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A.D. Upadhyay, A.K. Roy, Pramod Kumar Pandey
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This book provides a detailed overview to the topic of international fisheries governance and the drivers of IUU fishing. Technologies that directly address these challenges reduce costs and improve and expand farm operations both offshore and especially on land are reported in this communication. The book provides information on the following areas to scientists, resource managers and researchers working with big data to advance more sustainable fisheries practices. Modeling in the areas of Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Specific Feeding Ratio (SFR), Key Performance Indicators (KPI) that are needed for efficient management of resources for sustainable production from fisheries sector. Neural Network forecasts that exceeded other traditional forecasting methods such as linear or logistic regression systems. Application of Big Data Analytics in aquaculture that facilitated to bring the techniques of aquaculture to a new level of in depth understanding and unlocking the economic potential of improved management decisions particularly can spot business trends, prevent disease, combat crime, and even revolutionize the health of fisheries. Application of ANN to forecast water quality and temperature that benefits aquaculture process control. Sensor Technology that offers real-time environmental monitoring system for aquaculture in a wide range of areas and visual signal processing system to continuously control the feeding process of fish in aquaculture tanks. Artificial Intelligence Systems that in turn helps in increased process efficiency; reduced energy and water losses; reduced labor costs; reduced stress and disease; better understanding of the process and efficient accounting are also. Data Mining for better control on the food loss and food quality in the aqua farming industry. Analysis of Value Chain of Processed Fish Products Partial Budget Analysis for better understanding of the farm’s financial status and more efficient use of the resources available particularly for aquaculture practices. Tips for right type of statistical test to equip the social science researchers capable of performing of Statistical tests for various rating scales mostly used for social sciences research. A holistic, global-scale focus on challenges of IUU and technology initiatives to face the challenge This unique book explores a wide range of analytical issues centered on the aquaculture process management. It is expected that this book will be most useful who aims in achieving FAO’s Sustainable Development Goal 14, which calls on the international community to effectively regulate fish harvesting end overfishing, illegal fishing, and destructive fishing practices, and to implement science-based management.

0 Start Pages

Preface The book is an outcome of decade long teaching & research experiences of the editors and authors in the field of Fisheries and Aquaculture Economics. While teaching conventional economic theories applied in fisheries and aquaculture to the students, it was felt necessary to equip the students with advances that have taken place recently for sustainable fisheries. The fisheries and aquaculture is key sub sector of Agriculture in India which registered exceptionally higher growth rate since last three decades. Since this sector has pivotal role in food and nutritional security, gainful employment, gender equity, entrepreneurship development, agro based industrial developments and foreign earnings etc. therefore, sustainable development, of the sector is very important. Along with technological development the proper planning and policy support is also equally important for the sustainable development of the sector. In this book the different aspects related to fisheries and aquaculture economics have been presented which are based on research studies and expertise of researchers particularly in big data analytics and Artificial Intelligence deserve special mention here. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture projects that by 2030 combined production from capture fisheries and aquaculture will grow to 201 million tons from the fish production of 171 million tons in 2016. To achieve the production level, conservation management of the commercial marine fisheries has to be attended to maximize long-term benefits from the exploitation of the fish resources keeping in mind the maximum sustainable average catch and the maximum net economic yield as these are mutually exclusive. In the capture fisheries sector, over the years much has been done to improve fisheries management in different countries. The reported current situation in capture fisheries is challenging because of illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing is posing as a threat to the sustainability of fisheries. In coastal region countries IUU occurs in both small-scale and industrial fisheries, in marine and inland water fisheries, as well as in fishing zones falling under national jurisdictions and on the high seas. Carrying on with business as usual will lead to low fisher incomes, lost economic potential, and undue environmental damage given the delicate balance of marine ecosystems. Aquaculture and other seafood businesses continue to grow rapidly around the world. According to the latest State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture report, nearly 60 million people worldwide, out of which 14 per cent women are directly employed in fisheries and the aquaculture sector. Besides, the fisheries sector is crucial in meeting hunger and malnutrition, and its contribution to economic growth and the fight against poverty is growing, Further, fish account for about 17 per cent of animal protein consumed around the world, providing around 3.2 billion people on earth with nearly 20 per cent of their animal protein needs as fish represent a highly nutritious food that is especially helpful in counteracting important deficiencies in dietary intake. In this context, Fisheries & Aquaculture Economics and Financing plays an important role in deciding as to how to how to monitor and evaluate economic performance, manage capital, labour, and business risk including financing, marketing, and developing a business. Presently the fastest growing sector is facing a lot of challenges in efficiency of resource utilization influenced by wider social and economic factors including globalization, urbanization, factor prices and consumer demand. Against this backdrop, it is attempted to bring together a few chapters in the form of a Book broadly on various issues of fisheries & aquaculture economics. The book contains nineteen chapters covering topics like economics of production, economic significance of resource use and species diversification, analysis the value chain of processed fish products, elasticity of income and expenditure behavior, analysis of food security, livelihood and income generation, constraints of fish marketing practices, socio-economic and impact assessment tools for evaluating fisheries technologies etc. The main focus and highlight on the following recent technological advancement like modeling neural network forecasts in the areas of Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Specific Feeding Ratio (SFR), Key Performance Indicators (KPI): Application of Big Data analytics in aquaculture for in depth understanding; Use of ANN to Forecast Water Quality and Temperature; Artificial Intelligence Systems for increased process efficiency; reduced energy and water losses; reduced labor costs; reduced stress and disease and better understanding of the process. Partial Budget Analysis for efficient use of the resources for aquaculture and women’s participation in ornamental fish accessories manufacturing and trade are also highlighted. Finally, tips for designing of surveys, data collection, decide on the right type of statistical test to be undertaken and statistical analysis performed is covered exclusively in seperate chapter. This unique book explores a wide range of analytical issues centered on the aquaculture process management. What distinguishes this book most from previous works is that it gives a holistic, global-scale focus on challenges of IUU and technology initiatives to face the challenge. The book is targeted for both professional economists and students of economics who are engaged with fisheries research, development and management is expected to be of immense help in updating in the areas of recent technological advances and use for sustainable management of fisheries and aquaculture particularly the resource managers and researchers working with big data to advance more sustainable fisheries practices.

