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WATER QUALITY MODELING: RIVERS,STREAMS AND ESTUARIES

R. Manivanan
  • Country of Origin:

  • Imprint:

    NIPA

  • eISBN:

    9789390512959

  • Binding:

    EBook

  • Number Of Pages:

    324

  • Language:

    English

Individual Price: 97.97 USD 88.17 USD

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Water is an important element for life on the earth. It is an essential natural resource for environmental sustenance. In India, water quality modeling studies are carried out from fresh water to marine water ecosystems. Some of the examples are Tehri reservoir, Chilka lake, Oatcake at Kashmir, Kodaikanal lake, Ooty lake at Tamil Nadu, rivers like Ganges, Narmada, Kaveri, and coastal regions like Hoogly estuary, Paradip, Vishakhapatnam, Kakinada, Chennai, Mangalore coast, Konkan coast and Gujarat coast. Water quality modeling plays a vital role in water quality studies. Numerical models are to be successfully calibrated and properly applied and it is to be improved our understanding of the complex interactions among different parameters such as temperature, biological oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and eutrophication in the fresh water and sea water environment.

0 Start Pages

Preface Computer simulation modeling plays a vital role in water quality studies. Numerical simulation techniques, when successfully calibrated and properly applied, allow a numerical representation of the main ecosystem phenomena, and substantially improve our understanding of the complex interactions among different parameters such as temperature, biological oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and eutrophication etc. Simulation models are capable of providing an objective evaluation of the consequences of future growth and pollution control measures. Therefore, simulation models are essential tools for water quality studies for urban, rural and industrial planning and decision making. Water pollution issues represent a growing public concern and a major topic for scientific and industrial research. Water pollution, a problem that a few decades ago used to affect only the most industrial countries in the world, has expended to virtually all countries. Recently India also witnessed growing demand for good quality water for best designated uses. Water is an important element for life on the earth. It is an essential natural resource for environmental sustenance, agricultural productivity, industrial growth, power production and enrichment and renewal of land and air. For easy assess to the water, the first human settlement occurred along the banks of rivers and ensuing civilizations flourished in river valleys. For example, Indian civilization of Mohanjodaro and Harappa developed in the Indus valley, the Egyptian civilization in the Nile valley, the Chinese civilization in the Yangtze valley, the Babylonian civilization between the Tigris and the Euphrates rivers, Aztec Maya and Incas civilizations in the basin of Amazon River. Supply of water at any given location is limited and the limits vary considerably. The unprecedented economic development, social transformation, industrial flourishment and technological improvement that have occurred in the world have been in part due to human ingenuity in providing water to various designated best uses, often through well-scientific and engineered strategies for usage, storing of water and transporting it. There is a direct correlation between the development of these strategies and national development, as exemplified by the grouping of nations of the world into developed countries for example USA, Britain, Japan etc., developing countries like India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan etc., and under developed countries such as Kenya, Lozetho etc. From the middle of the nineteenth century to the beginning of twenty first century, hundreds of water resources projects, water harvesting projects, water pollution projects, water recycling projects, river linking projects, desalination projects for fresh water from ocean and water quality modeling studies were developed and built throughout the world including India, primarily for the purposes to predict how extent of pollution affected in the water resources such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs, coastal as well as oceans in the world. In India, water quality modeling studies were done for ecosystems from fresh water to marine water ecosystems for example Tehri reservoir, Chilka lake, Dal lake at Kashmir, Kodaikanal lake, Ooty lake, rivers like Ganges, Narmada, Kaveri, and all coastal regions like Chennai, Visakhapatanam, Hoogly estuary, Mangalore coast, Kongan coast, Gujarat coast. These projects were entirely funded or heavily subsidized by national and international agencies in recognition of the crucial role that water plays in an important role in the human life. The book contains eighteen chapters reflecting objectives on various aspects of water quality modeling for rivers, streams, reservoirs, lakes, impoundments, coastal regions, seas and oceans. The chapter one explains about the importance of water, sources of water pollution, some organic and inorganic water pollutants, water quality meaning and scope, types of modeling, calibration methods, qualitative and quantitative models. The chapter two depicts modeling basics. It includes historical development, types of water quality models, model classification different water ecosystems, factors governing water quality models. The chapter three deal with processes and development. It includes model architecture, equation, chemical, physical and biological processes in the water ecosystem, computer programming, boundary and initial conditions, calibration and validation. Chapter four includes modeling application to different water bodies, spatial discretisation, concentration modeling and CORMIX. The chapter five explains methodologies. Chapter six deal with modeling of rivers and streams. Coastal and estuaries modeling will be provided in chapter seven. Eighth will be the lakes and impoundments modeling. Ocean and seas are provided with chapter nine and followed by water quality modeling of biological oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen. Temperature modeling is allocated in the chapter eleven. The chapter twelve includes nitrogen and phosphorus modeling. Eutrophication modeling explained in chapter thirteen. Oil spill and Tsunami modeling chapters are provided in fourteen and fifteen respectively. Chapter sixteen depicts about littoral drift modeling. An ecohydrological modeling and commercially available models are included in chapter seventeen and eighteen. A special technical terms and definitions are given as appendix. A common feature of all the chapters is the emphasis given to the application of new computer technologies, such as super computers and graphical workstations and the use of advanced software tools for real time user friendly interactions between the models and the users in the subject of water quality models. Many Engineers and Scientists are good enough to send me their research publication and their contribution to this work is highly acknowledged. A good deal of tiresome labour involved in putting togather the MS was shared by many friends, too numerous to be named individually, and I thank each one of them for cheerfully giving me their valuable time and knowledge. To my wife Mrs. S. Mekalamanivanan who helped in many ways, I wish to record my greatful thanks to her.

