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WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: AN ICON OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION

Jag Paul Sharma
  • Country of Origin:

  • Imprint:

    NIPA

  • eISBN:

    9789390512966

  • Binding:

    EBook

  • Number Of Pages:

    444

  • Language:

    English

Individual Price: ₹ 3,600.00 ₹ 3,240.00 + Tax

 
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Consequently the issue of women empowerment has emerged as most important agenda of 21st century and challenge as well to the world community. New Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which set a series of goals and targets to be achieved by 2030, represent a huge advancement over the Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015) through recognition of many elements essential to women’s empowerment such as education, health, control over violence, economic as well as political participation. To infuse new energy in commitments and initiatives related to women empowerment, International Women’s Day is celebrated on March 8 every year since 2010. It is a focal point in the movements for women’s rights.

In spite of several initiatives, physical, economic, psychological, and sexual violence continue against women across the world. It is estimated that 1 in 3 women globally is a victim of gender-based violence, and the vast majority of those who respond positively to surveys do not seek any form of formal or informal support. In 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East where the practice is concentrated, more than 125 million girls and women alive today have been subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM). Women trafficking, child marriage, sexual violence, rapes and other crimes against women show persistence and on rise.

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Preface A women is multi-talented personality nurturing the man through affection and love by way of mother, sister, daughter and wife. She is bestowed with god-gifted natural instincts of reproduction, social, cultural, economic and nourishing. She is the creator of family, commune, culture and countries but lost the credibility in evolution of development of human society. Today, women are facing threats to their lives in peace and war. As a result of being overburdened with unpaid work their health and well-being deteriorating. Lack of power and influence in social, economic and cultural environments, a woman is struggling for her existence. Consequently the issue of Women Empowerment has emerged as most important agenda of 21st century and challenge as well to the world community. New Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which set a series of goals and targets to be achieved by 2030, represent a huge advancement over the Millennium Development Goals (2000-2015) through recognition of many elements essential to women’s empowerment such as education, health, control over violence, economic as well as political participation. To infuse new energy in commitments and initiatives related to women empowerment, International Women’s Day is celebrated on March 8 every year since 2010. It is a focal point in the movements for women’s rights. In spite of several initiatives, physical, economic, psychological, and sexual violence continue against women across the world. It is estimated that 1 in 3 women globally is a victim of gender-based violence, and the vast majority of those who respond positively to surveys do not seek any form of formal or informal support. In 29 countries in Africa and the Middle East where the practice is concentrated, more than 125 million girls and women alive today have been subjected to female genital mutilation (FGM). Women trafficking, child marriage, sexual violence, rapes and other crimes against women show persistence and on rise. Global survey on the issue discloses that five factors are important to tackle the hurdles in women empowerment, namely education, social involvement, health, financial rights and political participation. SIDAVES (Society for Integrated Development of Agriculture, Veterinary and Ecological Sciences) in its core committee realized the magnitude of problem and concluded that agriculture is a broad based socio-economic activity that has competency to reduce hunger, alleviate poverty and provide food and nutritional security to billions as 60% women of the world and 70% of India are associated with agricultural and allied areas, enterprises. Interestingly it has scope to accommodate women of all religions, castes, creeds and status, right from land to landless, literate to illiterate, poor to rich with tremendous diversity of entrepreneurial fields such organic farming, orcharding, floriculture, horticulture nursery, vegetable production, poultry, dairying, goatry, seed and planting material production, agriculture, sericulture, mushroom production, vermicomposting, fisheries, indoor floriculture, kitchen gardening and varied enterprises of secondary and tertiary agricultures (processing and value addition). Accordingly SIDAVES decided to organize two days national conference on “Women Empowerment through Agro-Entrepreneurship for Livelihood Security” (WE 2019) under the sponsorship of ICAR. In my opinion issue can get still better attention from public, privae and Govt. organization if relevant contributions are improved and compiled in the form a book, base to present attempt. Moreover, women empowerment is concern of whole of human society and deserves to be part of instructional programs at the university and college levels in all regions of the world. With this contention in mind, present volume “Women Empowerment: An Icon of Socio-economic Transformation” has been prepared for students, teachers, social activists and policy makers. It consists of 28 chapters contributed by eminent social workers, teachers and scientists. First three chapters focus on different dimensions of women empowerment and the international initiatives taken. Chapter 5 illustrates the vision of Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India, in promoting avenues for women in field of science and technology. Many chapters elaborate on entrepreneurship development by rural women in diverse of agriculture and livestock farming. The aim is more economic participation of women in family earnings. Chapters 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 21 describe scope of self-employment for women through entrepreneurship development. Yog can help women to stay with self-confidence even in odd situations is enumerated in chapter 25 whereas. The sole objective of this publication is to provide an exhaustive appraisal on women empowerment. The sole objective of this publication is to provide an socialization appraisal on women empowerment status to students, teachers and policy makers for socialization and effective implementation of various schemes related to women empowerment across different regions of the world. I am thankful to all the contributors for supporting me and SIDAVES in this endeavor. The editor and contributors duly acknowledge various internet sites, national and international organizations, scientists and farmers whose information has been used in compilation of this volume. I hope the volume will be a welcome by academia, social activists and policy makers. I owe thanks to my wife Ms Kusam Lata for her support, contribution and inspire me to take venturous initiative on this aspect. A word of appreciation is must for my children Dr Vishaw Vikas, Aarushi Singh Sharma, Dr Sandeep. Dr Sabhyata and Ms Ridhima who have been always amicable, cooperative and supportive to me during long busy hours with assignment. Special thanks and gratitude to my revered father Pandit Mansa Ram, my gurus Sh OP Pushap, Jammu, Prof HS Chawla, Pantnagar, Prof SC Mani, Pantnagar and Prof BB Mukerjee, Bose Institute, Kolkatta who motivated and instilled in me the sentiments for service to the social and academic societies.

