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VALUE ADDITION & QUALITY MANAGEMENT DURING PRESERVATION & PROCESSING

Suresh Chandra
  • Country of Origin:

  • Imprint:

    NIPA

  • eISBN:

    9789390512881

  • Binding:

    EBook

  • Number Of Pages:

    290

  • Language:

    English

Individual Price: ₹ 3,995.00 ₹ 3,595.50 + Tax

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Section I (Value addition) has seven Ch. (1 to 7) containing value addition and processing aspects of Ber (Zuzuba), Cape goose berry, Chicory, Ginger, edible mushrooms, tamarind and medicinal and aromatic plant. 

Section II (Food Preservation) covers about eleven chapters. In this section, Ch. 8 covers status and scope of Indian food industry. Ch. 9 contains the impact of antioxidants in processed food products.

Ch. 10 has a utilization of pectin in semi solids or intermediate food products. Ch.11 may have applications of Ionizing radiation in food processing and other related activities. Ch.12 ranges Rice milling system from the home-scale to the large, complex modern rice-processing installations. Ch.13 covers antifungal agents or antimicrobial food additives need to utilize at extreme concentration or levels in a food to be effective when used alone for inhibiting microbial load of foods and extent their shelf-life for longer period. Ch.14 explains anti-nutritional factors present in food, including their contents of enzyme inhibitors, lectins, flatulence factors, tannins, phytic acid and saponins. Ch.15 covered artificial sweeteners are added to processed foods and beverages to impart taste without adding calories. Ch.16 contain up to date about extrusion cooking which is an emerging technology having advantages of low production cost, capable of producing end products in various shapes and sizes, from a variety of food materials with easy digestibility, maintaining hygiene and high product quality and leaving no effluents or hazardous materials. In Ch.17 the potentially useful, but so far little used process of fruit jelly is discussed. Ch.18 elaborates about the Zero energy cool chamber.

Section III (Food quality) divided in eight chapters. Ch.19 covers the food spoilage and its control by different food processing methods. Ch.20 has the reason of Quality losses in fruits and vegetables after harvesting. It discussed the pre-cooling methods to remove field heat of fruits and vegetables.  In Ch.21, the primary effect of chilling and freezing injury in fruit and vegetables and its symptoms on quality of foods.  Ch.22 deals types of packaging materials suitable for foods. Ch.23 showed in about quality standard for food security at globally. Ch.24 deals about the development, implementation and maintenance of HACCP systems outlined. Ch.25 & Ch.26 covers need of functional foods in daily life and nutrients losses by food processing.

0 Start Pages

Preface The foods we eat contain nutrients. Nutrients are substances required by the body to perform its basic functions. Nutrients must be obtained from diet, since the human body does not synthesize them. Nutrients are used to produce energy, detect and respond to environmental surroundings, move, excrete wastes, respire (breathe), grow, and reproduce. There are six classes of nutrients required for the body to function and maintain overall health. These are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water, vitamins, and minerals. Foods also contain non-nutrients that may be harmful (such as cholesterol, dyes, and preservatives) or beneficial (such as antioxidants). Nutrients that are needed in large amounts are called macronutrients. There are three classes of macronutrients: carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. These can be metabolically processed into cellular energy. Micronutrients are nutrients required by the body in lesser amounts, but are still essential for carrying out bodily functions. Micronutrients include all the essential minerals and vitamins. There are sixteen essential minerals and thirteen vitamins. Section I (Value addition) has seven chapters (1 to 7) containing value addition and processing aspects of Ber (Zuzuba), Cape goose berry, Chicory, Ginger, edible mushrooms, tamarind and medicinal and aromatic plant. Section II (Food Preservation) covers about eleven chapters. In this section, chapter 8 covers status and scope of Indian food industry. Chapter 9 contains the impact of antioxidants in processed food products. chapter 10 has a utilization of pectin in semi solids or intermediate food products. chapter 11 may have applications of Ionizing radiation in food processing and other related activities. Chapter 12 ranges Rice milling system from the home-scale to the large, complex modern rice-processing installations. chapter 13 covers antifungal agents or antimicrobial food additives need to utilize at extreme concentration or levels in a food to be effective when used alone for inhibiting microbial load of foods and extent their shelf-life for longer period. Chapter 14 explains anti-nutritional factors present in food, including their contents of enzyme inhibitors, lectins, f latulence factors, tannins, phytic acid and saponins. Anti-nutritional factors can cause detrimental effects to humans and animal growth and performance by impairing intake, uptake, or utilization of other food and feed components, or by causing discomfort and stress to humans and animals. chapter 15 covered artificial sweeteners are added to processed foods and beverages to impart taste without adding calories. These sweeteners when used alone or in combination may permit such labeling as ‘artificial, low- calories’, ‘reduced-calories’, ‘light’ ‘sugar-free’ and ‘dose not promote tooth decay’. Many people believe that sugar is fattening and causes obesity. Chapter 16 contain up to date about Extrusion cooking which is an emerging technology having advantages of low production cost, capable of producing end products in various shapes and sizes, from a variety of food materials with easy digestibility, maintaining hygiene and high product quality and leaving no eff luents or hazardous materials. In chapter 17, the potentially useful, but so far little used process of fruit jelly is discussed. Chapter 18 elaborates about the Zero energy cool chamber. The design of the evaporative system was based on the principle of evaporation being always accompanied by a cooling effect to its surrounding. The semi-perishable fruit and vegetables, milk and some products, cooked food, mushroom, meat, fish, f lowers and that have a short shelf life can be stored inside the zero energy cool chamber. Section III (Food quality) divided in eight chapters. chapter 19 covers the food spoilage and its control by different food processing methods. Chapter 20 has the reason of Quality losses in fruits and vegetables after harvesting. It discussed the pre-cooling methods to remove field heat of fruits and vegetables. In chapter 21, the primary effect of chilling and freezing injury in fruit and vegetables and its symptoms on quality of foods. Chapter 22 deals types of packaging materials suitable for foods. Chapter 23 showed in about quality standard for food security at globally. In Chapter 24 deals about the development, implementation and maintenance of HACCP systems outlined. Chapter 25 and Chapter 26 covers need of functional foods in daily life and nutrients losses by food processing. This book is unique in several aspects: it is an updated and comprehensive reference source, it contains topics not covered in similar books, and its contributors include experts from government, industry, and academia. The editorial team thanks all the contributors for sharing their experience in their fields of expertise. They are the people who made this book possible. We hope you enjoy and benefit from the fruits of their labor.