1 Economics of Production Technologies in Marine Fisheries in India
Aswathy N., R. Narayana Kumar

Introduction Global fisheries produced roughly 171 million tons of fish, with an estimated sale value of US$ 362 billion, generating over US$143 billion in exports in 2016. Around 60 million people across the world are employed in fisheries and aquaculture, with the majority in the small scale capture fisheries sector of developing countries (FAO, 2018). India has an annual harvestable potential of 4.414 mt. and with 9.9 lakh active fishers, the sector provides livelihood to nearly 4.0 million people including the post-harvest sector (Sathiananthan, 2017). The estimated value of marine fish at landing centre level was Rs. 48,381 crores and at retail level was Rs. 73,289 crores during 2016 (CMFRI, 2017). Seafood exports from the country reached 1.38 million tons valued at $7.1 billion in 2017-18 (MPEDA, 2018). The fishing fleet of the country includes 1, 94,190 fishing units consisting of 72,559 (37.31%) mechanized, 71,313 (36.67%) motorized and 50,618 (26.03%) artisanal craft (CMFRI, 2010). The mechanised sector contributed 82% of catch followed by motorised (17%) and non-mechanised (1%) sectors in 2016 (CMFRI, 2017). The development of marine fisheries sector in India occurred in three phases. In the first phase (up to 1965-66) fishing was mainly done by using non-mechanized indigenous craft and gear. The second phase (up to 1985-86) witnessed increased mechanization, improved gear materials and introduction of motorized country craft. In the last phase (after 1986) there was intensification of mechanization, motorization of the country craft and multi-day voyage fishing (Sathianandan, 2013). The craft and gear technologies in marine fisheries sector vary based on the types of fish caught and nature of fishing ground. The economics of different production technologies in the mechanised, motorised and non-mechanised categories were analysed based on the size of boats and capacities of engines and gear. The economic indicators developed in different coastal states helps for micro level investment decisions as well as for developing macroeconomic policies for the fisheries sector.

1 - 10 (10 Pages)
2 Analysis of Aquaculture Farm Changes through Partial Budgeting Technique
Ajit Kumar Roy