 
1 Women Empowerment Through Political Participation and Its Socio-economic Perspectives
Jag Paul Sharma

Abstract Political participation of women, on equal terms with men, at all levels of decision-making is essential to achieve the principles of equality, sustainable development, peace and prosperity. Participation is a development approach, which comprises the involvement of disadvantage segments of population in the design and implementation of policies concerning their wellbeing. To achieve gender equality by 2030 requires urgent action to eliminate the many root causes of discrimination that still curtail women’s rights in private and public spheres. Discriminatory laws need to be changed and legislation adopted to proactively advance equality. 49 countries still lack laws protecting women from domestic violence, while 39 bar equal inheritance rights for daughters and sons. Based on data from 87 countries, 1 in 5 women and girls under the age of 50 will have experienced physical and/or sexual violence by an intimate partner within the last 12 months. International efforts through UN are being encouraged throughout the world but are constrained by lack of national policy, cultural factors, social factors, religious factors, economical factors and role of gender base patriarchy. Secular and sustainable democracy prevails only when women experience benefits equally with their male counterparts. Creating adequate space in politics for women participation is essential to sustain real democracy and oblige mothers, wives, daughters and sisters and Gender Responsive Governance is the best strategy for this which embodies measures, attitudes and practices of different stakeholders, both men and women, at different levels of governance with a clear purpose to impact issues that foster women’s empowerment and promote gender equity and social justice. It is a process that promotes and sustains the ability of women to fully participate in the governance and development process, enhances their ability to raise critical questions about inequality and violence against them without fear and pressure.

1 - 18 (18 Pages)
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2 Women Empowerment: National and International Perspectives
Kavita Suri