 
1 Introduction

A model is something that mimics the behavior of some real system of interest. Our interest here will be in water quality models, which are usually equations, and which predict some result based on factors that influence that result. A water quality model is a representation of a real system. The essence of a good water quality model is that it is simple in design and exhibits the basic properties of the real system that we are attempting to understand. The model should be testable against empirical data. The comparisons of the model to the real system should ideally lead to improved mathematical models. The model may suggest improved experiments to highlight a particular aspect of the problem, which in turn may improve the collection of data. Thus, modeling itself is an evolutionary process, which continues toward learning more about certain processes rather than finding an absolute reality. Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater caused by human activities. Although natural phenomena such as volcanoes, storms, earthquakes etc. also cause major changes in water quality and the ecological status of water while these are not deemed to be pollution. Water pollution has many causes and characteristics. Increases in nutrient loading may lead to eutrophication. Organic wastes such as domestic sewage and farm waste impose high oxygen demands on the receiving water leading to oxygen depletion with potentially severe impacts on the whole ecosystem. Industrial discharge a variety of pollutants in their wastewater including heavy metals, organic toxins, oils, nutrients, and solids. Discharges can also have thermal effects, especially those from thermal and nuclear power stations, and these too reduce the available oxygen. Siltbearing runoff from many activities including construction sites, forestry and farms can inhibit the penetration of sunlight through the water column restricting photosynthesis and causing blanketing of the lake or river bed which in turns damages the ecosystems the process is called as eutrophication. Pollutants in water include a wide spectrum of chemicals, pathogens, and physical chemistry or sensory changes. Many of the chemical substances are toxic or even carcinogenic. Pathogens can obviously produce waterborne diseases in either human or animal hosts. Alteration of water’s physical chemistry include acidity, conductivity, temperature, and excessive nutrient loading. Even many of the municipal water supplies in developing countries can present health risks leads to many diseases.

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2 Water Quality Modeling Basics

2.1 Historical Development We have seen in Chapter 1 that modeling is about establishing cause effect relationship. Perhaps one of the earliest attempts in this direction is made as early as 1848 in Germany where it was tried to establish a relation between purity and pollution to the occurrence of certain biological organism. But as far as water quality modeling is concerned the first major breakthrough in this direction is the effort of Streetor and Phelps (1925) in oxygen sag curve. They developed model for estimating DO and BOD in Ohio River. The work of O’Conner (1962) for bacteria models are major milestone in pre-computer era modeling. With the advent of computer during 1960s complicated kinetics and time variable simulation came into being. Most of the workers presented their efforts in terms of linear programming based water management models concerning waste discharge. Thomann(1963) has formulated linear programming based models for dissolved oxygen in an estuary. So a stage is set for study of eutrophication through modeling, but the problem is determination of values of various parameters in these equations. During 1970s models expanded in terms of complexities mainly because of enhanced computational facilities. Two dimensional and dynamic framework has started replacing one dimensional steady state configurations. In the same year, Di Toro presented an analysis of the steady state two dimensional concentration distribution that results in the horizontal plane from the continuous discharge of a non-conservative substances (DO and BOD) into an infinite body of water.

