Browse Subject

Buy Now and Pay in EMI's

THEORIES IN GEOGRAPHY

V. Emayavaramban, S. Vinothkanna, K. Kannadasan
  • Country of Origin:

  • Imprint:

    NIPA

  • eISBN:

    9789390512744

  • Binding:

    EBook

  • Number Of Pages:

    160

  • Language:

    English

Individual Price: ₹ 4,975.00 ₹ 4,477.50 + Tax

Add to cart Contact for Institutional Price
 

The present book is an attempt to bring all theories of geography in one book for easy reading of teachers and students. Many divisions in geography has many theories. Readers should take effort to collect the theories from all books. All divisions has certain theories. There are so many theories in physical geography as well as human geography. A simple idea makes it convenient to read the theories in one book. First, we selected the certain theories as follows: Theory of continental drift, The theory of Isostasy, Von Thunens location theory, Crop combination method, The central place theory, Internal structure of city, The rank size rule, The social area analysis method, Losch’s theory of economics of location, Walter Isard’s theory, Alfred Weber’s theory of least cost location, Demographic transition theory, Malthusian Theory of population- Criticism and applicability and Growth pole theory. Like this, there are 14 theories collected and compiled in this book as first volume. The theories collected from both physical geography and human geography. These theories are very important for those who are preparing for UPSC, should go through the theories.

0 Start Pages

Preface The present book is an attempt to bring all theories of geography in one book for easy reading of teachers and students. Many divisions in geography has many theories. Readers should take effort to collect the theories from all books. All divisions has certain theories. There are so many theories in physical geography as well as human geography. A simple idea makes it convenient to read the theories in one book. First, we selected the certain theories as follows: Theory of continental drift, The theory of Isostasy, Von Thunens location theory, Crop combination method, The central place theory, Internal structure of city, The rank size rule, The social area analysis method, Losch’s theory of economics of location, Walter Isard’s theory, Alfred Weber’s theory of least cost location, Demographic transition theory, Malthusian Theory of population- Criticism and applicability and Growth pole theory. Like this, there are 14 theories collected and compiled in this book as first volume. The theories collected from both physical geography and human geography. These theories are very important for those who are preparing for UPSC, should go through the theories.

 
1 The Theory of Continental Drift

The possibility of the drifting of continents was first suggested by the French scholar Antonio Snider in 1858, but this was so much opposed to the scientific view then prevailing that nobody took notice of it. In 1910 F.B. Taylor of America invoked the hypothesis of horizontal displacement of continents or continental drift with a view to explaining the distribution of mountain ranges, but for various reasons the hypothesis of Taylor received scant attention. German Professor Alfred Wegener was the first to put forward this idea in the form of a theory in 1912 and published a detailed discussion of it in 1915. But an account of the First World War (1914-18) this could not attract the attention of many scientists. In 1924 an English translation of Wegener’s book was published. Since then it has attracted much attention and publicity, and a huge literature has grown around this theory. Wegener was primarily a climatologist and the main problem he wanted to explain was the change of climates in the geological past. There are several geological evidences to show that there have been important and large scale changes in the climates of the world in the geological past. The occurrence of coal in the cool middle latitudes indicates that the climate of these regions was hot and humid in the carboniferous times and the natural vegetation was dense forest which ultimately resulted in the formation of huge coal deposits. On the other hand, in India, South Australia, Brazil or South Africa where the climate is warm today, there are evidences of cold climate and the presence of glaciers in the carboniferous period. The only conclusion that can be reached from this is that either the climatic zones have moved or if they have not, then there has been movement of the landmasses. There are several difficulties in postulating shifts in the climatic belts of the world as their geographical distribution is governed primarily by the sun. It, therefore, appears to be more probable that the landmasses have changed their position.

1 - 14 (14 Pages)
₹356.00 ₹321.00 + Tax
 
2 The Theory of Isostasy

Isostasy is derived from the Greek word isostasios meaning ‘in equipoise’ or in a state of balance. American geologist Dutton was the first to use the term isostasy in 1889 for the state of gravitational equilibrium that exists between continents and ocean floor and the mountains, plateaus and plains on a rotating earth, in accordance with densities of their underlying rocks. Dutton was of the view that the height of these different features was related to their density. In other words, the higher features were composed of rocks of lower density and the features of lesser to height were made of rocks of higher density. For instance, the continental blocks whose average height is about 5 kms above the ocean floor are composed of lighter rocks than the latter, and to compensate for their higher height the continental blocks go deeper into the earth so that the continents and ocean basins may remain in equilibrium. The same argument applies to the mountain ranges. The excess mass of lighter materials which rises in the form of mountain chains on the earth’s surface is compensated by light materials extending as roots into the denser strata below. In other words, the upper part of the earth’s crust is built of lighter rocks which is floating on the substratum of denser rocks. The hypothesis of the sialic rocks floating over the sima of the sub-stratum had been first put forward by Sir George Airy of Britain in 1855. The use of the word floating, of course, did not imply that the sub-stratum was in a liquid condition.