Introduction A recent study investigated the feasibility of sustaining current and increased per capita fish consumption rates in 2050, based on extensive data with respect to the changes in global and regional climate, marine ecosystem and fisheries production estimates, human population estimates, fishmeal and oil price estimations and projections of the technological advancement in aquaculture technology. The study concludes that meeting current and larger consumption rates is feasible only if fish resources are managed sustainably and fisheries management are effective (1). Aquaculture Farm Managers facing uncertainty has to make decisions every day. Some decisions have vital consequences for farm business, while others are not as crucial. These decisions mainly relates to seed, feed, fertilisers and regular water intake as management tools of farm. The choices made today may have an immediate impact on the aquaculture business or may take much longer to have an effect. These decisions may involve any facet of the farm business, including production, personnel or financing. The bottom line is that irrespective of the size or scope of any single decision, nearly all decisions may have important implications for the immediate and future success of the farm business. Because many decisions have such important impacts, farm managers need to analyze alternatives in a methodical fashion. Some alternatives can easily be analyzed, and a decision can be made quickly. In other cases, farm managers must take more time to recognize and evaluate all potential effects of that decision. To do this, farm managers need a framework for analyzing the relevant trade-offs. Agricultural economists are usually members of multidisciplinary teams, engaged in solving problems of fisheries. The economist applies economic concepts and tools to estimate economic profitability of a technology. This input can be made during any phase of the research process, technology development, testing and evaluation on farm. This paper will focus on partial budgeting as a tool that can be used by non-economists. This paper discusses on the concept of partial budgeting, a useful and easily implementable framework for such analysis.

11 - 32 (22 Pages)
3 Impact Assessment Tools for Evaluating Fisheries Research Programmes
Neha W. Qureshi, Sivaramane N., M. Krishnan

Introduction Many a times research programs appear potentially promising before implementation yet fail to generate expected impacts or benefits. Impact Assessment (IA) has become an integral part of any research study. It, not only justifies the investment made, but also helps in prioritizing projects. The ultimate objective is to make an impact from the output of the projects carried out. Researchers and extension functionaries involved in the upliftment of farmers/fishers through various research projects, training activities and interventions are bound to justify their resource utilization through unbiased and objective based impact assessments. What is Impact Assessment? Impact assessment (IA) is a structured process for considering the implications, for people and their environment, of proposed actions while there is still an opportunity to modify or abandon the proposals. It is applied at all levels of decision-making, from policies to specific projects. Impact Assessment is simply defined as the process of identifying the future consequences of a current or proposed action. The difference between input, output, outcomes and how they encompass the monitoring and evaluation programmes of any organisation later transforming into the study of impacts has been shown in Figure 3.1.

33 - 46 (14 Pages)
4 Economic Significance of Resource Use and Species Diversification in Aquaculture
A.D. Upadhyay, A.B Patel, D.K. Pandey

Introduction Tripura is a small state blessed with rich flora and fauna. The small scale aquaculture with other agricultural enterprises and allied economic activities are common practice followed by majority of the farmers in rural areas. The small scale aquaculture is not only common in rural areas but is also practiced in the backyard ponds in urban which have multiple uses. The homestead fish production is common in Tripura because fish is highly preferred food item in the diet of about 95% people of Tripura. But due to the subsistence level of aquaculture practices in the state, productivity and production of fish is quite insufficient to meet out market demand for fish. Though the state Government and other stakeholders of fish production systems are making relentless effort to enhance the production to the level of 74 MT to meet the current market demand, the average fish productivity in the state is comparatively lower as compared to many states of the country. The lower productivity is an important issue and one of the major impediments in enhancing fish production in the state. The experts and research finding have identified several factors such as short culture period, acidic nature of soil and water, more iron content, poor quality of seed, improper feeding, lack of technical knowhow etc are the main reasons behind the lower productivity. Still, there are many other issues uncovered and unaddressed which may be the lower growth of fishes and consequent lower fish productivity. For instance, factors like pond size and number of species in the culture system at farmers’ level may also have impact on the farm productivity. It is necessary to adopt region-specific models for furthering freshwater aquaculture in view of the available aquatic biodiversity as well as the consumer preferences and economics of operations in different parts of the country (Ayappan et al, 2009). This is particularly important considering polyculture is the major form of aquaculture in the state. Datta 2015, has opined that due to consumer’s preference, high market value as well as conservation-revitalization of various cultivable species, importance of diversification in culture of various species has been found of immense importance in the present aquaculture scenario. Among the species, endemic minor carps, catfishes in monoculture, perches, murrels live species are important. In this study, an attempt has been made to analyse level of species diversification at the farm level and their socio-economic and scientific significance at farm level.