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3 Modeling: Processes and Development

3.1 Introduction By the end of the twentieth century one of our most important scientific accomplishments has been the explicit realization that the human population is changing the earth system. Some of these changes are occurring at a remarkable rate. We know, with certainty, that human activities are changing land use, habitats, the chemistry of the Earth’s atmosphere and water, rates and balance of biogeochemical processes, and diversity of life on the planet (Vitousek et al. 1997). One prominent mode of human disturbance has resulted from activities that mobilize the nutrient elements nitrogen and phosphorus through land clearing, production and applications of fertilizer, discharge of human waste, animal production, and combustion of fossil fuels (Nixon 1995). As a result of these activities, surface waters and ground waters throughout the world now have elevated concentrations of N and P compared to concentrations even in the middle of the 20th century. Our mobilization of N and P has accelerated the fluxes of these elements to coastal waters, and fertilization of coastal ecosystems is now a serious environmental problem because it stimulates plant growth and disrupts the balance between the production and metabolism of organic matter in the coastal zone. Coastal eutrophication is a recently recognized phenomenon (Nixon 1995), and scientific investigation of this human disturbance has progressed for only a few decades, so our conceptual model of the problem is evolving rapidly. Here, I describe 2 phases in the evolution of our conceptual model of how nutrient enrichment disrupts coastal ecosystems, and then finish with a view to the future, suggesting critical questions that must be answered as we work to advance and broaden our understanding of this complex environmental problem. This examination of conceptual models is designed as a complement to the excellent general reviews of coastal eutrophication (Vollenweider 1992, Heip 1995, Nixon 1995, Jørgensen & Richardson 1996, National Research Council 2000).

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4 Modeling: Applications

4.1 Introduction The developed or commercially available models can be applied for any water bodies such as fresh water lakes, ponds, rivers, estuaries and marine ecosystems. The predicted results can be compared with proved with field data and existing approved models and applies to the other such ecosystems. In this chapter, we can discuss about modeling of water bodies, water quality model, spatial discretizafion, modeling pollutants and toxicants, concentration modeling, hydrodynamic mixing zone analysis. 4.2 Modeling of Water bodies The need for predictive water quality modeling has arisen largely as a result of increased eutrophication of lakes throughout the world (Forsberg, 1987; Canfield and Hoyer, 1988). The most common modelling approach is exemplified by the development and application of steady state, input-output models. Generally, nutrient concentrations are calculated from net inputs and chlorophyll a concentration is predicted by correlation with the limiting nutrient, most often phosphorus (Dillon and Rigler, 1975; Canfield and Bachmann, 1981; OECD, 1982). Factors that can also influence phytoplankton biomass, such as light, climate, biological interactions and internal loading of nutrients, are not considered. Further more, the assumption that a lake is a continuously mixed system is very restrictive and only applicable at discrete times of the year. As a result, the shortcomings of such approaches include an inability to make predictions in the face of varying physical and biological conditions, and a failure to offer insights into the determinants of changing water quality.

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5 Modeling: Methodologies

5.1 Introduction The water quality modeling methodologies are started from conceptual models such as defining the problem in a particular region of interest like fresh water ecosystem, coastal ecosystems, ocean ecosystems, the following methodology can be studied carefully for water quality modeling. Identification of problems in the region of interest Monitoring of field data using standard methods like APHA, USGS, BIS etc. Evaluation of primary data for the toxins, higher amount of concentration from the ambient conditions Processing of primary data to secondary data Based on the primary data and secondary data, suitable modeling software can be used. If the temperature of the region is higher than the ambient, it should be used Qual2E, MIKE21 etc. Modeling results can be compared with field data for calibration and validation.

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6 Modeling: Rivers and Streams

6.1. Introduction A river is a large natural waterway. The source of a river may be a lake, a spring, or a collection of small streams, known as headwaters. From their source, all rivers flow downhill, typically terminating in the ocean. The mouth, or lower end, of a river is known as its base level. A river water is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. Most rainfall on land passes through a river on its way to the ocean. Smaller side streams that join a river are tributaries. The scientific term for any flowing natural waterway is a stream; so in technical language, the term river is just a shorthand way to refer to a large stream. Rivers throughout history have been the source and support for civilization, and many major cities today are near a river of some sort (Fig. 6.1). 6.1.1 Topography A river conducts water by constantly flowing from a higher to a lower elevation, thereby converting the potential energy of the water into kinetic energy. It starts to form loops and snakes through the plain by eroding the river banks. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake from the cut off section. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths, if conditions permit. Rivers, whose mouths are in saline tidal waters, may form estuaries. River mouths may also be rias.