Abstract World Economic forum (WEF) which evaluated 149 countries on four parameters including economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival, and political empowerment, said that it would take 108 years to close the overall gender gap. That means the economic opportunity gap-based on participation, pay and advancement in the workforce-remains the area that is going to take the longest time to close. Globally, women are paid less than men. Women in most countries earn on average only 60 to 75 per cent of men’s wages. Contributing factors include the fact that women are more likely to be wage workers and unpaid family workers; that women are more likely to engage in low-productivity activities and to work in the informal sector, with less mobility to the formal sector than men. India’s inequality crisis hurts girls and women the most. An Oxfam report on inequality published in January 2019 revealed that in the workplace, women still receive 34% less wages than their male counterparts for the same work. In J&K, incidences of domestic violence, dowry, etc are rampant. State Women Commission J&K receives 1600-1700 domestic violence cases every year, majority cases being from the Kashmir Valley. Men’s silence, insensitivity and indifferences with regards to gender equality practices need to be the focus theme of the time. The fight for gender equality cannot be fought by women alone. Men have a key role to play in demanding and supporting this societal shift by being a part of the movement. Keywords: Women empowerment, global perspectives, Indian perspectives, way forward.

19 - 30 (12 Pages)
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3 Women Empowerment : Commitments Initiatives and Implementation
Jag Paul Sharma, Kusam Lata

Abstract Women empowerment means capacity of womenfolk to participate as equal partners in cultural, social, economic and political systems with much appreciated and gladly accepted by the society. Acceptance of unequal gender norms by women are still persisting in the society. Moreover, ignorance prevails in rural areas and subordination to men is considered as god-will by the womenfolk. Food, health and education are prioritized to boys and girls’ destiny is linked to surplus resource of the family if any, available. Gender inequality exists in every nation on the planet. Women’s disempowerment is all over the world, comprising countries of east and west so empowerment of women has become one of the most important concerns of 21st century’s world. More than one third of the world’s adults, most of them women, have no access to printed knowledge, to new skills or to technologies that would improve the quality of their lives and help them shape and adapt to social and economic change. There are 130 million children who are not enrolled in primary school and 70 per cent of them are girls. Women and girls around the world are more likely to live in poverty due to discriminatory and unjust economic policies, pervasive gender inequality, war and instability and climate change. Human society has to work for sexual and reproductive health and rights, freedom from violence, economic justice, and leadership as these are the critical building blocks for women’s rights. When a woman has these rights, she can be strong, safe, powerful, and heard. Cultural and religious factors are hurdles to women empowerment so the greatest need of the hour is to change the social attitude towards women. There is need to envision a world where all women, girls, and trans people have a voice and choice in the work they do. They are paid equal wages in safe and secure workplaces and they have access to justice and rights. Strengthening women’s leadership should be priority area because it is an integral part of social perception towards women status. The future of women’s human rights depends on a strong pipeline of diverse young women leaders, as well as on creating opportunities for leaders from different generations and movements to learn from each other. Long lists of international and national initiatives are available on the websites of various governments and United Nations but the tangible results are still awaited mainly because of poor/ half heartedly implementation.

31 - 58 (28 Pages)
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4 Empowering Women Through Entrepreneurship Development in Beekeeping
Devinder Sharma, Hafeez Ahmad, R S Bandral, Suheel A Ganai

Abstract Beekeeping or modern apiculture is the art and science of rearing, breeding and managing honey bee colonies in artificial hives for economic benefits. Beekeeping has evolved into a farming enterprise that involves the use of sophisticated and artificial techniques to keep honey bees for bee products. It is estimated that beekeeping is practiced in about four lakh villages and provide employment to over 3.50 lakh persons. The existing vegetation wealth of India can sustain six million bee colonies which would produce six lakh metric tonnes of honey besides generating part time employment to more than 15 million rural and tribal households. Rural women have long working hours, spent on food production and processing and/or waged labour, in addition to family care and domestic duties. However, beekeeping represents one opportunity for income generation which need not be time consuming and can fit in well with women’s priority activities. Population, female (% of total) in India was reported at 48.18 % in 2017, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators. Rural population (% of total population) was reported at 66.46 % (83.3 crore) in 2017 as compared to urban population (37.7 crore). There are fewer women than men beekeepers, but women beekeepers are found throughout the developing countries of every continent. Participation of rural women and youth in beekeeping activities provides a unique opportunity to improve rural livelihood and hence poverty reduction. Beekeeping as an agro-industry presents tremendous potential and requires attention on part of planners, policy makers, development agencies and researchers on the one hand and wider publicity about the commercial and scientific uses of beekeeping products on the other. In order to increase income accrued from beekeeping activities, promoting and support of training on processing of secondary bee products to women and youth beekeepers are important. Stakeholder’s involvement in promoting and support beekeeping awareness campaigns is crucial to enhance the contribution of the sector for livelihood improvement and environmental conservation.

