycophytes and hence, they are not able to withstand salinity stress. Salt stress significantly affects the various morphological, biochemical and physiological processes of the plant which leads to poor plant growth. Therefore, there is an emergent need to find out mitigation strategies to cope with the deleterious impacts of salt stress. Plant breeding techniques, efficient resource management and genetic engineering have been employed to cope with salt stress but these were of limited success as salt tolerant trait is complex both genetically and physiologically. Therefore, using plant growth promoting bacteria seems to be a cost effective and sustainable approach for salinity stress management. Hence plant growth promoting bacteria could play a significant role in alleviating salt stress. This chapter endeavor to provide an overview of the various important mechanisms such as facilitation of nutrient uptake, production of phytohormones, ACC deaminase production and siderophore production employed by the plant growth promoting bacteria to enhance the plant growth under salinity stress.

199 - 216 (18 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
13 Systematic Studies on Starch Grain of Selected Indian Pulses: Potential Health Benefit and Commercial Values
Shilpa Dinda, Amal Kumar Mondal

ABSTRACT The people meet their need by taking pulses as their daily meal and therefore, the pulse play a significant role as food supplements. Pulses are called ‘Nutrient Powerhouse’ and are edible food of plants in the legume family. It contains high protein, fibers, various vitamins and amino acids. Starch is the main form in which plants store carbon. It occurs as semi crystalline granules composed of two polymers of glucose called amylose and amylopectin, depending on the plant organ. Starch granules are characterized by internal growth rings. Starch grain is a very useful taxonomic tool in plant systematic. In this investigation we atudied the morphological variations of starch grains in seeds. These starch grain contain the composition of carbon to form different structural diversity of seeds like simple i.e. two types: concentric and eccentric, semi-compound and compound. Polarized microscopy (PM) was used for better micro-morphological (Maltase cross) study. These micro-characters are carried out by UPGMA and construction dendrogram for visual appreciations of taxonomic relationship.

217 - 234 (18 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
14 Improvement of Commercially Valuable Plants Through Genetic Manipulations
Ujjal Jyoti Phukan, Vigyasa Singh

ABSTRACT Commercially valuable plants are one of the main sources of economy. Growth, development and yield of these plants are severely affected by various environmental factors, which depend on dynamic fluctuations in different parameters. To counteract these responses, plants try to adapt evolutionarily but one form of adaptation is never going to suffice the simultaneous attack of multiple stresses. Crossing and plant breeding approaches came to practice, which is quite beneficial but requires lot of screening and is manpower consuming. In recent era new approaches have been developed combining recombinant DNA technology with tissue culture techniques to obtain improved varieties with specific desired traits. This method had an edge over other technologies but it still carries lot of complications. It is evident that genes do not act alone but act cooperatively and remain in continuous influence of other factors. So to target a particular gene for improved variety development requires a lot of detailed micro-details. In this communication, an attempt have been made to discuss mainly how transcription factors (TFs) have been targeted for this purpose. TFs in many occasions act as master regulators or central players of a particular pathway. This is attained by their ability to interact with multiple cis-elements present in the promoters of downstream stress or metabolism responsive genes. This behavior sometime leads to occurrence of some unwanted traits, which should be kept in mind to develop transgenics. Here, we focused mainly on important TF families such as ERF, WRKY, NAC and bHLH. We have been an attempt to analyzed how these TFs influence growth, yield and stress response of commercially valuable plants such as rice, wheat, tomato and cotton. This section will help to understand the genetic manipulation of plants can be targeted for improved variety development.

235 - 264 (30 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
15 Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC: Ensuring Sustainability and Societal Enabling Through Agricultural Practices
Susheel Kumar Singh, Sunita Singh Dhawan

ABSTRACT Green revolution provided sufficient amount of foods but the way resources were utilized causes the degradation of natural resources in various aspect. The adverse effect on the ecological system can be visualized in the form of various diseases in human and loss of biodiversity. The population burst is the root cause of imbalanced ecological system because agricultural land decreases drastically. Therefore we must aim to develop and improve the agri- economic growth of farmers by introducing elite variety of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. M. pruriens, a member of Fabaceae family, is an adaptogen and known for its tonifying, strengthening and all around beneficial properties from every part of the plant. M. pruriens has range of medicinal applications, because of unusual amino-acid L-DOPA (L3, 4dihydroxyphenylalanine) a precursor of neurotransmitter dopamine (Anti Parkinson’s) and involved in various secondary metabolite pathways. It acts like aphrodisiac, anti-snake venom, anti-depressant, antidiabetic, anti-microbial. It has a nutritional quality comparable to soyabeans. M. pruriens exhibits a tolerance for various kinds of environmental stresses such as drought, low soil fertility, and high soil acidity. M. pruriens suppresses weeds through indeterminate growth and large leaves reduce the amount of light for weeds. It shows allelopathy and effective in lowering nematodes. M. pruriens is used as forage, fallow, green manure prevents the soil erosion. It has a longer time span to be used in rotations for management of various pathogens.

