The book is in simple languages with ability to provide extensive knowledge about cultivation, purification, handling and bio-banking of different classes of anaerobes including the obligate, facultative, aero-tolerant and micro-aerophillic is very much essential. The aim of preparation of current book is to provide the state-of-the-art knowledge about anaerobes and anaerobic process to undergraduate, graduate and PhD students. Information like cultivation, handling, preservation and various important process related to anaerobes like biomethanation, anaerobic methanotrophy, solid waste management, anaerobic biohydrogen and biobutanol production, anaerobic nitrogen treatment, anaerobic solid waste management. Complete section like anaerobic probiotic, anaerobes and human gut microbiology and anaerobes and human infection. Chapters on role of anaerobes in animal rumen and food digestion. Will serve its aim to satisfy the hunger of knowledge about anaerobes and anaerobic process for the UG, PG and PhD students of Microbiology, Biotechnology, Environmental Science and biochemistry background.