15 - 20 (6 Pages)
₹356.00 ₹321.00 + Tax
 
3 Von Thunen’s Location Theory

The analysis of land use patterns has long been one of geography’s basic concerns. At first, it might appear as if agricultural land use is little affected by relative location, once the factor of a suitable market has been acknowledged. Indeed, the farmer does adapt his land use to site conditions, climate, land forms, and soils. However, the effects of the market situation cannot be disposed of as easily as all that. Johann Heinrich Von Thunen (17831850), a German economist and estate owner of the early 19th century, developed a theory of agricultural location that is still worth considering. This model is based on an econometric analysis of his estates in Mecklenburg, near Rostock in Germany. Most of the data used in explaining his theory were obtained by him through practical experience. He attempted to construct a theoretical model of land use pattern, giving a particular arrangement of towns and villages in a situation experienced in Mecklenburg. The main aim of Von Thunen’s analysis was to show how and why agricultural land use varies with the distance from a market.

21 - 40 (20 Pages)
₹356.00 ₹321.00 + Tax
 
4 Crop Combination Methods

The study of crop combination regions constitutes an important aspect of agricultural geography as it provides a good basis for agricultural regionalization. The crops are generally grown in combinations and it is rarely that a particular crop occupies a position of total isolation other crops in a given area unit at a given point of time. The distribution maps of individual crops are interesting and useful for planners, but it is even more important to view the integrated assemblage of the various crops grown in an area unit. For example, the demarcation of India into the rice region or wheat region does not explain the agriculturally significant fact that very often the wheat region also has a rice crop and vice versa, or wheat is often grown with gram, barley, mustard, lentil, peas and rapeseed. For a comprehensive and clear understanding of the agricultural mosaic of an agroclimatic region and for the planning and development of its agriculture, a systematic study of crop combinations is of great significance. In recent years the concept of crop combination has engaged the attention of geographers and agricultural land use planners. The studies made so far in this field range in approach from topical to regional and vary in extent from small areas of minor political units to the entire country.

41 - 60 (20 Pages)
₹356.00 ₹321.00 + Tax
 
5 The Central Place Theory

The scale of human settlements is dynamic; it ranges from farmstead to village to town to city and to metropolis. There is thus, a broad hierarchy of settlements. These hierarchies can be grouped according to size and function. Size hierarchies are ranked from the highest to the smallest settlements only in terms of population while functional hierarchies are essentially based on the extent to which settlements have an economic impact on their surrounding areas. Functional hierarchies rank the settlement according to the number of shops, the number of specialised services available or the most dominant financial organisations. Such hierarchies mayor may not have similar sized market areas. Despite their having the same population, one town might surpass another in functional importance. In this context, two theories have been propounded-the Central Place Theory by Walter Christaller and its modified version by August Losch. These theories are two of the most important examples of the scientific approach to the study of settlements. These theories suggest that there is a definite link between the functions of a settlement and its spatial locations with regularity in the distribution pattern within an urban system.

61 - 82 (22 Pages)
₹356.00 ₹321.00 + Tax
 
6 Internal Structure of Cities

Introduction The characteristic features of a city are the result of the combination of various factors like topography, climate, history, economy, culture, etc. since these characteristics vary; every town/city is unique and has certain distinctive characteristics. These urban characteristics are, however, never static. They change both over time and space. With the development of the economy, other factors like population growth, urbanization and improved technology have a combined effect on urban settlements, which grow bigger and more complex. The study of the internal structure of cities by urban geographers is a study of the structural and demographical variations (i.e., variations in building size, shape, height, function and social status) of urban settlement. Theories on the Internal Structure of Cities The internal structure of cities has attracted many generalizations in the form of theories. These theories have attempted to explain the city structure by examining cities at any location in a country largely from sociological viewpoint. The different theories on the internal structure of cities are the Concentric Zone theory of Burgess, Sector Theory of Hoyt, the Multiple Nuclei Theory of Ullman, the Social Area Analysis of Murdie and the Exploitative Model of William Bunge.