47 - 64 (18 Pages)
5 Advances in Modeling in Fisheries and Aquaculture in Big Data Era
Ajit Kumar Roy

Introduction It is already established that mathematical modeling aims to describe the different aspects of the real world, their interaction, and their dynamics through mathematics. It constitutes the third pillar of science and engineering, achieving the fulfillment of the two more traditional disciplines, which are theoretical analysis and experimentation. Nowadays, mathematical modeling has a key role also in aquaculture. The problem is the complex modeling other than counting. Modeling and reasoning with data of different kinds can get extremely complex. Data streams are common source of Big Data. Now the task is to collect, prepare, represent, model, reason, visualize and additional issues like usage, quality, context, streaming, scalability. A few publications are available on modeling of fisheries and aquaculture in Indian context with live examples of modeling (Roy, et al. 1998, 2002, Roy et al., 2002, Ghosh et al., 2017, Roy, et al., 2006, Roy et al., 2008, 2012). A book on exclusively with various types of model applicable in fisheries and aquaculture has been published (Roy et al., 2009). In all these earlier publications conventional statistical and econometrics techniques are applied. But today there is sea change in this field with the advancement of technologies like artificial intelligence, machine learning, and big data analytics. There are attempts to apply these cutting edge technologies aiming sustainable productivity through efficient management of resources. In the following sections an attempt has been made to present an overview of the advances in analytics along with a briefing on what was developed in the past, and what is available today. Before proceeding to the analytics, I am presenting the scenario of basic characteristics of data along with different types of data generated today with automation of aquaculture industry.

65 - 90 (26 Pages)
6 An Analysis of Value Chain of Processed Fish Products in North East Region of India
A.D. Upadhyay, D.K. Pandey, Bahni Dhar

Introduction Value chain analysis has gained considerable popularity in recent years. Although many definitions are applied, value chains essentially represent enterprises in which different producers and marketing companies work within their respective businesses to pursue one or more end markets. Value chain participants sometimes cooperate to improve the overall competitiveness of the final product, but may also be completely unaware of the linkages between their operation and other upstream or downstream participants. Value chains therefore, encompass all of the factors of production including land, labor, capital, technology, and inputs as well as all economic activities including input supply, production, transformation, handling, transport, marketing, and distribution necessary to create, sell, and deliver a product to a certain destination.

91 - 122 (32 Pages)
7 Strategic Approaches for Holistic Development of Ornamental Fisheries Sector in India
B. Nightingale Devi, M. Krishnan, Nilesh Pawar

Introduction Aquaculture has been recognised as an important livelihood creating employment opportunities in the remote rural villages and urban areas. Further, it makes crucial contribution to global economic security and growth and generates income both directly and indirectly through support services. Over the past six decades, the prospects of ornamental fish have been emerging as a lucrative commercial aqua-venture. The global ornamental fish trade is the fastest growing sector and a multimillion dollar business which provides avenues for overseas earnings. The developing countries play a crucial role in production of ornamental fishes as more that 60% of the production comes from the households of the developing countries (FAO, 2006). The estimated worth of international ornamental fish trade at retail price is US$ 8 billion and the entire sector including aquarium tanks, accessories, medicines, feeds, plants, etc is worth of US$ 20 billion. India’s share in global export market is negligible as it is mainly dominated by the wild caught species mainly from the northeastern states of India and Western Ghats and estimated at Rs. 5.5. crores in 2009-10 (MPEDA, 2011).

123 - 134 (12 Pages)
8 Assessment of Socio-Economic Improvement of Women Engaged in Ornamental Fish Trade at Hatibagan and Dasnagar, West Bengal, India
Ambalika Ghosh, B.K. Mahapatra, A.K. Roy

Introduction Ornamental fish is often used as a generic term to describe aquatic animals kept in the aquarium hobby, including fishes, invertebrates such as corals, crustaceans (e.g., crabs, hermit crabs, shrimps), molluses (e.g., snails, clams, scallops), and also live rock. Live rock is a general term for any type of rock encrusted with, and containing within its orifices, a wide variety of marine organisms including algae and colorful sessile invertebrates. Live rock serves as the principal biological and chemical filter in many marine-type tanks, and the encrusted organisms usually provide much of the background coloration in the tank. Ornamental fish culture is fast emerging as a major branch of aquaculture globally. Aquarium keeping is the second largest hobby in the world next to photography and the ornamental fish and aquatic plant industry is fast gaining importance due to its tremendous economic opportunities and prospects. Ornamental fish keeping is a popular hobby in developed countries and is gaining popularity in many developing countries. The growing interest in aquarium fishes has resulted in steady increase in aquarium fish trade, globally. According to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) (2006), export earnings from ornamental fish trade is US $ 251 million and more than 60% of the production comes from households of developing countries. The wholesale value of the global ornamental fish trade is estimated to be US $ 14 Billion. More than 2500 species of ornamental fishes are traded and some of 30-35 species of fresh water dominate the market. The trade with an annual growth rate of 8 percent offers a lot of scope for development. India’s share in global ornamental fish trade is negligible and at present the ornamental fish export from India is dominated by the wild caught species. The top exporting country is Singapore, followed by Hong Kong, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Indonesia and India. The largest importer of ornamental fish is USA. Europe and Japan, China and South Africa are the emerging markets of ornamental fish trade. The aesthetic, attractive colour and appearance of the fish appeal to children and aged alike. As the day passed, ornamental fish keeping become an interesting activity for many, in the process, generating income for the unemployed youth and farmers. The concept of entrepreneurship development, through ornamental fish farming is gaining popularity day-by-day.