59 - 90 (32 Pages)
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5 Empowering Women in Science and Technology Through Gender Specific Initiatives
Rashmi Sharma, Chander Mohan

Abstract Gender Budgeting was first introduced in 1985 and is being implemented globally by more than 50 countries to ensure gender equality goals. India took initial steps towards analysing the gender gap through “Towards Equality” a Report of the Committee on the Status of Women by the Government of India in 1974. Gender based resource allocation in the country was seen from 1990s onwards in the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) when for the first time gender perspective and the need to ensure definite flow of funds from general developmental sectors to women was emphasised upon. Women constitute 49% of human population in India so it is extremely important that the untapped gender potential is recognized, reorganised and utilized efficiently & effectively to attain a leading position in S&T sector. India has expanded her R&D base immensely since the turn of the 21st century. Consequently there has been 10 times enhancement in enrolment of women in S&T disciplines in institutions of higher education since 1989-90. Department of Science and Technology has taken many steps in recent past to strengthen the ecosystem to empower women in S&T domain, particularly by enabling over 4000 of them who had a break in career, primarily due to familial responsibilities, to make a dignified comeback. Several Role Models, who have shown their mettle and made a mark in the chosen field, are emerging and engaging & encouraging the young, Gen Next girls.

91 - 102 (12 Pages)
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6 Women Empowerment for Strong and Sustainable Globalization
Renu Agrawal, Rashmi Sharma

Woman is an incarnation of ‘Shakti’the Goddess of Power. If she is bestowed with education, world’s strength will double. Let the campaign of ‘Kanya Kelavni’ be spread in every home; let the lamp of educating daughters be lit up in every heart across the regions and religions of the world. Abstract Globalization defines a new process of economic integration which is fuelled by neoliberal ideals claiming that an unregulated market economy maximizes economic efficiency and growth. Concept of equability and women empowerment provides durable strength and sustainable development to the programs aimed at promotion of commerce and trade through globalization. The post 2015 Development Agenda have not done much to address the large inequalities and discrimination against women. Global initiatives designed to benefit the daily lives of women and girls not being implemented effectively. This is especially for decision making and financial systems. The right to women needs to be ensured in order: to participate in the elaboration and implementation of development planning at all levels, to have access to adequate health care facilities, including information, counselling and services in family planning, to benefit directly from social security programmes, to obtain all types of training and education, formal and informal. All forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere must be ended. Out of the seventeen sustainable development goals (SDGs), not even the single one will be achieved without including women and girls as equal partners. All countries hold the same responsibility to ensure the full implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development within their own borders, and to support other countries in achieving the SDGs which includes reaffirming and contributing to the fulfilment of gender equality. Women and girls have to be equal partners in sustainable development.

103 - 112 (10 Pages)
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7 Empowering Women Through Small Scale Entrepreneurs: Problems Faced and Factors Associated
JK Gill, Sharanbir Kaur Bal

Abstract Women in India constitute a larger proportion of total unemployed population and hence it is imperative to find out the entrepreneurial problems faced by them. A study was conducted with the objectives to ascertain the financial, marketing and production problems faced by women in their enterprises and assessment of their health status and work place facilities. Boutiques, beauty parlors, embroidery units, fruit and vegetable preservation units and artificial jewelry making were the enterprises selected for study. The results of the study revealed that women faced problems in areas like finance, marketing, health, work place and production. Some recommendations of the study are a) Women entrepreneurs should keep abreast of knowledge about new techniques, financial institutions, training institutions and marketing linkages. b) Information about site or location, physical facilities, transportation etc. must be collected prior to selection of area for development of an enterprise. c) Self help mutually aided groups must be formulated for overcoming common entrepreneurial problems. d) Women should shift to the non-traditional sectors of entrepreneurship in order to earn more.