 
1 Ber (Zuzuba)
Suresh Chandra

Ber (Ziziphus maruritiana Lam.) is cultivated all over the desert part of the Indian subcontinent for its fresh fruits, which are rich in vitamin C, vitamin A and vitamin B-complex and minerals. It can be successfully cultivated even in the most marginal ecosystems of the subtropics and tropics. Ber or Indian jujube belongs to the genus Zizphus of the family Rhamnaceae and order Rhamnales. Ber is adopted to ecologically poor, drought prone areas, which encounter recurrent crop failures and thereby economic crises. It yields nutritious fruit, rich in vitamins and minerals than apple even in drought years and its cultivation is highly cost effective owing to very low input requirement. Ber cultivation also provides employment for people in different farm operations for production and sale of the produce. In India, Haryana, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are major ber producing states. The area under cultivation with this fruit is 8.7 lakh ha with an annual production of 8.9 lakh tones in India (Baloda et al., 2012). About 125 varieties of ber are available in India. A few of these varieties are known for taste, size, amount of pulp and higher yields. The cultivars Umran, Kathapal and Gola are the most promising varieties of ber in North India (Azam-Ali et al., 2001). Nutritive Value Many people are unaware that the ber is one of the most nutritive fruit, since ber is a common fruit. It is one of the richest sources of vitamin C, next only to aonla and Guava but better than citrus fruit and apple. The fruit pulp contains 13-20% total soluble solids and 0.20-0.80% acidity at fully ripened fruit. Ripe fruit of Umran contains 117 mg ascorbic acid/100 g of pulp. Ber fruit contains β-carotene (vitamin-A) at 81 µg/100 g of fruit, 5.6% sucrose, 1.54% glucose, 2.08% fructose, 1.00% starch and 1.13% total carbohydrates. Due this, so ber is often called the “poor man’s fruit”. Table 1 represent the nutritional composition of different ber varieties.

3 - 11 (9 Pages)
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2 Cape Gooseberry
Suresh Chandra

Cape gooseberry is the native of Peru and Chili (South America), but widely cultivated in Cape of Good Hope and hence called so. It is known by different name in various parts of the world. It is commonly called ‘Poha’ in Hawaii; ‘Golden berry’,’ Pompelmoes’ or ‘Apelliefie’ in South Africa; ‘Lobolobophan’ in the Philippines. In India it is commonly called ‘Rasbhari’, ‘Makoi’, ‘Tiparee’ or ‘Tepari’. Cape goose berry (Physalise peruviana L.) belongs to the family solanaceae. Out of 80 species of genus physalis, only three are well known for their fruit value. These are: (i) P. pubescen L. (ii) P. Peruviana L., and (iii) P. ixocarpa Brot. However these three species, Physalise peruviana L is the most popular due to its pleasant flavour and acid-sweet taste.

12 - 17 (6 Pages)
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3 Chicory (Cichorium Intybus)
Suresh Chandra

Chicory (Cichorium intybus L. var. sativum D.C.) plant is the herbaceous, perennial plant and supposed to have descended from the wild chicory (wild succory, blue sailors) which is often seen along roadsides with its blue flowers. The leaves are used as salads in human diet and other different purposes. They were reported to be stomachic (Baumann 1982, Franke, 1981) and their juice was used against eye disease and poisoning. The infusion of chicory was believed to be good for the liver, kidney and stomach. Initially the wild plant was used but since approximately 300 B.C., the crop was cultivated for this purpose. Beverages, soups and sauces made of chicory were reported to be used in Italy and Belgium as early in 16th century. For the first time, the root of chicory was used as a substitute of coffee in 1690 in Holland followed by many other countries like Sweden, France, etc. During 1806 and 1813, the cultivation and use of roasted roots of chicory as coffee substitute spread over the whole European continent. In the 19th century, the main centres of cultivation of chicory were North-East France, Belgium, England, Russia, Holland and Australia. Subsequently it was raised on large scale in Poland, Hungary, Germany, Switzerland and India. Presently over 20% of the World’s consumption takes place in Eastern Europe, especially in Poland (6%) followed by Russia, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia and East Germany. Twelve percent is reported to be consumed in South Africa, 9% in India and 2% in the United States (Clark and Macrae, 1987).

