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P.S. Pandit
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The major purpose of this book is to give hand on information on the subject to the person who wants to take hold of the particulars of post harvest technology of horticulture crops. The book is designed to provide as versatile steer for student preparing for a range of competitive exams like ICAR-JRF, SRF, NET ARS, FCI, UPSC, STATE PCSs and access test for M.Sc. and Ph.D. in post harvest technology (Horticulture).

0 Start Pages

Preface India is second leading producer of fruits and vegetables but after that less than 2% of fruits and vegetables utilized in processing, it is very less as compared to developed countries, post harvest losses are very high, that is (20-40%) due to lack of proper post harvest handling. But other side of this demerit is creating a huge scope in this field not only for people those are relevant but also to others. Contemporary time were the times of campaign, but now a days competitive examinations have became regular feature and also more and more people and organisations are becoming aware about post harvest technology and its fruitful future. So as a consequence there are a large number of aspirants who have wished to adorn their career through post harvest technology. The present book “Post Harvest Technology & Processing of Horticulture Crops : At a Glance” cover almost all valuable chapters regarding subject matter with Multiple Choice Questions and Queries. The attempt has been made to deliver a lot of subject’s information to compete at various examination like ARS, NET, JRF, SRF, Ph.D., FCI as well as competition of UPSC and State PCSs for various jobs. The authors consider that the readers will get ample information concerned with the post harvest technology and preservation of fruits, vegetables, flowers, spices and aromatic crops. There may, however, be still some shortcomings in this book and authors will be really grateful to receive proposal from readers for incorporation in the next edition of this volume.

1 Importance, Scope and History of Post Harvest Technology

India is a second largest producer of fruits and vegetables after China. These share are 10% and 16% respectively in total world production. Horticulture crops occupy 23.548 million ha and production is estimated around 260.063 million tones. Total area of fruits, vegetable, plantation crops, spices, loose flower and aromatic plant are 7012, 9083, 3606, 3092, 218 and 537 thousand ha, respectively and production are 79400, 156445, 16388, 5786, 1421 and 622 thousand tones, respectively with productivity are11.32, 17.22, 4.54, 1.87, 6.59, 1.19 thousand tones per ha, respectively (2012-2013). The total productions of cut flowers are 74305 Lakh stem (2012-2013). The annual horticulture export volume is 2733145 metric tonnes (2010-2011) with total exported value of Rs 696461 lakh. In terms of volume, fresh fruits & vegetables comprised about 76 % of exported horticulture produce followed by processed fruits & vegetables (23 %) and floriculture & seeds (1%). After that losses found 20-30 % in fruit and 30-40 % in vegetable while harvesting to consumption in India. It’s due to the perishable nature of horticulture commodity, non availability of appropriate post harvest infrastructure transportation, inadequacy of the market or lack of processing. India is a major horticulture producer, even though processing is less than 2 %. This is very low as compare to 80 % of Malaysia, 78 % of Philippine, 70 % of Brazil and 30 % of Thailand. The most of developed country 40-60 % fruits and vegetables utilize in processing. Proper handling, packaging, transportation and storage reduce the post harvest losses of fruits and vegetables. For every one percent reduction in loss will save 5 million tons of fruit and vegetable per year. Processing and preservation technology helps to save excess fruit and vegetable during the glut season. The technology has become a necessity to improve the food safety and strengthen nations food security. The technology helps to boost export of agricultural commodities in the form of preserved and value added products.

1 - 4 (4 Pages)
2 Nutritive Value of Fruits and Vegetables

Fruits and vegetables are important part of our dietary, which are rich source of nutrient (carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber). Carbohydrates, protein and fat are macronutrients, considered as energy sources. Vitamins and minerals are micro nutrient, play important role in body building. Fibers have several direct and indirect advantages. ICMR, New Delhi recommends 125g of leafy vegetables, 100g of root and tuber vegetables and 75g of other vegetables (total 300g/day) and 85g of fruits per capita every day for balance diet.