265 - 272 (8 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
16 Taxonomy, Anatomy and Phytochemical Screening of Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) C.E. Hubb. (Family-Poaceae)
Shilpa Dinda, Debashree Ghosh, Souradut Ray, Amal Kumar Mondal

ABSTRACT Eulaliopsis binata (Retz.) C.E. Hubb. is a valuable grass growing in Midnapore district of West Bengal known for their commercial purposes. Livelihood of and many of peoples are depends on the production of this grass. Besides this we try to present their phytochemical constituents mainly alkaloids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds for medicinal study. In this investigation, we studied the morpho-taxonomy and anatomical characterization as well as phytochemical screening of different chemicals. Besides this we make an idea about presence of sugar molecules by HPLC study and chemical bonding properties with the help of FTIR. The detailed study gives an idea about E. binata and its medicinal properties.

273 - 292 (20 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
17 Indian Rhododendrons and their Value Addition: Revision of Species Diversity and Review with Reference to Product Development
Sumit Singh, Bikarma Singh

ABSTRACT Evolution theory postulates that the collision between the Indian and the Eurasian plates in early Eocene and Miocene epoch leads to formation of the Himalayas, and currently recognized across the globe as repository of life. Some species of this regions is categorized under endangered and endemic category. Rhododendrons placed under family Ericaceae is an important genus of flowering plants. It is one of the multiferous keystone member of plants, mostly endemic to Southeast Asia. Wide distribution of rhododendrons concentrated in Himalayas. The Eastern Himalaya, especially Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim states of India is the main centre of species distribution and provide wide range of habitat for ecological studies. Several species exhibits many nutritional, medicinal and aromatic properties as evident from tribal knowledge and published research sciences. Different parts of plant such as flowers and leaves used in folklore herbal medicine and for preparation of local wines. Chemically, rhododendrons are repository of several bioactive molecules in the form of taraxerol, hyperoside, betulinic acid, quercitin, arbutin, rutin, coumaric acid, and several other fine molecules in minor quantities. In the present communication, Indian rhododendrons species diversity of different regions are revised and updated the current list for India. Besides, its value addition and future prospective is also presented for Indian economy. The checklist, chemistry, traditional knowledge, ecological requirement, keystone taxa, potential value added products for future, threat and future perspectives of rhododendrons for conservation is also discussed and presented in different subheads. First time checklist of all Indian rhododendrons are prepared and provided here in this communication.

293 - 316 (24 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
18 Cyperus pangorei Rottb. (Cyperaceae) an Economically Important Mat Grass for Rural Prosperity in India: Cultivation, Processing and Marketing
Anup Kumar Bhunia, Amal Kumar Mondal

ABSTRACT Cultivation of mat grass (Cyperus pangorei Rottb.) is valuable and expensive products can plays an important role in rural areas such as Sabong and Pingla in Paschim Medinipur of West Bengal in India. Mat grass plays an act to fill the empty employment field to the resource of poor farming community to support and secured their livelihoods and maintain the economical balance of their area. This grass usually cultivated by the poor and marginal farmers. The mat sticks are used to make various household utility items, such as floor and bed mats and other attractive goods like bags, purse, TV covers. Now a days the products prepared from this grass is exported to different countries. Mat sticks are attractive durable and is eco-friendly substances which easily gets decomposed by organisms, does not create any environmental hazards and gets more profit as compared to growing rice per annum. Even an old man or woman in rural areas can earn a net income of about Rs.120 to Rs150 per day. Major focus of the study is to establish the scientific principles behind processing, separation of clum strand, texture and strength properties of the mat fibers and increase mat production which leads to improve the economic condition of rural people.