18 - 22 (5 Pages)
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4 Ginger
Suresh Chandra

Ginger is used extensively as a spice in cuisines throughout the world. Ginger belongs to Zingiberaceae family and an English botanist William Roscoe (1753-1831) gave this plant the name Zingiber officinale in the year 1807. The name of the genus Zingiber derives from a Sanskrit word denoting “horn shaped” in reference to the protusions on the rhizomes (Ghosh et al., 2011). It is an oldest rhizome widely domesticated as a spice where the edible part is the swollen underground stem or rhizome. The Zingiberaceous plants have strong aromatic and medicinal properties and are characterized by their tuberous or non-tuberous rhizomes (Chen et al., 2008). Ginger is a medicinal plant that has been widely used all over the world, since antiquity, for a wide array of unrelated ailments including arthritis, cramps, rheumatism, sprains, sore throats, muscular aches, pains, constipation, vomiting, hypertension, indigestion, dementia, fever and infectious diseases (Ali et al., 2008). Ginger has direct anti-microbial activity and thus can be used in treatment of bacterial infections (Tan and Vanitha, 2004).

23 - 35 (13 Pages)
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5 Edible Mushrooms
Suresh Chandra

Mushrooms are good as nutritious food for all ages and under all conditions of health. The mushroom is a fleshy, space-bearing organ of non-green edible fungi. Its fleshy nature of mushroom is responsible for its main attraction to human being as a source of food. Like other fruit and vegetables, mushrooms are soft textured and highly perishable in nature. Mushroom are potential sources of nutrients. They can convert nutritionally valueless substances into high fat and protein food. Mushroom proteins are comparable to muscle protein in nutritive value. Being a good source of vitamins and proteins it is considered be a distinct food. The digestibility of protein in these is 72-83%. Mushrooms are edible fungi; assume considerable importance in human diet as they are good source of non starchy carbohydrate, dietary fibre, minerals and vitamins-B and essential amino acids. Mushrooms are popular their delicacy and flavour rather that food value. However, it is now a well-established fact that they are excellent sources of vitamins and minerals (Vijaya Khader, 1988). The vitamins in mushroom are well retained during cooking, canning, and dehydration. The White button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes), Pleurotus species (Pleurotus osteatus, P. flabellatus, P. sajor caju etc.), Paddy straw mushrooms (Volvariella volvacea), Winter mushrooms (Flammulina velutipis), Jew’s ear mushrooms (Auricularia polytricha) are commercially cultivated species of mushroom. In India, mainly three species viz., white button, oyster or dhingari and paddy straw mushrooms are commercially cultivated at large scale.

36 - 46 (11 Pages)
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6 Tamarind
Suresh Chandra

Tropical fruit tree are important crops which supplement and improve the quality of diet. Many of the species have multi-purpose uses in that they produce non food products such as fuel, timber, fodder, medicines and industrial products for small holders. Harvesting from these trees enable rural people to provide nutrition for a balanced diet and generate income thus alleviate poverty. Tamarind (Tamarindus indica L) can be found throughout much of the tropics, it is grown unattended in backyards, roadsides or waste lands. Tamarind is ideally suited for avenue plantings as a roadsides tree, in and around villages as a multipurpose species for agro-forestry system or as protective firebreaks for forest margins. It is a valuable timber species widely used for making furniture, tool handles, charcoal, oil mills, rice pounders and fuel wood. The leaves are an important source of food and herbal medicine and the edible pulp of ripe fruits is used as a flavouring agent in cooking, soups, jams, chutneys, sauces, pickles etc. The fruit pulp of tamarind forms the “Tamarind of Commerce”. The name tamarind is derived from the Arabic word ‘Tamar-u’l-Hind’ because the dark brown pulp of the fruit was thought to resemble dried dates. It was therefore called the Tamere-hindi or ‘date of India. The production of Tamarind in India was estimated 201000 tonees for year 2017-18 (Horticulture statistics, 2018), India is the world’s largest producer of tamarind products. It is particularly abundant in the India states of Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. The production in India is mainly concentrated in the drier southern states and the produce is collected by the villagers and sold in the market. In India, the average production of tamarind pods per tree is 175 kg and processed pulp is 70 kg/tree (Kulkarni et al., 1993).

47 - 55 (9 Pages)
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7 Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
Suneel Kumar Goyal

A large number of people in developing countries have traditionally depends on products derived from plants, especially from forests, for curing human and livestock ailments. Additionally, several aromatic plants are popular for domestic and commercial uses. Collectively they are called medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs). About 12.5% of the 4,22,000 plant species documented worldwide are reported to have medicinal values. With dwindling supplies from natural sources and increasing global demand, the medicinal and aromatic plants, will need to be cultivated to ensure their regular supply for processing and value added products. The term “Medicinal and Aromatic plants” generally denotes those non-aromatic and aromatic plants, which are used for medicinal, perfumery, dye and cosmetic purposes. They are rich in secondary metabolites and are potential sources of drugs. Generally the whole plant roots, stem, bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, gums and oleoresins, etc. are used. India has been considered as treasure house of valuable medicinal and aromatic plant species. Ministry of Environment and Forests have identified and documented over 9500 plant species considering their importance in the pharmaceutical industry. In the present context of ‘back to nature’ in health care, it is relevant that these valuable plant species are not only preserved but also their cultivation developed in order to meet the entire demand of the domestic industries as also to exploit the bright prospect for export. Shift from collection to cultivation of medicinal & aromatic plants will also ensure purity, authenticity and sustainable supply of raw materials required for herbal drugs, including polyherbals.