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7 Modeling: Coastal and Estuaries

7.1 Introduction The coast is one of the most important boundaries in the world. It separates the marine part of the world from the continents. It separates the salt-water communities from fresh water communities; it separates land life from water borne life but amphibians living both environments (Fig. 7.1). Some of the marine organisms move towards estuary for reproduction with less water salinity. The coastline as such is not a stable. It fluctuates in place over considerable distances due to erosion and sedimentation, but also due to the relative change of sea level with respect to land. The coastal zone is thus a very mobile part of the earth from a geographical point of view. Due to its specific geophysical properties, the coast is also a very important area for the development of flora and fauna. There is hardly any other part of the world that houses such a variety of species, both in flora and fauna. The abundance of opportunities along the coast has also attracted a lot of human activities. The coastal zone has become an indispensable resource for mankind. It provides excellent opportunities for fisheries, housing, recreation, transport, defense purpose, industrial activities and many others. The influx of man with their social and economic activities, their needs for safe housing, food, drinking water, and with the tremendous quantities of waste they are producing poses at the same time a serious threat to the unique features of the coastal zone. It is therefore necessary to study this valuable region so as to prevent that competing activities are gradually causing depletion of the resources in the coastline. The following figures (Fig. 7.1and 7.2) show the typical coastal area of rocky coast and sandy coast.

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8 Modeling: Lakes and Reservoirs

8.1 Introduction A lake is a body of water or other liquid of considerable size surrounded entirely by land (Fig. 8.1). A vast majority of lakes on Earth are fresh water, and most lie in the Northern Hemisphere at higher latitudes. In ecology, the environment of a lake is referred to as lacustrine. Fig 8.1 A Typical Lakes Large lakes are occasionally referred to as “inland seas” and small seas are occasionally referred to as lakes. Smaller lakes tend to put the word “lake” after the name, as in Green Lake, while larger lakes often invert the word order, as in Lake Ontario, at least in North America. The term lake is also used to describe a feature such as Lake Dal, which is a wet basin most of the time but may become filled under seasonal conditions of heavy rainfall and snowfall. Many lakes are artificial and are constructed for hydro electric power supply, recreational purposes, industrial use, agricultural use, or domestic water supply.

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9 Modeling: Oceans and Seas

9.1. Introduction Oceans (from Okeanos in Greek) are saline waters that cover almost three quarters (71%) of the surface of the Earth. The area of the oceans is 361 million sq. km., and nearly half of the world’s marine waters are over 3,000 meters deep. Though somewhat arbitrarily divided into several “separate” oceans, these oceans are in fact one global, interconnected body of salt water, often called the World Ocean. The major divisions are defined in part by the continents and a variety of archipelagos, and are labeled the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean. Smaller regions of the oceans are called seas, gulfs and straits. There are a some smaller bodies of salt water that are not interconnected with the World Ocean. These are not considered to be oceans or parts of oceans, though some of them have been given the name, sea. Geologically, an ocean is an area of oceanic crust covered by water. Oceanic crust is the thin layer of solidified volcanic basalt that covers the Earth’s mantle where there are no continents. From this point of view, there are three “oceans” today: the World Ocean, and the Black and Caspian Seas that were formed by the collision of Cimmeria with Laurasia. The Mediterranean Sea is very nearly its own “ocean”, being connected to the World Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar, and indeed several times over the last few million years movement of the African Continent has closed the strait off entirely, making the Mediterranean a fourth “ocean”.

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10 Modeling: Lakes and Reservoirs

10.1 Introduction Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) is a chemical procedure for determining how fast biological organisms use up oxygen in a body of water. It is usually performed over a 5 day period at 20 C. It is used in water quality management and assessment, ecology and environmental science. BOD is not an accurate quantitative test, although it could be considered as an indication of the quality of a water source. 10.2 Typical BOD values Most pristine rivers will have a 5-day BOD of less than 1 mg/l. Moderately polluted rivers may have a BOD value in the range of 2 to 8 mg/l. Municipal sewage that is efficiently treated by a three stage process would have a value of about 20 mg/l. Untreated sewage varies, but averages around 600 mg/l in India and as low as 200 mg/l in the U.S., or where there is severe groundwater or surface water infiltration. Slurry from dairy farms is around 8000 mg/l and silage liquor around 60000 mg/l.