317 - 330 (14 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
19 Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Leaf Extracts of Three Medicinally Important Plants and its Effects on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth on Mungbean
Sk. Md. Abu Imam Saadi, Amal Kumar Mondal

ABSTRACT The use of engineered nano-materials has been increased as a result of their positive impact on many sectors of the economy including agriculture. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are now used to enhance seed germination, plant growth and as anti-microbial agents to control plant diseases. This study investigated the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous solution of three medicinally important plants (such as Spondius mombin L., Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl and Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr & Perry leaf extract in room temperature (350C). AgNPs present in the leaf confirmed by colour change, UV-VIS spectrum analysis, average size of AgNPs confirmed by PAS. FTIR measurement were carried out to identify the other possible biomolecule groups such as alkenes, esters, phenols, alcohols and aromatic. Leaf extract AgNPs were shown significantly higher antimicrobial activities against four species of bacteria. This findings suggest that the seed germination percentage, relative seed germination rate, relative shoot and root growth and germination index of the tested plant depends upon concentrate gradient of AgNPs.

331 - 344 (14 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
20 Genetic Improvements of Medicinal Plants through Tissue Culture Techniques
Gitasree Borah, Manabi Paw, Mohan Lal

ABSTRACT Plant tissue culture is an important and efficient technique for the production of desired plant products with different and improved variety in aseptic conditions. Plant tissue culture methods have a wide scope for the creation, conservation, and utilization of genetic variability for the genetic improvement of field, fruit, vegetable, forest crops, medicinal and aromatic plants. The main objective of this communication were to collects the information and techniques of tissue culture to genetic improvement of the medicinal plants. Tissue culture technique in combination with molecular techniques has been successively used to incorporate specific traits through gene transfer. Modified varieties of medicinal plants is mostly required, as some compounds like alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, saponins, phenolics, flavanoids, and amino acids etc are extracted from these plants. From the ancient time up to 20th century, most of the human-being are dependent on the medicinal plant for basic healthcare needs and improving such a crop is the most important for this billionaire world. As far conventional methods of genetic improvements the tissue culture techniques takes cheap and lesser time required for traits specific improvements in the MAPs.

345 - 360 (16 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
21 Aromatic Wealth of Himalaya: Value Addition and Product Development from Essential Oils
Bikarma Singh, Sneha, Rajneesh Anand

ABSTRACT Plants are the basic requirement upon which all other living organisms depend. Plant resources have been used over the decades for human welfare in promotion of health as medicine, flavour and fragrance. Natural essential oils derived from plants are used as cosmetics, perfumes and flavors in foods and beverages. Development of processsing industries are directly linked to specific needs, available resources and intervention of technological capabilities. Resourgence of public interest in herbal products has created a huge market for plant based products which not only satisfies human needs, but also provides quality and safety insurance. Himalaya range in Southeast Asia is a hub of medicinal and aroma bearing plants globally recognized for their chemical constituents as well as endemic and threatened nature. These plant resources has high demand in international market for development of value added products, for isolation of commercial important compounds used in drug discovery programmes, preparation and formulation for development of new nutraceutical products and semi-synthetic derivatives for medicines. Aromatic plants are valued for their aromas, tastes and their applications in treatment of various illness, and mostly prefered in cosmatics, perfumes, confectionery food items and medicines. More than 3000 aroma bearing plants have been characterized world wide, of which, 116 aromatic plants are recorded from Indian Himalayas. Lavender, Geranium, Lemongrass and other aroma bearing plants are the main primary ingredient for many new and existing herbal products. An attempt has been made in this communication to present an account of different aromatic wealth of Himalaya, extraction techniques and their major chemical constituents, which will be helpful to pharmaceutical industries in development of value added products in time to come.

361 - 378 (18 Pages)
₹172.00 ₹155.00 + Tax
22 End Pages

Glossary of Terms Abscess: Localised collection of pus caused by suppuration in a tissue. Acne: An inflammatory disease occurring in or around the sebaceous glands. Aflatoxin: Poisonous carcinogens that are produced by certain molds which grow in soil, decaying vegetation, hay and grains. Agronomy: The science of crop production and soil management. Allosteric Modulator: Drug that binds to a receptor at a site distinct from the active site. Induces a conformational change in the receptor, which alters the affinity of the receptor for the endogenous ligand. Positive allosteric modulators increase the affinity, whilst negative allosteric modulators decrease the affinity. Amino acid: Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine and carboxyl functional groups, along with a side chain specific to each amino acid. Amorphous: without a clearly defined shape or form. Anaemia: Lack of enough blood in the body causing paleness. Anaesthetic: Inducing loss of feeling or consciousness. Analgesic: Relieving pain.

Payment Methods