56 - 66 (11 Pages)
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8 Indian Food Processing industry
Suresh Chandra

India has a population of one hundred twenty four crore plus and feeding this large a population calls for a strong FPI. The industry also assumes importance in the national economy due to the immense employment generation opportunities it offers and the export revenue it earns. Food Processing Industry (FPI) in India is a sunrise sector that has gained prominence in the recent years. Easy availability of raw materials, changing lifestyles and favourable fiscal policies has given a considerable push to the industry’s growth. FPI serves as a vital link between the agriculture and manufacturing sectors of the economy. Strengthening this link is critical to reduce wastage of agricultural raw materials, improve the value of agricultural produce by increasing shelf-life as well as by fortifying the nutritive value of the food products and ensure remunerative prices to farmers as well as affordable prices to consumers. The industry has very low processing level i.e., 2.2% for fruits and vegetables, around 35% in milk, 21% in meat and 6% in poultry products, which is significantly lower by international standards. For e.g., processing of agriculture produce is around 40% in China, 30% in Thailand, 70% in Brazil, 78% in the Philippines and 80% in Malaysia. Value addition to agriculture produce in India is just 20% with wastage estimated to be valued at around US $13 billion. India has the second largest producer of food with arable land of 159.65 million hectares and has the highest acreage under irrigation. Next to China, India ranks second largest food producer in the world and has the potential to immerge the biggest with its food and agricultural sector. India accounts for less than 1.5% of international food trade despite being one of the world’s major food producers, which indicates huge potential for both investors and exporters. Food and food products are the biggest consumption category in India

67 - 80 (14 Pages)
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9 Food Antioxidants
Suresh Chandra

The major components of foods are the protein, carbohydrates and fat. The spoilage of foods containing fats includes the deterioration of the fatty components; the principal difficulties found in their preservation are in the development of rancidity. The spoilage of fats and oils has received much attention and substantial progress has been made in their preservation. One of the major causes of food deterioration is the chemical oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the lipids present in all foods. These fats are present in fat deposits and in cell membranes. End products of lipids oxidation, mainly aldehydes and ketones, contribute to the rancid off flavour and odours in the foods. Fatty acids in food occur in the form of esters with the alcohol. The predominant esters are triacylglycerols accompanied by minor amounts of mono- and diacylglycerols and free fatty acids. The unsaturated bonds present in all fats and oils represent active sites that can react with oxygen. This reaction leads to formation of primary, secondary, and tertiary oxidation products that may make the fat or fat containing food unsuitable for consumption. Other consequences of oxidation include discolouration; changes in the texture, flavour and taste; and loss of nutritional value due to the destruction of essential fatty acids as well vitamins. Unsaturated fatty acids are subject to oxidation at their double bonds. In the presence of suitable catalysts, or in contact with lipooxidase enzymes, long chained unsaturated fatty acids may be fragmented to short chained fatty acids. The cleavage usually involves an intermediate peroxide formation. Many chemicals compounds aid in food preservation to protect the nutrients, flavour and texture, and storage stability of food stuff for longer period.

81 - 92 (12 Pages)
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10 Pectin
Suresh Chandra

A white to light brown powder, is a heteropolysaccharide derived from the cell wall of higher terrestrial plants. It is mainly used in food as a gelling agent in jams and jellies. Today it is also used in fillings, sweets, as a stabiliser in fruit juices and milk drinks and as a source of dietary fiber in foods. Pectin is a heterogeneous grouping of acidic structural polysaccharides, found in fruit and vegetables and mainly prepared from ‘waste’ citrus peel and apple pomace. Pectin has a complex structure. Preparations consist of sub-structural entities that depend on their source and extraction methodology. Commercial extraction causes extensive degradation of the neutral sugar-containing side chains. Pectin was first isolated and described in 1825 by Henri Braconnot, though the action of pectin to make jams and marmalades was known long before. To obtain well set jams from fruits that had little or only poor quality pectin, pectin-rich fruits or their extracts were mixed into the recipe. During industrialization, the makers of fruit preserves soon turned to producers of apple juice to obtain dried apple pomace that was then cooked to extract pectin. Later, in the 1920s and 1930s, factories were built that commercially extracted pectin from dried apple-pomace and later citrus-peel in regions that produced apple juice in both the USA and in Europe. At first pectin was sold as a liquid extract, but nowadays pectin is often used as dried powder that is easier to store and handle than a liquid

93 - 102 (10 Pages)
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11 Food irradiation
Suresh Chandra

Fruit and vegetables play an important role in human nutrition. They are vital source of essential minerals, vitamins and dietary fibre and supply complex carbohydrate and protein. They are good source of calcium, phosphorus, iron and magnesium and contribute over 90% of dietary vitamin C. Green and yellow fruits and vegetables are a rich source of vitamin A (β-carotene). Thiamine, niacin and folic acid, which are required for normal functioning of the human body, are also present in significant qualities. Fruit is an important food in diet designed to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in developed countries. It is not surprising, then, that certain fruit components exert pharmacological or therapeutic effect. The antioxidant properties of β -carotene may also a role in prevention of some forms of cancers. Packing and handling systems have been developed to move the product from farm to consumer expeditiously in order to minimize quality degradation. Food irradiation is a physical process like drying, freezing, thermal processing (canning and pasteurization) that can be used to disinfest, sterile and preserve food. The use of chemical preservatives to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria in modern food system has been recognized as deterrent to health. The present day, customer demands food products with no chemical preservatives, free from additives, natural with assured safety and better long shelf life. The deterioration in foods during storage may include loses in organoleptic desirability, nutritional value, safety and aesthetic appeal. Food is subjected to physical, chemical and biological deterioration. Heat, cold, light, humidity, other radiation, gas composition, moisture, dryness, natural food enzymes, micro and macro organism, and industrial contaminants are adversely affect the food quality and their shelf life. The practice of drying, curing and fermentation are among the conventional methods of preservation used for thousand years.