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11 Salinity and Temperature Modeling

11.1 Introduction Salinity is the saltiness or dissolved salt content of a body of water. The technical term for saltiness in the ocean is halinity, from the fact that halides, chloride specifically are the most abundant anions in the mix of dissolved elements. In oceanography, it has been traditional to express halinity not as percent, but as parts per thousand (ppt ), which is approximately grams of salt per liter of solution. In other disciplines chemical analyses of solutions, and thus salinity is frequently reported in mg/L or ppm (parts per million). Prior to 1978, salinity or halinity was expressed as % usually based on the electrical conductivity ratio of the sample to “Copenhagen water”, an artificial sea water manufactured to serve as a world “standard”(Lewis, E.L 1980). In 1978, oceanographers redefined salinity in Practical Salinity Units (psu): the conductivity ratio of a sea water sample to a standard KCl solution (UNESCO, 1981a) (UNESCO, 1981b). Ratios have no units, so it is not the case that 35 psu exactly equals 35 grams of salt per litre of solution (UNESCO, 1985). These seemingly esoteric approaches to measuring and reporting salt concentrations may appear to obscure their practical use; but it must be remembered that salinity is the sum weight of many different elements within a given volume of water. It has always been the case that to get a precise salinity as a concentration and convert this to an amount of substance required knowing much more about the sample and the measurement than just the weight of the solids upon evaporation. For example, volume is influenced by water temperature; and the composition of the salts is not a constant. Saline waters from inland seas can have a composition that differs from that of the ocean. For the latter reason, these waters are termed saline as differentiated from ocean waters, where the term haline applies.

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12 Nitrogen and Phosphorus Modeling

12.1 Introduction-Nitrogen Nitrogen is a chemical element which has the symbol N and atomic number 7. Elemental nitrogen is a colourless, odourless, tasteless and mostly inert diatomic gas at standard conditions, constituting 78.1% by volume of Earth’s atmosphere. Nitrogen is a constituent element of all living tissues and amino acids. Many industrial important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, and cyanides are made up of nitrogen. 12.1.1 History Nitrogen (Latin nitrogenium, where nitrum (from Greek nitron) means “native soda”and genes means “forming”) is formally considered to have been discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772, who called it noxious air or fixed air. That there is a fraction of air that did not support combustion is well known to the late 18th century. Argon was discovered when it is noticed that nitrogen from air is not identical to nitrogen from chemical reactions. Compounds of nitrogen were known in the Middle Ages. The alchemists knew nitric acid as aqua fortis (strong water). The mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids is known as aqua regia (royal water), celebrated for its ability to dissolve gold (the king of metals). The earliest industrial and agricultural applications of nitrogen compounds involved uses in the form of saltpeter (sodium- or potassium nitrate), notably in gunpowder, and much later, as fertilizer, and later still, as a chemical feedstock.

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13 Eutrophication Modeling

13.1 Introduction Eutrophication, means an increase in chemical nutrients — typically compounds containing nitrogen and phosphorus in an ecosystem. It may occur on land or in water. The term is however often used to mean the resultant increase in the ecosystem’s primary productivity (Fig. 13.1), in other words excessive plant growth and decay and even further impacts, including lack of oxygen and severe reductions in water quality and in fish and other animal populations.

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14 Oil Spill Modeling

14.1 Introduction An oil spill (or slick) is the intentional or unintentional release of oil into the natural environment as a result of human activity. The term often refers to marine oil spills where oil is released into the ocean or coastal waters (Fig. 14.1). Oil can refer to many different materials, including crude oil, refined petroleum products or by-products, oily refuse, oil mixed in waste, or oily ballast. Oil is also released into the environment from natural geologic seeps on the seafloor, as along the coastline. The fate, behavior, and environmental effects of spilled oil can vary depending upon the type and amount of material spilled. In general, lighter refined petroleum products such as diesel and gasoline are more likely to mix in the water column and are more toxic to marine life, but tend to evaporate relatively quickly and do not persist long in the environment. Heavier crude or fuel oil, while of less immediate toxicity, can remain on the water surface or stranded on the shoreline for much longer. Oil from the Exxon Valdez and Gulf War oil spills, while weathering over time, has persisted along the shoreline for years after the spill.