113 - 120 (8 Pages)
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8 Women Empowerment Through Entrepreneurship Development
Latika Sharma

Abstract Women make up almost half of the agricultural labour force in developing countries (43 per cent according to UN Women data). Empowerment of women is central to achieving the objective of inclusive, equitable and sustainable development. Between the period 2007-08 and 2009-10, the share of person-days in casual employment in MANREGS to the total person-days in all economic activities has also increased. The increase was marginal for male workers but significant for female workers. This again confirms that female workers have been the largest beneficiaries of MANREGS projects. The share of female participation in these public works is more than the share of their male counterparts. The survey shows that women comprise only 13.76% of the total entrepreneurs, i.e., 8.05 million out of the 58.5 million entrepreneurs. Among the states, the largest share in number of establishments under women entrepreneurship is of Tamil Nadu (13.51%) followed by Kerala (11.35%), Andhra Pradesh (10.56%), West Bengal (10.33%) and Maharashtra (8.25%). Average employment per establishment for women owned establishments is 1.67. The main challenges that women face in business are educational and work background, balancing their time share between work and family, problems of raising start-up capital, difficulty in borrowing fund, thought-cut completions endangered existence of small companies, problems of availing raw- materials access to export market without intermediaries, as well as an overall psychological barrier on the part of banks, suppliers, and clients alike. Govt of India and different bodies such as NGOs, voluntary organizations, self-help groups, institutions and individual enterprises from rural and urban areas are active to help the women entrepreneurs in their ventures.

121 - 130 (10 Pages)
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9 Beekeeping: An Entrepreneurship for Women Empowerment and Livelihood Security
Poonam Sharma, Akash Sharma, NK Tripathi Shwetambri Jasrotia, Preetpal Kour

Abstract Participation of rural women and youth in beekeeping activities provides a unique opportunity to improve rural livelihood and poverty reduction. Women have explored their own niche in beekeeping industry by actively engaging in post harvesting of bee products. Income generation is one of the major reasons for participating in beekeeping activities and beekeeping was ranked number one at the same level as agriculture as major source of income. Post harvesting beekeeping, however, needs liquid capital investment which, limit women and youth to fully participate in the business. Cultural practices are also one of the main hindrances for adult women and youth to participate in beekeeping activities. Nonetheless, presence of beekeeping groups and associations, community banks, forest reserves and beekeeping awareness campaigns in the areas provided opportunities for women and youth to participate in beekeeping. Beekeeping represents one opportunity for income generation which need not be time consuming and can fit in well with women’s priority activities. women be given the opportunity to start beekeeping, it is important that all beekeeping development programs ensure from the outset that extension messages reach rural women, and that they are able to take full advantage of training and credit facilities.

131 - 138 (8 Pages)
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10 Women Empowerment Through Development of Value-Added Livestock Products
Sunil Kumar, Arvind Kumar, MA Malik, Anita Tanwar

Abstract Gender equity is more pronounced in livestock sector where more than 70% participation is from women side as compared to 33% in agricultural farming. About 75 million women are engaged in livestock sector. In India, livestock production is largely in the hands of women. In fact animal husbandry is becoming feminized. At present about 22% of milk and 2% percent of meat is processed into value-added products for trade while in developed countries it is above 90% and 60%, respectively. Traditional dairy products not only have established market in India but also great export potential because of strong presence of Indian diaspora in many part of the world. Value addition to dairy foods would provide health benefits to the consumers and improve the scale of economy in the dairy industry. Nearly half of the milk produced in India (50-55%) is utilized for the manufacture of value-added milk products but only 22% of the total milk produced is processed by the organized dairy sector. Conversion of surplus milk into indigenous milk products in and around production areas is least expensive and more profitable. Most of the animal farming activities such as cleaning of barn, washing of animals and hygienic maintenance, fodder collection, feeding, watering, and health care, management, milking, collection of dung for fertilizer and fuel, care of sick, pregnant and lactating animals, milking, household-level processing and value addition (ghee, curd, khoa, lassi and desi butter-making) are undertaken by women. However adoption of value-added livestock products as an entrepreneurship is scarce activity because of lack of training and financial liberties.