135 - 176 (42 Pages)
9 Estimation of Food Deprivation Undernourished and Elasticity of Income and Expenditure Behavior of Fish Farmers of Tripura
A.D. Upadhyay, A.B. Patel, Late M.C. Nandisha

Introduction Access to adequate food, which is one of the fore-most basic needs of life, should be birthright of every single human being on this earth but in our country one fourth population is still underfed. The food insecurity situation is more rampant in the North-eastern region of the country. The proportion of population below poverty line (BPL) was reported at 31.4 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh, 34.0 per cent in Assam, 37.9 per cent in Manipur, 16.10 per cent in Meghalaya, 15.4 per cent in Mizoram, 8.8 per cent in Nagaland and 40.0 per cent in Tripura, in the year 2015 (RBI, 2015). At national lavel it was reported to be 37.20 per cent. By comparing BPL population in NE Region states and national level poverty it was found that several states of this region like Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya were far better as in these states BPL percentage were very less than the national average, whereas in the states like Tripura, Manipur, Assam and Arunachal Pradesh BPL percentages were close to National level (37.20%). It has now been well established fact that the availability of food grains may not be the real problem of food security; it is prevailing poverty that comes in the way of achieving household’s food security. Hence, household food security is a function not only availability of food but also of the purchasing power of household. Any effort to achieve sustainable development demands concerted efforts to reduce poverty, including finding the solutions to hunger and malnutrition. In this study, an attempt has been made to analyze the status of food deprivation among fish farmers of West Tripura district of Tripura and to examine consumption expenditure behavior fish farming families of the study area.

177 - 190 (14 Pages)
10 Assessment of Appropriateness of Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) in Fisheries
B. Nightingale Devi, S.K. Mishra, M. Krishnan, Nilesh Pawar

Introduction The better quality of life for the Indians who in majority depend on agricultural would be impossible by keeping the rich tradition of Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) aside (Das, et al., 2002). According to Farrington and Martin (1988), ITK is based on knowledge, beliefs and customs which are internally consistent and logical to those holding them but at odds with the objectively deduced findings of formal science”. Indigenous Technical Knowledge (ITK) is the knowledge that the indigenous and local community accumulates over generations of living in local environment. It encompasses all forms of knowledge, experience, technologies, know-how, skills, beliefs and practices. These are also termed as “indigenous knowledge”, “people’s knowledge” “traditional knowledge” or “local knowledge” and are limited within a community. It is unique to a given culture, location or society. Fishermen all over the world use some kind of traditional knowledge. ITK provides valuable insight into sustainable aquaculture, because it passes through considerable adaptation, up gradation and modification over a period of time and carried on from one generation to another as a family technology. Naturally, ITK fits well to a particular environment rather than modern technological knowledge. This knowledge has been developed outside the formal education system and refers to the large body of knowledge and skills which includes variety of fish culture practices, when and where to catch, how to process fish with a cost effective methods, and how to maintain their environment in a state of equilibrium. ITK is collective in nature and is often considered the property of the entire community, and does not belong to any single individual within the community.

191 - 200 (10 Pages)
11 Analysis of Food Security of Fish Farmers of Tripura Using Clustering Technique
A.D. Upadhyay, A.B. Patel, D.K. Pandey

Introduction The Food Security is one of the most important dimensions of livelihood security of household (Rahman and Akter, 2010), because all efforts of the family members are directed towards fulfilling the family need including food. Food security defined as “access by all people at all times to enough food for an active, healthy life”. Food security includes at a minimum: (1) the ready availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods, and (2) an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways (Anderson, 1990). It is also an indicator of sustainability of any vocation be it fish, crop, livestock production or combination of it. In case of Tripura very little study has been made in this aspect. Therefore, in this paper it is attempted to assess the status of food security of fish farmers of Tripura, using Index of Food Consumption (IFC) and Clustering Technique. Data and Methodology This study was undertaken in Tripura state and study area comprises 6 Rural Development Blocks viz. Bishalgarh, Melagarh and Mohanpur of West Tripura district; Hrishyamuk, Rajanagar and Matabari of South Tripura District. From these blocks a sample of 105 fish farmers was selected using stratified sampling method for gathering the primary data. The pretested, semi structured survey schedule was administered to collect the data during 2010.