103 - 112 (10 Pages)
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12 Modern rice Milling System
Samsher

The paddy grain contains a rough outer covering called husk. It accounts for about one-fifth to one - fourth of the weight of paddy. The inner kernel, called brown rice or dehusked rice, again contains some soft outer layers, jointly called bran. It accounts for about 6-8% of the brown rice weight, including the small germ (1-2% by weight) located in one corner. Rice milling is the process of removing the husk and a part of the bran from paddy in order to produce edible rice. Rice milling system ranges from the home-scale to the large, complex modern rice-processing installations. They include hand-pounding equipment, single hullers, emery sheller-cum-huller mills, emery sheller-cum-cone polisher mills and the modern rubber – roller rice mills. Rice milling industry does not only mill rice but it also carries many other essential functions, such as cleaning and grading, drying, storage, quality control etc. for the production of better quality rice. All these processes are discussed in this paper. Unlike other food grains, rice is mostly consumed as cooked whole grain, Milling technology is therefore geared to obtain maximum outturn of milled rice and to reduce breakage to the minimum. The single huller mills are by and large located in villages or in localities where paddy is custom milled for produces and they still handle the bulk of the country’s production. The large-capacity rice mills located in urban or semi-urban areas for commercial milling are of ½ to 4 tones per hour capacity and handle the rest of the paddy milled. Some battery hullers are still in operation as large commercial mills, specially for milling parboiled paddy.

113 - 118 (6 Pages)
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13 Antifungal Food Additives
Suresh Chandra

Foods are classified into three groups on the basis of ease of spoilage. Spoilage meant a condition produced by the excessive growth of microorganisms leading gradually to decay or decomposition. The stable or non perishable foods like sugar, flour, grains and dry products do not ordinarily spoil unless handled carelessly. The semi-perishable food like potatoes, onions, apples, waxed fruits, fruits and vegetables having thick skin can be protected from spoilage if properly handled and processed. The perishable foods, like livestock products, seafood, and poultry items, dairy products, and most fruit and vegetables spoil readily unless special preservatives methods are used. The spoilage of foods may be caused by molds, yeast, bacteria, enzymes, food constituents and insects. The use of food additives have become necessary to prevent spoilage other wise caused by the growth of bacteria, yeasts and molds. Food spoilage usually refers to undesirable changes occurring in food due to the action of micro-organisms, insects and enzymes. The original nutritional value, texture, flavour of the food are damaged, the food become harmful to people and unsuitable to eat. Today however, preservation has used such factors as temperature, water activity, pH, gases, organic acids, salts, antibiotics, irradiation, packaging and various combinations of these factors. Foods vary greatly in the length of time for which they can be held in their natural form without spoilage. Preservatives retard product spoilage caused by mold, air, bacteria, fungi or yeast. Bacterial contamination can cause food-borne illness, including life-threatening botulism.

119 - 133 (15 Pages)
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14 Anti-nutritional Factors
Suresh Chandra

In India, people are mostly vegetarian, depending largely on cereals and pulses, as their staple foods, which provide the main source of dietary proteins and calories. The proteins from pulses are known to be inferior quality, due to the deficiency of sulphur containing amino acids as well as due to other factors like digestibility, availability of amino acids, anti-nutritional factors, etc. The anti-nutritional factors present in this type of food, including their contents of enzyme inhibitors, lectins, flatulence factors, tannins, phytic acid and saponins. Anti-nutritional factors can cause detrimental effects to humans and animal growth and performance by impairing intake, uptake, or utilization of other food and feed components, or by causing discomfort and stress to humans and animals. The anti-nutritional factors mainly occur in pulses and grain legumes and foods and feed material prepared from grain legumes and pulses. Substance which, from nutritional point of view, interferes with normal growth, reproduction or health when consumed regularly in amount existing in a normal component of diet should be considered as harmful and toxic. A significant part of human population relies on legumes as staple food for subsistence, particularly in combination with cereals. They are unique foods because their rich nutrient content including starch, protein, dietary fibre, oligosaccharides, phytochemicals (especially the isoflavones in soybean) and minerals. Their nutritional contents contribute to many health benefits to human.

134 - 147 (14 Pages)
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15 Non-Caloric Sweeteners
Suresh Chandra

Food technologies now have more sweeteners from which to choose than ever before. With the obesity epidemic and the public attention it currently receives, plus the increasing interest in foods with added benefits sweeteners that allow for consumer appealing labeling are of particular interest. These sweeteners fall into basic categories, those that are essentially calories free, often referred to as low-calories or intense sweeteners, and those, which are significantly reduced in calories, which may be referred to as reduced calories-sweeteners, bulk sweeteners, or sugar replaces. These sweeteners when used alone or in combination may permit such labeling as ‘low-calories’, ‘reduced-calories’, ‘light’ ‘sugar-free’ and ‘dose not promote tooth decay’. The ideal sweeteners does not exist, it would be at least as sweet as sucrose and provide the same properties to a product as sucrose, with processing parameters similar to those of sucrose so that existing equipment can be used. It would be colourless, odourless and noncariogenic, with a clean, pleasant taste and have immediate onset and not much lingering. Solubility and stability are important. The ideal sweetener must be compatible with a wide range of food ingredients because sweetness is but one element of a complex food flavour system. Even sucrose is not perfect, being unsuitable for some applications.