139 - 152 (14 Pages)
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11 Production, Processing and Post Harvest Handling of Fruit Crops Avenues for Women Empowerment
Akash Sharma, Satish Sharma, Vikas Sharma, Rohit Sharma, Vishal Gupta, Pradeep Rai

Abstract India is one among the major fruit producing countries of the world and offers opportunities of women empowerment through quality fruit production, planting material generation and production of value added products. There is a great opportunity to increase and improve the production of tropical, subtropical, and temperate fruits. Underutilized fruits also have a huge potential waiting to be exploited. This will only be possible with a concerted effort by researchers and growers, especially women to improve quality and increase production based on consumer demand and export potential. Women play significant role in fruit production activities. Unfortunately their access to knowledge, technology, finance, information, and training is minimal which hampers productivity of fruit crops. The mode of female participation in agricultural production varies with the land owning status of farm households. Their roles range from managers to landless labourers. In all farm production, women’s average contribution is estimated at 55 percent to 66 percent of the total labour with percentages much higher in certain regions. About 48 percent of India’s self-employed farmers are women. Thus, rural India is witnessing a process of transition which could be described as feminization of agriculture particularly fruit crop cultivation and their post harvest management. Women play an active role in various production and postproduction activities of horticultural crops. The number of women engaged in horticulture has increased continuously in the past two-three decades due to various factors such as migration of men to urban areas in search of non-farm income, increase in the demand of labour force in construction and other sectors. The data on the women involved in horticulture sector are scanty however the involvement of women in various operations of cultivation and post harvest handling and storage is very high because of entrepreneurial nature of horticulture. There is need to adopt collective and SHG approach to take women contributions to socio-economic significance. Thus horticulture, especially the pre-harvest and post harvest management of fruit crops have considerable employment avenues for women and make horticulture an effective subject of women empowerment.

153 - 162 (10 Pages)
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12 Women Entrepreneurship An Indian Perspective
Satish K Sharma, Vikas Sharma, Akash Sharma, Vishal Gupta Rohit Sharma, Amarjit Nath, Neetu Sharma, Upma Dutta Sudhir, K. Singh, Mamta Sharma, Vishaw Vikas

Abstract Women entrepreneurship means the process in which women initiate a business, gather all resources, undertake risks, face challenges, provides employment to others and manage the business independently. Where women population hovers around 50% of the total human population in the world so entrepreneurship by them plays a key role in the development of economy of both developed and developing nations. The problems faced by women entrepreneurs are heavy work load, irregular payment, lack of work guarantee and no maternity benefits, health problems, marketing, financial liberty and being away from home. A different culture is required to promote, motivate and develop sustainable infrastructure for fostering women entrepreneurship. Often, an entrepreneur has to go through a complex set of procedures and formalities to start a business, which not only create irritations and delays but frustrate her efforts until she is exhausted. An urgent need, therefore, is to simplify procedures and formalities. Part of the problem is one of attitudes, which are built on regulatory roles rather than developmental roles. All training and financial agencies need to be gender sensitive. The time has come for an effort to inculcate a spirit of enterprise, self-dependence, creativity, and high goals among women in developing nations. Hence, entrepreneurship must be made part and parcel of the education curriculum.

163 - 174 (12 Pages)
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13 Secondary Agriculture A Sea of Opportunities for Women Empowerment
Jag Paul Sharma