201 - 210 (10 Pages)
12 Traditional Fishing Practices for Livelihood and Income Generation in North Eastern Region of India
A.D. Upadhayay, B.K. Singh

Introduction Fishing technology is the discipline dealing with the natural sciences and technology for optimizing fish catch and fishing operations, leading to a productive and sustainable capture fishery. The fishes are one of the main exploitable resources of the aquatic ecosystems that provide a cheap source of protein which helps solving the problem of nutritional security particularly in NE region of the country. The rapid development of fishing technology in India during the recent years has paved the way for increased production availability of new synthetic materials, evolution of new designs of fishing craft and gear and avoidance of ignorant harmful fishing techniques etc. It is essential that any developmental activity adopted, should also be base rooted in the objective of uplifting the economy of the fishing communities. This implies that the improvisation of the existing tools and techniques and introduction of new ones to enhance fishing efficiency need a careful study of the traditional technologies. Further, selection of fishing methods and gear are influenced by various factors such as physiography of the water body, nature of fish stock, characteristics of the material from which gear are fabricated and standard of living. Therefore, variation in application of fishing devices can be observed in different type of water bodies, which have characteristic of their own due to unique nature of the water resources of the region. The success of these fishing techniques depends on various factors like selection of site, time, efficiency of materials used and availability of fish, etc. For successful fishing some attractant as a lure is popularly employed. The North Eastern Region of the Country is very rich in the indigenous knowledge and techniques of fishing. The fishing gear and craft vary from one state to other states in terms of technical specification, materials and method of fishing. The type and size of water bodies also determine design fishing gear and craft to be used for fishing. The present day fishing methods and fishing devices which are in use in the region are the result of continuous efforts and knowledge inherited through generations of fishing community. Hence, fishing methods and fishing devices in the region was developed by the community according to their need, availability of the material, type of water bodies and target species. In this presentation, an assessment, compilation and documentation of these indigenous fishing technologies of the Tripura which is important for academicians, researchers and other stake holders, is made.

211 - 224 (14 Pages)
13 Fish Marketing Practices of Kombuthurai Fishing Village, Thoothukudi District: A Case Study
T. Umamaheswari, G. Sugumar

Introduction Fisheries play an important role in our national economy by providing a quality source of protein thus ensuring nutritional security of our people, foreign exchange and employment for about 14 million people. The ocean is continuously subjected to enormous stress through utilization of the marine resources and preservation of biodiversity is often ignored. Precautionary use of living aquatic resources in harmony with the environment leads to responsible fisheries and moreover it’s our responsibility to make fishery wealth as perennial as possible and adoption of responsible method of fishing can take us to a prosperous future. Though various fishing techniques are in practice, line fishing using baited hooks or artificial jigs is an effective method to capture predatory fishes. The catch obtained by line fishing is generally of high quality and commercial value with minimal environmental impact. The supply of fish is highly seasonal, leading to price fluctuations across regions and seasons, even within a day and being exploited by middlemen resulting in reduced welfare of fishermen. The existence of traditionally been highly unorganized and unregulated marketing system is the prime reason for its inefficiency. Various attempts have been made to overcome this problem by fishermen group as well as government agencies in India. But, these kinds of efforts have largely been confined to a few small locations and were highly scattered. Unlike poultry or dairy industry, innovations in fish marketing have not been on a macro level (Ganesh, et al., 2008). Against this background, the study has attempted to have a better understanding the innovative fish marketing practices being adopted by people institutions called “Sangams” in Kombuthurai fishing village and to draw lessons for upscaling and to promote such successful institutions in a similar socio-politico-economic scenario in other parts of the country as well for efficient fish marketing system.