5 - 12 (8 Pages)
3 Maturity Indices and Harvesting of Fruits and Vegetables

Maturity It is derived from Latin word ‘Maturus’ which means ripen. It is that stage of fruit development, which ensures attainment of maximum edible quality at the completion of ripening process. Maturation It is the developmental process by which the fruit attains maturity. It is the transient phase of development from near completion of physical growth to attainment of physiological maturity. There are different stages of maturation e.g. immature, mature, optimally mature, over mature. Maturity Indices The factors for determining the harvesting of horticulture commodities according to consumer purpose and type of commodity. Maturity Indices is two type

13 - 20 (8 Pages)
4 Post Harvest Management of Fruits and Vegetables

Fruits and vegetables are living tissues subject to continuous change after harvest. Some changes are desirable from consumer point of view but most are not. Post-harvest changes in fresh fruit cannot be stopped, but these can be slowed down within certain limits to enhance the shelf life of fruits. The post-harvest handling plays an important role in extending the storage and marketable life of horticultural perishables. Post Harvest Treat ment of Fruits and Vegetables Washing It is useful in removing surface adhering material water. Mechanically, it is also accomplished by passing the fruits/vegetables through machine arranged with water tank equipped with rotating brush. In some produce washing improves appeal by facilitating removal of sap as case in mango, papaya, jackfruit, kronda, dirt in case of carrot, reddish, turnip, sugar beet, sweet potato, etc. and for removal of debris in case of banana. The water use for the purpose should be cleaned otherwise fungal and bacterial levels may build up. Disinfected treatment using ultraviolet light, ozone, chlorine (100 ppm), calcium hydroxide, etc. help to clean water for washing purpose.

21 - 28 (8 Pages)
5 Post Harvest Management of Flowers

Flowers are highly perishable unlike other horticultural or agricultural crops. Owing to poor keeping quality the post harvest losses in floriculture are significantly higher than any other sector. Although there has been significant increase in the area, production and productivity of flower crops in the last two decades, there is an urgent need to minimize the huge post harvest losses in terms of the value of the produce which are estimated to be 30-40 per cent of farm value. The post harvest behavior of flowers is an outcome of the physiological processes, occurring in leave, stem, flower bud, leafless peduncle or scape connecting bud to the stem. Some of these processes may act independently to affect the senescence and vase life of cut flowers but most of them are inter-related. The nature and extent of post harvest damage is typical for each crop or cultivar. The post harvest losses become important especially when dealing with the export of fresh flowers to distant and foreign market. Therefore, patient, soft and expert handling of flowers is of utmost importance after harvest.

29 - 40 (12 Pages)
6 Post Harvest Management of Spices and Aromatic Plants

Since time immemorial, spices have played a vital role in world food trade, due to their varied properties and applications. We primarily depend on spices for flavour and fragrance as well as colour, preservative, inherent therapeutic, medicinal and appetizing properties. The spices that India can offer in abundant quantities are pepper, ginger, turmeric, chili, cardamom, celery, fenugreek, fennel, cumin, dill, coriander, cinnamon, ajowan, cloves, nutmeg, mace etc.

41 - 58 (18 Pages)
7 Ripening of Fruits

Ripe This word is derived from Saxon word ‘Ripi’, which means gather or reap. This is the condition of maximum edible quality attained by the fruit following harvest. Only fruit which becomes mature before harvest can become ripe. Ripening Ripening involves a series of changes occurring during early stages of senescence of fruits in which structure and composition of unripe fruit is so altered that it becomes acceptable to eat. Ripening is a complex physiological process resulting in softening, colouring, sweetening and increases in aroma compounds so that ripening fruits are ready to eat or process. The associated physiological or biochemical changes are increased rate of respiration and ethylene production, loss of chlorophyll and continued expansion of cells and conversion of complex metabolities into simple molecules.

59 - 64 (6 Pages)
8 Ethylene

Ethylene (C2H4 also known as ethene) is a gaseous organic compound that is the simplest of the alkenes chemical structures (alkenes contain a carbon-carbon double bond). The hormone effects of ethylene on general plant growth were first noted in 1864 when leakage from gas street lighting systems caused stunting and deformation of nearby plants. In 1901 Neljubow identified the active component of the gas to be ethylene but it was not until 1934 that Gane identified that plants could synthesize ethylene and in 1935 Crocker proposed ethylene to be the hormone responsible for fruit ripening and senescence of vegetative tissues. Ethylene play important role in many plant during development processes, including seed germination, vegetative growth, leaf abscission, flowering, senescence and fruit ripening. Ethylene also plays a role in response to water stress, chilling and mechanical injury.

65 - 68 (4 Pages)
9 Respiration

It is a most deteriorating biological process of the harvested fruits and vegetables that leads to the oxidative breakdown of the complex material (carbohydrates or acids) of cell into simpler molecules (CO2 & water) with production of energy. Respiration includes glycolysis metabolism, aerobic metabolism, anaerobic metabolism, trycarboxilic acid cycle and electron transport metabolism processes.