83 - 92 (10 Pages)
₹356.00 ₹321.00 + Tax
 
7 The Rank Size Rule

Introduction The search for order in the location and size of settlements continues. Certain geographers examined the size of distribution of settlements and described in graphical form the relationship between the number and size of settlements. Their methods were radically different in that they were not deterministic, rather than making a set of assumptions, deriving a theory and testing it against reality, they observed the size and number of settlements in various countries and noted a common characteristic, which was called the rank size rule. Having once observed this order in the real world, they then sought to explain it. A relationship which is observed on several occasions is called an empirical regularity. The rank size rule is one such empirical regularity. The rank size rule was first observed by Auerbach in 1913 but was proposed and popularized by G.K. Zipf in his book “Human Behaviour and the Principle of Least Effort”. Since then, many writers have attempted to explain it but the basic aim has always remained the same: to find a graphical description to the size distribution of cities which would apply to the situation prevailing in many countries. Rank Size Rule: Theoretical Base and Concept Rank size rule is a theory describing numerical distribution of settlement, which recognises an empirical regularity whereby the product obtained by multiplying a city’s rank by its size is equal to a constant, the population of the country’s largest city such that for a given settlement system

93 - 100 (8 Pages)
₹356.00 ₹321.00 + Tax
 
8 The Social Area Analysis Model

The social area analysis model of urban structure incorporates all three aspects of city structure, namely concentric zones, sectors and multiple nuclei. It is a more comprehensive statement of urban forms. The model was developed by R.A. Murdie in 1969. According to this model, the physical space of streets, buildings and roads are superimposed by three dimension of social space (Fig. 8.1). The social criteria are the following: Family Status Family status indicators include population and age variables, house ownership and age characteristics, family size and marital status and other life cycle. These exhibit a concentric zonal or ring pattern with older, smaller renter households located near the city centre and owner occupied newer larger family households near the outer fringe. Economic Status Economic status tends to include measure of income, occupation and education. This portrays a distinct sectoral pattern with definite high income and low income sectors.

101 - 102 (2 Pages)
₹356.00 ₹321.00 + Tax
 
9 Losch's Theory of Economics of Location

This theory belongs to the ‘market area’ or ‘profit maximisation’ approach and has focused on spatial variations in scales potential. August Losch was a German economist and he proposed his theory in 1939 in a book entitled Die taumliches Ordnung Derwirt’s Chaff. He disregarded spatial variations in production costs by holding them constant, and instead depicted optimal location as occurring where the largest possible market area is monopolised – that is, where sales potential and total revenue potential are maximised. Losch sought to explain the size and shape of market areas within which a location would command the largest revenue.

103 - 106 (4 Pages)
₹356.00 ₹321.00 + Tax
 
10 Walter Isard's Theory

Walter Isard had given the location theory in 1956 vided publication entitled, Location and the Space Economy. Isard has modified the Loschian schema, in the attempt to make it more realistic. Isard linked location theory to the general theory of economics through the substitution principle. In economic theory, capital can be substituted for labour, for example. Similarly, the selection of a manufacturing site from among alternative locations can be viewed as substituting expenditures among the various production factors such that the best site is chosen. (Fig.10.1) provides one simple illustration of Isard’s substitution principle.

107 - 108 (2 Pages)
₹356.00 ₹321.00 + Tax
 
11 Alfred Weber's Theory of the Least - Cost Location

Alfred Weber first introduced his famous theory of industrial location in 1909, in his book entitled, Uber den Standort der Industrien and its English translation was published in 1929 as The Location and Theory of Industries. His theory is known as ‘LeastCost Location Theory’ or ‘LeastCost Minimization Approach’. The basic objective of the Weber’s theory is to find out the minimum cost location of an industry.

109 - 118 (10 Pages)
₹356.00 ₹321.00 + Tax
 
12 Demographic Transition Theory

The demographic transition theory is one of the most important population theories which is the best documented by the data and statistics of recent demographic history. In its original form, the demographic transition theory was put forward by W. S. Thompson (1929) and Frank W. Notestein (1945). These scholars based their statements and arguments on the trends in fertility and mortality, being experienced in Europe, North America and Australia. The theory postulates a particular pattern of demographic change from a high fertility and high mortality to a low fertility and low mortality when a society progresses from a largely rural agrarian and illiterate society to a dominantly urban, industrial, literate and modern society. The three very clearly stated hypotheses involved in the process are: The decline in mortality comes before the decline in fertility. The fertility eventually declines to match mortality and Socio - economic transformation of society takes place simultaneously with its demographic transformation. In the present – day world, as would true of any point in time, different countries of the world are at different stages of the demographic transition. In the opinion of Trewartha, this is largely due to the dual nature of man. According to him, biologically, man is same everywhere and is engaged in the process of reproduction but culturally man differs from one part of the world to another. It is the cultural diversity of man that gives rise to varying fertility patterns in different areas resulting in different stages of demographic transition. The demographic transition theory is characterized by conspicuous transition stages. The transition from high birth and death rates to low rates can be divided into stages. In the words of E.G. Dolan, “Demographic transition refers to a population cycle that begins with a fall in the death rate continues with a phase of rapid population growth and concludes with a decline in birth rate”.