225 - 236 (12 Pages)
14 Meta Data Analysis on Production and Marketing Constraints in Freshwater Fish in Asian Countries
Pradip C. Bhuyan

Introduction Production of consumer preferred varieties of fish and fish products have been facing several constraints. Identification of potential constraints is important for growth and development of fisheries sector. The constraints of production and marketing have been examined by a number of researchers in different time and place. In this chapter, it is tried to explain an overview of the different constraints of production and marketing of fish and value added fish. Constraints of production of freshwater fish Constraints of aquaculture production in developing countries have been identified by Lee (1997) and categorized them as: natural and environmental (inequitable allocation of land resources, insufficient quantity and degraded quality of water, highly seasonal variation in temperature and natural disaster); socioeconomic (insufficiency of infrastructure for production and marketing, variation of prices of inputs, ageing and poor training of aqua-farmers); and Institutional constraints (inefficiency of extension services, lack of a better organization of producers, shortage of rural finance).

237 - 256 (20 Pages)
15 Linear Programming Approach in Search of an Efficient Supplementary Fish Feed for Composite Fish Culture System
A.D. Upadhyay, A.B. Patel

Introduction Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, has been the agro industrial activity with the highest growth rate worldwide in the last four decades. From 1970 to 2008 the production of aquaculture organisms grew at a rate of 8.3% per year, compared to less than 2% of fisheries, and 2.9% of livestock (Luchini et al. 2008). In India, aquaculture feed market was valued at USD 1.20 billion in 2017 and is expected to register a CAGR of 10.4% during the forecast period (2018-2023). Indian feed mills have the capacity to produce 2.88 million metric ton. Andhra Pradesh is the largest feed consuming state in India (Anon. 2017). The growth in production has been faster for fed species than for non fed species indicating that adoption of feed based aquaculture as the major driver of aquaculture production growth (FAO, 2016). However, the demand for aquaculture feed in the country will touch to 7 million tons by 2017-18. Hence, there is wide gap in demand and supply of feed. The feed cost is a major production cost in aquaculture in India yet feeding of fish is still mostly guesswork, each fish producer following different guidelines (feed charts) or adopting different practices. Feeding too much leads to feed wastage, a pure economic loss, and greater waste output. Feeding too little results in less growth and this also represents an economic loss. In intensive and semi intensive aquaculture, natural foods are not sufficient to meet our overall nutritional requirement of the fishes for their survival and faster growth. Hence, the good quality supplementary diet which contains all required nutrients in recommended quantity were recommended by many aquaculture scientists for the better production. It is further opined by the researchers that it is economical to prepare supplementary feeds by using locally available ingredients. The dietary carbohydrates are usually quantitatively the largest constituent of diet (40-55% W/W) particularly in feeds for carps, the most dominant group of fishes with respect to not only world aquaculture but also Indian Aquaculture. The rice bran, corn, and wheat are the conventional carbohydrate sources in India. In North East Region of the country none of these items are produced locally in sufficient quantity (Kumar et al. 2018). Due to less of local production of these ingredients, cost of feed which generally constitute about 40-50% of total cost of production, increase tremendously in NEH region due high transportation cost. Hence, for development of ideal feed for carp based aquaculture in North East Region, optimization of feed cost is very important to make the fish production cost effective and more profitable.

257 - 266 (10 Pages)
16 Methodological Approach for Attitude Scale Construction for Members of Fishery Co-operatives Societies
Narendra Kumar Verma, Shyam Sundar Dana

Introduction The word cooperation is of Latin origin and it means to work together (Filley, 1929).Cooperatives are founded on the values of self-help, self-responsibility, democracy, equality, equity and solidarity. Based on the founding principles of co-operatives, members believe in the ethical values of honesty, openness, social responsibility and caring for others (Canadian Business Service Centre, 2004). A fishery co-operative society can be defined as “An autonomous association of people united voluntarily to meet their common economic, social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly-owned and democratically controlled fishery enterprise or fishery activities.” Attitude implies that the individual is no longer neutral toward the referent psychological objects. The person would be positively inclined or negatively disposed in some degree towards the referents (Campbell, 1963; Allport, 1966; Newcomb, 1966; Zanden, 1977; Burr, 2000). The response in this connection is a lasting one, as long as the attitude in question is operative. Attitude refers to a psychological individual’s stands about objects, issues, persons, groups, or Institutions. The definition of attitude proposed by Triandis (1971) suggests that attitude has three components: (a) a cognitive component (the idea), (b) an affective component (the emotions), and (c) a behavioural component (the action).