148 - 158 (11 Pages)
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16 Extrusion Cooking Technology
Suresh Chandra

Extrusion cooking is an emerging technology having advantages of low production cost, capable of producing end products in various shapes and sizes, from a variety of food materials with easy digestibility, maintaining hygiene and high product quality and leaving no effluents or hazardous materials. Minimal energy consumption and processing costs and possibility of flavour addition are the added advantages of technology. The process/technique has the versality and ability to constituently produce a given product in continuity at a given set of pre – determined specifications. It destroys fat splitting enzymes to avoid rancidity and thus extends the shelf life of products considerably. Microorganisms present in food materials are destroyed. It can be effectively utilized to develop functional and designer foods by using several locally available under-utilized food materials. However, it leads to increased package cost as puffed or expanded food products have low bulk density. R & D studies are further needed for co – extrusion of variety of cereals with high fibre content foods and micronutrients.

159 - 170 (12 Pages)
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17 Fruit Jelly
Suresh Chandra

Fruit jelly is an important part of diet of all human being. It is easily digestible, highly refreshing, appetizing and nutritionally far superior to many foods. Today, a wide variety of fruit jellies are consumed in the home, at work place and sport stadium. There has been considerable increase in the consumption of fruit and vegetable jellies in the world during last few years. Jelly is a semi-solid product prepared by boiling a clear strained fruit extract free from pulp after the addition of required amount of sugar, citric acid and pectin. It should contain minimum 65 percent of total soluble solids and minimum 45 percent of fruit portion (Dhawan, 1998). Guava is rich source of pectin and acid content and have thick flesh is preferred for jelly making. For getting good quality jelly, mix under-ripe fruits give better pectin content and ripe fruits provide the flavor. Winter season fruits yield better quality jelly (Singh and Dhawan, 1983). It is a clear or translucent fruit spread made from sweetened fruit (or vegetable) juice and set using naturally occurring pectin. Additional pectin may be added where the original fruit does not supply enough. Jelly can be made from sweet, savory or hot ingredients. It is made by a process similar to that used for making jam, with the additional step of filtering out the fruit pulp after the initial heating. Jellies are the products used as bread spreads all over the world. These are made from fruits rich in pectin. Guava, because of its rich pectin content, is processed into jelly. Processing of guava into jelly is practiced by processors all over the world. Colouring of jams and jellies has been an age old practices colorants. Great attention is being paid now days to the usage of natural colours in view of the hazards that the synthetic colours pose to human health. Incorporation of carrot resulted in colour improvement over control. Jelly containing carrot as a colouring source was found slightly better than other vegetables. Jelly is a semi-solid product prepared by boiling a clear strained fruit extract free from pulp after the addition of required amount of sugar, citric acid and pectin. It should contain minimum 65% of total soluble solids and minimum 45% of fruit portion (Dhawan, 1998).

171 - 186 (16 Pages)
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18 Eco-friendly Food Storage Zero energy Cool Chamber
Ratnesh Kumar, Suresh Chandra

Much of the post-harvest losses of fruits and vegetables in developing countries is due to the lack of proper storage facilities. While refrigerated cool stores are the best method of preserving fruits and vegetables they are expensive to buy and run. Consequently, in developing countries there is an interest in simple low-cost alternatives, many of which depend on evaporative cooling which is simple and does not require any external power supply. India is the second largest producer of fruits and vegetables in the world after Brazil and China respectively. Storage of fresh horticultural produce after harvest is one of the most pressing problems of a tropical country like India. India’s total fruits and vegetables production is lost during harvest, storage, grading, transport, packaging and distribution in a year which reduces the growers share. Due to their highly perishable nature, about 20-40% of total fruit and vegetable production go waste during various steps of the post-harvest chain, smooth transport and insufficient cool storage space/ facility at farmer’s level and high cost of refrigerated storage so further enhances loss of fruits and vegetables. Temperature and humidity play major role in storage of fruits and vegetables Temperature can be controlled by using energy consuming methods such as air-cooling, hydro-cooling, vacuum-cooling, chilling, ice cooling, freezing, etc.

187 - 206 (20 Pages)
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19 Food Spoilage and their Control
Suresh Chandra

Food is a complex system of inorganic and organic compounds. These compounds are present in food in unique combination and uniquely organized structures, and therefore, every type of food has unique characteristics, nutritive value, sensory quality, texture, etc. Food items are always in physical, chemical and biological dynamics, however rate of change vary from food to food. Those highly perishable in nature undergo faster rate of spoilage as compare to those semi-perishable or stable. Foods are affected by nearly every variable of environment. Heat, cold, light or other radiations, oxygen, moisture/dryness, natural food enzymes, microorganisms, macro-organisms, industrials and agricultural contaminants, time, etc. - all adversely affect the foods resulting to its spoilage or deterioration. Spoilage may be referred to the losses in nutritive value, sensory desirability, safety and aesthetic appeal to the unacceptable level. Level of unacceptability is the subject of socio-economic status and policies of the state. A food which is of unacceptable quality for one society may be of acceptable quality for other society. History reveals that food was the root cause of many wars and also the battles were won or lost over food spoilage and its control. Wars and the need to provide safe food to armies in the region far away from the areas of their production have always focused attention on the problem of food spoilage, and this valid today even. Some of the most important advancements in the technology of food preservation were made during the war-time. Of these, most important was the technology of preventing food from spoilage for months together developed by French scientist Nicolas Appert for French army. He won awarded money of 12,000 Francs in 1908 for this. The World learnt the art of canning foods in which the food is packed in a sealed metal container and heated sufficiently. He, however, could not explain the principle behind the preservation by canning. Some 50 years later, work of Louis Pasteur explained that the growth of microorganisms was the major cause of food spoilage which are killed in Appert’s method of preservation.