69 - 74 (6 Pages)
10 Storage

Proper marketing of perishable commodities such as fruit and vegetables often requires some storage to balance day-to-day fluctuation between harvest and sale or for long term storage. Storage of horticulture produce is attempeted with a view to extend period of availability. Storage controls shelf life of produce by controlling rate of respiration, transpiration, ripening and biochemical changes all of which are responsible for shelf decomposition/deterioration of produce. Further, different types of storage have different attributes in minimizing microbial infection and thus add to better storability of produce.

75 - 84 (10 Pages)
11 Packaging

Packaging is an important consideration in vegetable and fruit market. The use of properly designed containers for transporting and marketing of vegetables is significantly reduce losses and maintain their freshness succulence and quality for longer period. Packaging also provides protection from mechanical damage and undesirable physiological changes and pathological deterioration during storage, transportation and marketing. Many vegetables are transported in gunny bags and bamboo baskets. Packaging material such as polythene films, paper boars, and boxes lived with polythene and other materials can effectively prolong the shelf life of vegetables. By using plastic films vegetables can be protected from dry air. Polythene packaging provides modified atmosphere and consequently reduces decay, softening, and loss of solids. The thickness and permeability to CO2, O2 and water vapour of films needs to be standardized for each vegetable.

85 - 90 (6 Pages)
12 Physiological Disorders and Post Harvest Disease of Horticulture Crops

Physiological disorders refer to non-parasitic or inanimate disease of fruit crops, or it is the breakdown of tissue that is not caused by either invasion by pathogens or by mechanical damage. They may develop in response to an adverse environment, especially temperature or to a nutritional deficiency during growth and development. Physiological disorder is broadly classified into two broad categories. They are:

91 - 98 (8 Pages)
13 Principles and Methods of Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables

Preservation means just protect the foods against the spoilage, but scientifically it may be defined as a science which deals with the process for prevention of decay or spoilage of the food is called preservation. In other words, just controlling the physical, chemical or microbial changes in the foods is called preservation. Physical Changes: Colour, flavour, texture and taste etc. Chemical Changes: Carbohydrate, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals. Microbial Changes: Mould, yeasts and bacteria

99 - 110 (12 Pages)
14 Food Additives

Food additive is any chemical substance that is added to food during preparation or storage. A food additive either becomes a part of the food or affects its characteristics for achieving a particular effect. For instance, substances that are used to enhance the appearance, texture, or to keep qualities of a food are considered food additives.

111 - 116 (6 Pages)
15 Canning

Canning is a process of sealing food stuffs hermatically in containers and sterilizing them by heat for long storage is known as canning. Principle of Canning Destruction of spoilage organism within the sealed container by means of heat. Selection of Fruit and Vegetable For canning fruit should be ripe but firm and uniformity mature and vegetables except tomato should be tender. Grading Selected fruit and vegetable are graded according to size and colour to obtain uniform quality. This is done by hand or machines such as screw grader and roller grader.

117 - 124 (8 Pages)
16 Drying

Removal of water from the food by non-conventional energy source like sunlight, wind, and a smoky fire. Drying (dehydrating) food is one of the oldest and easiest methods of food preservation. Dehydration Dehydration is the process of removing water or moisture from a food product under controlled condition like temperature, relative humidity, air flow, etc. Principles of Drying and Dehydration Drying removes the moisture from the food so that bacteria, yeasts and moulds cannot grow and spoil the food. It also slows down the action of enzymes, but does not inactivate them. Dried food items can be kept almost indefinitely, as long as they are not rehydrated.

125 - 132 (8 Pages)
17 Freezing

Freezing is one of the easiest and least time consuming methods of food preservation. The freezing process is a combination of the beneficial effects of low temperatures at which microorganisms cannot grow, chemical reactions are reduced, and cellular metabolic reactions are delayed. Methods of Freezing 1. Sharp freezing (slew freezing) In sharp freezing commodities are exposed at -15 to -290C. It required 3-72 hrs. Here the thawed tissue cannot regain its original water content. The ice crystals formed are large and rupture the cells. The thawed tissue cannot regain its original H2O content.

133 - 138 (6 Pages)
18 Fermentation

Fermentation in food processing typically is the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions.

139 - 148 (10 Pages)
19 Fruit Beverages

Fruit juices which do not undergo alcoholic fermentation are termed as unfermented beverages. They include natural and sweetened juices, RTS, nectar, cordial, squash, crush, syrup, fruit juice concentrate and fruit juice powder. Barley waters and carbonated beverages are also included in this group.