119 - 122 (4 Pages)
₹356.00 ₹321.00 + Tax
 
13 Malthusian Theory of Population: Criticisms and Applicability

Thomas Robert Malthus enunciated his views about population in his famous book, Essay on the Principle of Population as it affects the Future Improvement of Society, published in 1798. Malthus revolted against the prevailing optimism shared by his father and Godwin that a perfect state could be attained if human restraints could be removed. Malthus’ objection was that the pressure of increasing population on the food supply would destroy perfection and there would be misery in the world. Malthus was severely criticised for his pessimistic views which led him to travel on the continent of Europe to gather data in support of his thesis. He incorporated his researches in the second edition of his Essay published in 1803. The Malthusian theory of population is the most well-known theory on population in economics. Malthus pointed out that an accelerated increase in population would outweigh the increase in food production. This would have an adverse impact on the development of an economy. The Malthusian theory explains the relationship between the growth in food supply and in population. It states that population increase faster than food supply and if unchecked leads to vice or misery. This theory is explained in the following propositions

123 - 130 (8 Pages)
₹356.00 ₹321.00 + Tax
 
14 Growth Pole Theory

The growth pole theory was developed by French regional economist, Francois Perroux, in 1955. He was concerned with the phenomenon of economic development and with the process of structural change. Growth pole is a central location of economic activity. It is an urban location where economic activity ignites growth and better quality of life in the urban periphery. He attempted to explain how modern process of economic growth deviated from the stationary conception of equilibrium growth. His arguments were based on Schumpeter’s theories of the role of innovations and large scale firms. In Schumpeter’s analysis, development occurs as a result of discontinuous spurts in a dynamic world. The cause of discontinuous spurts is the innovative entrepreneur whose activities take place in large-scale firms. These firms are able to dominate their environment in the sense of exercising reversible and partially reversible influences on other economic units by reason of their dimension and negotiating strength, and by the nature of their operations. Scale of operations, dominance and impulses have close relationship to innovate. This is the most important feature of Perroux’s theory and leads to the concepts of dynamic propulsive firm and leading propulsive industry. The dynamic propulsive firm is relatively large and belongs to a relatively fast growing sector. It has a high ability to innovate and intensity of its interrelation with other sectors of the economy is important enough for the induced effects to be transmitted to them.

131 - 134 (4 Pages)
₹356.00 ₹321.00 + Tax
 
15 End Pages

Bibliography Dayal, Parameshwar (1996) A Text book of Geomorphology, Second Edition, Sukla Book Dept, Patna, India. Savindra Singh (2003) Geomorphology, Reprint (Third revised and enlarged) Prayag Pustak Bhawan, Allahabad, India. Majid Husain (2015) Systematic Agricultural Geography. Reprinted, Rawat Publication, Jaipur, India. K. Siddhartha and S. Mukherjee (2002) Cities Urbanization and Urban Systems, Seventh Reprint Edition, Kisalaya Publications Pvt. Ltd, Gautam Buddha Nagar, Uttar Pradesh, India. Majid Husain (2013) Human Geography, Fourth Edition, Rawat Publication, Jaipur, India. Holmes, Doris L. and Nelson (1978) Holmes Principles of Geology, Third Ed., E.L.B.S. (Reprinted 1981), p. 632. Holmes, A. Principles of Physical Geology, Nelson, 1966, p. 27 Swades Pal and Shyamal Kar: Implications of The Methods of Agricultural Diversification in Reference with Malda District: Drawback and Rationale, International Journal of Food, Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences ISSN: 2277-209X, 2012 Vol. 2 (2) May-July, pp.97-105. Ravendra Singh: An Analysis of Spatio -Temporal Changes in the Pattern of Crop Diversification in Indian Agriculture. International Research Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 2319–3565, Vol. 4(12), 15-20. Steers, J.A. The Unstable Earth, (1937) Indian Reprint, p. 74

 
9cjbsk
Payment Methods