207 - 214 (8 Pages)
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20 Quality losses in Fruits and Vegetables
Suresh Chandra

Fruits and vegetables are very important food commodities not only in developing country like India but all over the world. India, which is the most densely populated country in Asia continent, is still struggling to achieve self-sufficiency to feed about 135 crores people. For this purpose, fruits and vegetables have got their specific importance to provide a balance and healthy diet to the Indian people. Therefore, the reduction of post-harvest loss of fruit and vegetables is a complementary means for increasing production. It may not be necessary to considerably step up the production of fruits and vegetables with the growing demand if the post-harvest loss is reduced to a great extent. The cost of preventing losses after harvest in general is less than preventing a similar additional amount of fruit and vegetable crop of the same quality Fruits are important source of Pro-vitamin A and vitamin C. In addition, vegetables also supply fair amount of carbohydrates, protein and energy and add colour, flavour and aroma to human diet. India is one of the largest producers of fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables are an important supplement to the human balanced diet as they provide the essential minerals, vitamins and dietary fibre (roughage) for maintaining the tear and wear of the over body. Fresh fruit and vegetables have a short shelf life under ambient conditions of temperature and humidity due to their highly perishable nature. They soon lose their freshness and become subjected to mould and bacterial attack, and consequently decay and become useless as articles of human diet. Fresh fruits and vegetables are valued for their quick sources of available energy. Fresh fruits have high water content (70-96%), varying amount of carbohydrate (3-27%) and fibre (0.2-3.1%) and a low content of protein, fat and minerals. Ideal climatic conditions ensure round the year availability of broad range of fruit and vegetables in large quantities. The production of fruits and vegetables was 97.00 MT and 179.60 MT during the 2017-2018 in India

215 - 231 (17 Pages)
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21 Chilling and Freezing injury
Suresh Chandra

India is today the second largest producer of fruit and vegetable after China with a total annual production of 281.75 million tons in 2017-18. Fruit and vegetables are essential components of the human diet and nutrition constitute. Fruit and vegetable are also element of diversification in agriculture for additional income generating resource and employment generation area. Although India is the largest producer of fruit in the world, the production per capita is only about 100 g per day. Huge losses to the extent of 20 to 40% of the total production are reported due to lack of adequate infrastructure and transportation facilities and higher the transportation cost. Thus the per capita availability of fruits is further reduced to 60 -80 g per day which is almost half the requirement for a balanced diet. The fruit production in India has recorded a growth rate of 3.9%, whereas the fruit processing sector has grown at about 20% per annum. However, the growth rates have been extensively higher for frozen fruits and vegetables (121%) and dehydrated fruits and vegetables (24%). Fruit and vegetables are mostly seasonal crops but they are demanded by consumers throughout the year. They are very highly perishable in nature, which is difficult to preserve for the longer period of time under ambient storage conditions. The low temperature storage retarded the activity of various biological and biochemical agents of spoilage and provides longer shelf life to the fruit and vegetables The temperature is brought down by taking out the heat with the help of mechanical refrigeration, This system is based on a liquid absorbing heat as it change to a gas. The more common mechanical refrigeration system use a refrigerant such as (Ammonia, Freon etc.,) takes out the heat from the chamber/ store as it is expand. The spoilage agents are microorganism such as (e.g., bacteria, yeast and molds etc.) and larva. Optimum storage temperature for most products is one slightly above the freezing point of the product. Some fruit and vegetables are particularly sensitive to storage temperature are susceptible to called storage disease when stored at temperature below as or above the critical temperature e.g.,

232 - 240 (9 Pages)
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22 Food Packaging Materials
Suneel Kumar Goyal

Packaging is essential for the safe and easy marketing of any food products and for the retention of their natural characteristics till consumed or utilized otherwise. Packaging is also an essential part of processing and distribution of foods. Packaging used for processed foods can contribute marketing to the retention of the quality characteristics. It must protect a variety of assaults including physical damage, chemical attack and contamination from biological vectors including microorganisms, insects and rodents. Environmental factors such as oxygen and water vapour will spoil foods if they are allowed to enter packages freely. Contamination of foods by microorganism can spoil foods or cause life-threatening diseases. With dehydrated food, packaging serves a multi protection role. Depending on the product being packed, packaging has to provide protection against moisture pick up, loss of volatile components, oxidation and damage of product itself. With the development of food industries, use of different types of plastic containers becomes widely popular owing to its several advantages. Although packaging has, in recent years, been accused of using up valuable resources, it is nevertheless absolutely essential. Packaging is vital to protect and conserve the items contained within it. The dominant purpose of packaging is to protect the product so that it reaches the consumer in the same condition as when it was first made. However there is a lot more to the effectiveness and usefulness of packaging than just protection. When a consumer picks up their carton of freshly squeezed mango juice, they are not aware of the energy and money saved by the packaging they are grasping in their hands. In order to fully understand the essential role packaging plays in every day life, it is necessary to understand the guiding principles behind it.