149 - 156 (8 Pages)
20 Vinegar

A dilute solution of acetic acid produced by a two-stage fermentation process in the first stage, fermentable sugars is converted into ethanol by the action of yeasts and in the second stage, bacteria of the genus Acetobacter oxidize the ethanol to acetic acid. Vinegar is a liquid produced from the fermentation of ethanol in a process that yields its key ingredient, acetic acid. The acetic acid concentration ranges typically from 4 to 8 percent by volume for table vinegar (typically 5%) and higher concentrations for pickling (up to 18%). Natural vinegars also contain smaller amounts of tartaric acid, citric acid, and other acids.

157 - 166 (10 Pages)
21 Pickle

The preservation of food in common salt or in vinegar is known as pickling. It is one of the most ancient methods of preserving fruits and vegetables. Pickles are good appetizers and add to the palatability of a meal. They stimulate the flow of gastric juice and thus help in digestion. They are prepared with salt, vinegar, oil or with a mixture of salt, oil, spices and vinegar.

167 - 172 (6 Pages)
22 Jam, Jelly and Marmalade

Jam is prepared by boiling the fruit pulp with required quantity of sugar to thick consistency, firm enough to hold fruit tissues in position. It should contain not less than 68.5 per cent soluble solids. Jam may be made from a single fruit (apple, strawberry, banana, pineapple etc.) or from combination of two or more fruits. Jam contains 0.5-0.6% acid and invert sugar should not be more than 40%.

173 - 180 (8 Pages)
23 Preserves, Candied, Crystallized and Glazed Fruits and Vegetables

Preserves (Murabbas) are prepared from whole fruits and vegetables or their segments by addition of sugar followed by evaporation to a point where microbial spoilage cannot occur. The final soluble solids concentration is reached to about 70 per cent. The finished product can be stored with or without hermetic sealing and refrigeration.

181 - 184 (4 Pages)
24 Some other Processed Product of Fruit and Vegetable

Food Safety and Standard Authority of India (FSSAI) has adopted the standards of Fruit Product Order (FPO). Chutney It is a product prepared by cooking the fruit pulp with added salt, sugar, spices, acetic acid and fruit to a suitable consistency so that it contains TSS not less than 50% and fruit part not less than 40% as per FSSAI specification. Sugar, salt, spices, acetic acid all act as partial preservatives. Preservatives may also be added in chutney for increasing its storability. Generally no artificial colour and flavor are required to be added. Sauce Sauce is a product similar to ketchup, prepared from pulps of tomato or other fruit/vegetable, having TSS not less than 15% and cooked to a suitable consistency with added sugar, salt, spices and vinegar. Sugar, salt, spices, acetic acid all act as partial preservatives. According to FSSAI specification fruit sauce should have minimum of 15% TSS and 1.2% acidity. Preservatives and colours may also be added for increasing of appearance and storability.

185 - 198 (14 Pages)
25 Food Quality, Standards and Laws

Quality Standards and Laws Quality is how well a product or service satisfies the needs of the customer. This includes all aspects related to the needs of the customer such as quality specifications, safetgy, delivery method or date, price etc. Quality can be interpreted in several ways as conformance to the standards, meeting customers’ preference/ satisfaction for desired quality attributes, degree of excellence and zero defect products etc. Because of education and consequent greater understanding of implications of poor quality commodities in recent years, consumers have become quality conscious and this fact is also applicable to food and food products. In order to strengthen competitiveness, quality must be incorporated throughout the value added chains right from the harvesting, handling, manufacturing, processing, packaging, storage, marketing and distribution stages, especially in the case of food and food products.

199 - 208 (10 Pages)
26 Miscellaneous

New Technique of Food Preservation 1. High Pressure Processing (HPP) High Pressure Processing (HPP) is a method of food processing where food is subjected to elevated pressures (up to 87,000 pounds per square inch or approximately 6,000 atmospheres), with or without the addition of heat, to achieve microbial inactivation or to alter the food attributes in order to achieve consumer-desired qualities. Pressure inactivates most vegetative bacteria at pressures above 60,000 pounds per square inch. HPP retains food quality, maintains natural freshness, and extends microbiological shelf life. The process is also known as high hydrostatic pressure processing (HHP) and ultra high-pressure processing (UHP).

209 - 224 (16 Pages)
27 Queries

‘Prunes’ is prepared from peach. Arrak” liquor is prepared from date palm. Hayane” variety of date palm suitable for juice making. Kanji” is made from black carrot. Kirschwascer” a wine prepared from cherry. Shahi” variety of Litchi suitable for canning.

225 - 240 (16 Pages)
28 Multiple Choice Questions

241 - 320 (80 Pages)
29 Appendices

Appendices Appendix-I Fruits: Common name, Botanical name, Family, Chromosome No., Origin, Type of fruit and Edible Portion

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