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15 Tsunami Modeling

15.1 Introduction A tsunami is a series of waves created when a body of water, such as an ocean, is rapidly displaced. Earthquakes, mass movements above or below water, volcanic eruptions and other underwater explosions, landslides, large meteorite impacts and testing with nuclear weapons at sea all have the potential to generate a tsunami. The effects of a tsunami can range from unnoticeable to devastating. The term tsunami comes from the Japanese words meaning harbor (“tsu”,) and wave (“nami”,). The term is created by fishermen who returned to port to find the area surrounding their harbor devastated, although they had not been aware of any wave in the open water. Tsunamis are common throughout Japanese history; approximately 195 events in Japan have been recorded. A tsunami has a much smaller amplitude offshore, and a very long wavelength (often hundreds of kilometers long), which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a passing “hump” in the ocean (Fig. 15.1). Tsunami have been historically referred to as tidal waves because as they approach land, they take on the characteristics of a violent onrushing tide rather than the sort of cresting waves that are formed by wind action upon the ocean (Iwan, W.D., 2006).

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16 Littoral Drift Modeling

16.1 Introduction Littoral drift is a geological process by which sediments such as sand or other materials, move along a beach shore.Long Shore Drift is the movement of eroded material, in a zig zag way, along the coast. The process arises when waves approach the shore obliquely. That is to say, at an angle other than 90°. The effect of this is determined by factors such as the direction and fetch of the present wind and, in the long term, of the prevailing wind. Waves striking the shore at an angle as opposed to straight on will cause the wave swash to move up the beach at an angle. The swash moves the sediment particles up the beach at this angle, while the backwash brings them, solely under the influence of gravity, directly down the beach. Some geologists consider a beach to be merely a shoreline feature of deposited material, but William Bascom (1980) has argued that a beach is the entire system of sand set in motion by waves to a depth of ten meters or more off ocean coasts. Submerged, longshore bars are therefore also part of the beach, and thus beaches can be viewed as either:

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17 An Ecohydrology Model

17.1. Introduction Throughout human history, the coastal plains and Lowland River valleys have usually been the most populated areas over the world (Wolanski et al., 2004). At present, about 60% of the world’s population live along the estuaries and the coast (Lindeboom, 2002). This is degrading estuarine and coastal waters through pollution, eutrophication, increased turbidity, overfishing and habitat destruction. The pollutant supply does not just include nutrients; it also includes mud from eroded soil, heavy metals, radionuclides, hydrocarbons, and a number of chemicals including new synthetic products. The impact on estuaries is commonly still ignored when dams and irrigation farming are proposed on rivers. In addition, estuaries are often regarded as sites for future development and expansion, and have been increasingly canalized and dyked for flood protection, and their wetlands infilled for residential areas. All these factors impact on the biodiversity and productivity and hence, the overall health of estuaries and the ecosystem services they provide to humans. They increasingly lead humans away from the possibility of ecologically sustainable development of the coastal zone. Integrated coastal zone management plans are drawn up worldwide but, in the presence of significant river input, most are bound to fail because they commonly deal only with local, coastal issues, and do not consider the whole river catchment as the fundamental planning unit. It is as if the land, the river, the estuary, and the sea were not part of the same system. When dealing with estuaries and coastal waters, in most countries land-use managers, water-resources managers, and coastal and fisheries managers do not cooperate effectively due to administrative, economic and political constraints, and the absence of a forum where their ideas and approaches are shared and discussed (Wolanski et al., 2004). 

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18 Commercially Available Models

18.1 Introduction The commercially available water quality simulation models with various dimensions (1D, 2D and 3D) and database software designed to quantify movement and concentration of contaminants in lakes, streams, estuaries, and marine environments. The following water quality models were described below (Table 18.1). 18.2 Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code The Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) is a multifunctional surface water modeling system, which includes hydrodynamic, sediment-contaminant, and eutrophication components. It has been applied to over 100 water bodies including rivers, lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, estuaries, and coastal ocean regions in support of environmental assessment and management and regulatory requirements. IT is a state-of-the-art hydrodynamic model that can be used to simulate aquatic systems in one, two, and three dimensions. It has evolved over the past two decades to become one of the most widely used and technically defensible hydrodynamic models in the world. It uses stretched or sigma vertical coordinates and Cartesian or curvilinear, orthogonal horizontal coordinates to represent the physical characteristics of a waterbody. It solves three-dimensional, vertically hydrostatic, free surface, turbulent averaged equations of motion for a variable-density fluid. Dynamically-coupled transport equations for turbulent kinetic energy, turbulent length scale, salinity and temperature are also solved. The model allows for drying and wetting in shallow areas by a mass conservation scheme.

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