241 - 250 (10 Pages)
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23 Quality Standards For Food Security
Samsher

Food is a major determinant of health, nutritional status and productivity of the population. It is, therefore, essential that the food we consume is wholesome and safe. Unsafe food can lead to a large number of food-borne diseases. It is necessary that the food available is safe, hygienic, wholesome and its quality must be assured. Quality of foods can be defined as the ‘composite’ of those ‘characteristics’ that differentiate individuals units of a product and have significance in determining the degree of acceptability of that unit by the buyer. In general, the quality control is the maintenance of quality at levels and tolerance acceptable to the buyer, minimizing the cost for the vender. But, from the scientific angle the overall quality refer to technical, physical, chemical, microbiological, nutritional and sensory parameters to achieve the wholesome food. These quality factors depend on the specific attributes such as sensory properties, based on flavour, colour, aroma, taste, texture, quantitative properties viz. percentage of sugar, protein, fibre etc and hidden attributes like peroxide, free fatty acids, enzymes etc. Though quality attributes are many, not all need to be considered for a particular product. It is imported to determine how far relatively the factor is in relation to the total quality of the product. Hence, the quality attributes of a particular is based on the composition of the product, expected deteriorate reaction, packaging used, shelf required and the type of the consumer i.e., deployed in terrain conditions or in peaceful situation. With the ultimate goal of protecting the consumer, quality standardization systems have come into force for regulating the gamut of operations in food manufacture. In a broader sense, food laws and Regulation cover the related acts affecting the marketing, production, labeling, food additives used, dietary supplements, enforcement of General Manufacturing Practice (GMP), Hazard analysis and critical Control Point (HACCP), federal laws and regulations, factory inspections and important-export inspections.

251 - 255 (5 Pages)
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24 Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
Durvesh Kumari

The food is considered as one of the essential for the maintenance of life. Manufacturing of the food product is not enough form the food industry. It is necessary that the food available is safe, hygienic; wholesomeness and its quality must be assured. The food industry is an important segment of industries in India and has its own peculiarities unlike other industries. Food processing industry has been recognized by government as a major sector of growth. It must be free from harmful additives, microbes and remain so for a period, it is intended to be consumed. Therefore, the methods employed in quality and food safety assurance programme within the food industry will vary considerably in accuracy and sophistication according to the type of process and size and nature of resources available. Since the international market has become demanding in terms of quality, safety and delivery, installation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in food industry would provide a competitive edge to food supplies in the international market. Food control refers to all activities carried out to ensure the quality, safety and honest presentation of the food at all stages from primary production through processing and storage, to marketing and consumption. The term has been used to describe a total national effort involving an integrated approach between government and all segment and sectors of the food industry. Food control is linked to improvement in the health of the population, potential of a country’s economic development and reduction of spoilage and food losses. A wide variety of quality determinants is employed, including size, colour, maturity and extent of blemishes. Quality is a measure of the degree of excellence or degree of acceptability by the consumer. The marketing of fresh fruit and vegetables is aimed eventually ay appealing to the consumer for whom tradition plays a major role in determining the acceptability of a food item. The eating habits of people are conservative. The increase of direct market from producer to supermarket chains is leading to the imposition of standards to predetermined specification by the supermarkets. Important factors in quality for the consumers are: appearance, including size, colour, shape, condition and absence of defects, texture, flavour and nutritional value. Quality is the ultimate criterion of the desirability of any food product to the consumer. The overall quality of food depends on the nutritional and other hidden attributes. Quality of foods can be defined as the ‘composite’ of the ‘characteristics’ that differentiate individual units of a product and have significance in determining the degree of acceptability of that unit by the buyer.

256 - 260 (5 Pages)
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25 Functional Foods
Suresh Chandra

The word nutrition first appeared in 1551 and comes from the Latin word nutrire, meaning “to nourish.” Today, we define nutrition as the sum of all processes involved in how organisms obtain nutrients, metabolize them, and use them to support all of life’s processes. Nutritional science is the investigation of how an organism is nourished, and incorporates the study of how nourishment affects personal health, population health, and planetary health. Nutritional science covers a wide spectrum of disciplines. As a result, nutritional scientists can specialize in particular aspects of nutrition such as biology, physiology, immunology, biochemistry, education, psychology, sustainability, and sociology. Disease is defined as any abnormal condition affecting the health of an organism, and is characterized by specific signs and symptoms. Signs refer to identifying characteristics of a disease such as swelling, weight loss, or fever. Symptoms are the features of a disease recognized by a patient and/or their doctor. Symptoms can include nausea, fatigue, irritability, and pain. Diseases are broadly categorized as resulting from pathogens (i.e., bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites), deficiencies, genetics, and physiological dysfunction. Diseases that primarily affect physical health are those that impair body structure (as is the case with osteoporosis), or functioning (as is the case with cardiovascular disease). Mental illnesses primarily affect mental and social well-being. The foods we eat contain nutrients. Nutrients are substances required by the body to perform its basic functions. Nutrients must be obtained from diet, since the human body does not synthesize them. Nutrients are used to produce energy, detect and respond to environmental surroundings, move, excrete wastes, respire (breathe), grow, and reproduce. There are six classes of nutrients required for the body to function and maintain overall health. These are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water, vitamins, and minerals. Foods also contain non-nutrients that may be harmful (such as cholesterol, dyes, and preservatives) or beneficial (such as antioxidants).

261 - 270 (10 Pages)
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26 Nutrient Losses by Food Processing
Suresh Chandra

The foods we eat contain nutrients. Nutrients are substances required by the body to perform its basic functions. Nutrients must be obtained from diet, since the human body does not synthesize them. Nutrients are used to produce energy, detect and respond to environmental surroundings, move, excrete wastes, respire (breathe), grow, and reproduce. There are six classes of nutrients required for the body to function and maintain overall health. These are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, water, vitamins, and minerals. Foods also contain non-nutrients that may be harmful (such as cholesterol, dyes, and preservatives) or beneficial (such as antioxidants). Nutrients that are needed in large amounts are called macro-nutrients. There are three classes of macro-nutrients: carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. These can be metabolically processed into cellular energy. Micro-nutrients are nutrients required by the body in lesser amounts, but are still essential for carrying out bodily functions. Micro-nutrients include all the essential minerals and vitamins. There are sixteen essential minerals and thirteen vitamins.

271 - 277 (7 Pages)
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