267 - 280 (14 Pages)
17 Tips on Application of Statistical Methods in Social Science Research
Ajit Kumar Roy

Introduction This chapter outlines recently developed and traditional statistical techniques, which are increasingly being applied in social science research. The social sciences cover diverse phenomena arising in society, the economy and the environment, some of which are too complex to allow concrete statements; some cannot be defined by direct observations or measurements; some are culture-or region specific, while others are generic and common. Statistics, being a scientific method as distinct from a ‘science’ related to any one type of phenomena is used to make inductive inferences regarding various phenomena. The chapter addresses both qualitative and quantitative research a combination of which is essential in social science research and offers valuable updates for advanced level for researchers. In this chapter, I will attempt to addresses the gaps between the research and data analysis faced the professionals and researchers working under different environment with multitude of problems particularly in the social science sector. It provides students with theoretical perspectives and methodological tools to explore the social and cultural systems that influence policy interventions. The Social Science: Social science is the field of study concerned with society and human behaviors. Social science covers a broad range of disciplines like demography and social statistics, methods and computing; education, social anthropology, and linguistics apart from anthropology, archaeology, criminology, economics, education, history, linguistics, communication studies, political science and international relations, sociology, geography, law, and psychology. Further, it covers development studies, human geography and environmental planning; law, economic and social history; politics and international relations; psychology and sociology; and social policy and social work. Social science is, in its broadest sense, the study of society and the manner in which people behave and influence the world around us. Social science tells us about the world beyond our immediate experience, and can help explain how our own society works from the causes of unemployment or what helps economic growth or what makes people happy. It provides vital information for governments and policymakers, local authorities, non-governmental organisations and others. Economics seeks to understand how individuals interact within the social structure, to address key questions about the production and exchange of goods and services. Management studies explores a wide range of aspects relating to management of fisheries activities, such as strategic and operational management, organizational psychology, employment relations, marketing, accounting, finance and logistics.

281 - 320 (40 Pages)
18 ERP Software Application in Aquaculture Industry – Need and Status
Subhabaha Paland Satyabrata Pal

Introduction Aquaculture, also known as aqua-farming, embodies the procedure of the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms. Aquaculture involves cultivation of freshwater and saltwater fish-populations under controlled conditions (Wikipedia, 2019). Aquaculture industry has undergone a lot of change in the last two decades. The application of the sophisticated technologies in the aquaculture industry has greatly altered the face of the industry in special relation to the Western and developed countries. New tools related to the measurement of the different environmental parameters needed to be controlled in different layers of the production process like Hatchery, Nursery and Grow-out have come up. Lots of data generated from the above stages relate to include the parameters, like, cost of production, health condition of produced fish, etc., which ultimately leads to the generation of the appropriate pricing of produce. With the advent of globalization, all aquaculture product companies need to look for exporting their respective products along with meeting the full satisfaction related to the demand from the domestic markets with an ultimate objective to increasing the profit. Export of the fisheries products in the western countries needs proper certification on the quality of the products duly by the appropriate authorities. The certification authorities need to check the detailed production process related to the fisheries- products in order to be sure about the quality imbibed in the same. The development of integrated software maintaining the details of the production process makes the task easy for both the production company and the certification authority, thus satisfying the needs of the end-customers in the western markets. Useful ERP software needs to maintain all relevant information on the production process commencing from the very early stage of the production till the act of selling the products in the market.

321 - 334 (14 Pages)
19 Fisheries Resource Assessment and Management: Concepts and Techniques
K.V. Radhakrishnan

Introduction According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), fish and fishery products accounts for 17% of the global human consumption of animal protein. Per capita food fish supply has grown to 18.4kg per person, an 8% rise since 2006. Approximately 54% of the seafood protein supply for human consumption comes from wild catch; unfortunately about 30% of the world’s wild-capture fisheries are overexploited and many fisheries are in bad shape and getting worse. Solving this problem will require innovative monitoring and management tools, but we can provide tremendous benefits if we act now to reverse our course. Taking a serious, in-depth look at fisheries could help feed the world’s growing population, and conserve marine species. Humanity is reaching farther and deeper into the oceans and, until recently, there were only anecdotes and guesses about the complete effects of our actions. Recent reports show that some fisheries are being managed sustainably and good progress is being made in reducing exploitation rates and restoring overexploited fish stocks and marine ecosystems. Sustainable fisheries management is an integrated process that seeks to attain an optimal state that balances ecological, economic, social and cultural objectives for fisheries. It involves information gathering, analysis, planning, consultation, decision-making, allocation of resources and formulation and implementation, with enforcement as necessary, which govern fisheries activities to ensure the above mentioned fisheries objectives. A thorough knowledge on the fish resource assessment is of utmost importance for a fishery manager to effectively make decisions and implement it. In this chapter, an attempt is made to briefly explain the basic concepts of fish resource under management, its assessment and techniques to be applied.

335 - 348 (14 Pages)

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