Abstract Women work two-third of the world’s working hours, produce half of the world’s food yet 60% of the world’s hungry are women. They earn only 10% of the world’s income and own less than one per cent of the world’s property. It reveals deep-rooted gender disparity in human society. But I perceive the secondary agriculture an emerging area with vast opportunities for socio-economic transformation and women empowerment across the globe in a way that conventional agriculture doesn’t have. Secondary agriculture is less affected by climatic factors, relatively stable and more amenable to feminization because of off-field nature. If properly supported it could be an effective tool to promote women empowerment and narrow down gender disparity in rural areas. Secondary Agriculture is not a Secondary Sector economic activity and it broadly embraces to product development through agro-processing (food and nonfood), within the all enterprise classes of small or medium or large scale industry. Being entrepreneurial in nature it assures better remuneration and socio-economic security than primary agriculture. An orientation from production agriculture to product development is an essential pathway to sustainable women empowerment as it will lead to shift from subsistence farming to business farming. Later has the potential to contribute to a range of social and economic developments such as employment generation, income generation, poverty reduction and improvements in family nutrition, health and overall food security to the persons engaged in agri-business farming.

175 - 192 (18 Pages)
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14 Women Empowerment for Rural Transformation
Shahid Ahamad, Banarsi Lal, Vishaw Vikas, Amitesh Sharma

Abstract 84 per cent of the Indian rural women livelihood depends on agriculture. It is estimated that 52-75 per cent of the Indian women engaged in agriculture are illiterate. Prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women ranges between 50%-90%. From these facts it infers that ghost of food and nutritional security haunts the rural women health and prosperity. Female participation in the economic activities also determines the sex ratio because the work determines the worth in the society. It has been observed that in those families where women participate in economic activities, this problem is not severe as compared to those families which do not participate in economic activities. Diverse areas of entrepreneurship exists in rural India for women empowerment. This potential can be realized through policy and infrastructure support from the government and by strengthening proactive synergies among various farm and non-farm sectors activities. Although we are proud of the Indian women in the global arena yet we have peer into the atrocities against them in the name of female foeticide, gender inequality, sexual harassment, dowry system and many more evils with promotion of involvement in socio-economic enterprises, if rural transformation is to be achieved.

193 - 206 (14 Pages)
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15 Role of Integrating Gender in Weather Based Agromet Advisories on Farm
Mahender Singh, Veena Sharma

Abstract Women play a critical and potentially transformative role in agricultural growth in developing countries but they face persistent obstacles and economic constraints limiting their potential inclusion in agriculture. The feminization of agriculture is determined by two major factors, first compared to men, women have much poorer access to and control over productive resources and they have inadequate access to public services, such as training, extension and credit. Women farmers often lack the know-how and the confidence to use the improved technology and most of the new technologies. The reason being most of these advancements are aimed at male specific end users. Giving support to rural women is a way of breaking the vicious cycle that leads to rural poverty so there is need to cut the drudgery of women farmers and make their efforts worthwhile and economical. Development strategies should consider rural women as the epicenter, paying special attention to their social skills both within and without agriculture sector. In terms of equity, women overall have lower awareness of AAS than men do, indicating the importance of targeting women in communications efforts. More trainings are required to generate interest and motivate farm women to learn about the AAS and use it. Closing the gender productivity gap could increase agricultural output in by a significant amount. Increased production would also imply increased food availability and reductions in undernourishment. Integrating Gender and Agriculture within Agricultural Extension System empowers families, helps women to contribute to household incomes, increases productivity & reduces gender gaps in agriculture.

207 - 218 (12 Pages)
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16 Dry Cattle Farming: Solution for Stray Animal Management and a Source of Additional Income
Nazam Khan, Vikas Mahajan, Sabhyata Sharma, Manpreet Kour, SA Khandii

Abstract Cattle are reared for milk and dry periods are considered loss to the exchequer of livestock farmers. To avoid it, farmers mostly abandon the cattle to become stray animals. Latest research supports that cow dung and urine are endowed with versatile medicinal, biofertilizer and bio-pesticide properties of socioeconomic importance. This has given the concept of dry cattle farming where focus is utilities of cow dung and urine and their value added products. Cow urine is useful for numerous human ailments like, cancer, osteoarthritis, allergies, kidney failures, skin diseases, healing of wounds etc. Cow dung is main source for vermicompost, FYM and biogas. Many products containing cow dung and urine i.e. soap (23% cow dung content and 7% urine), toothpaste (10% cow dung content and 10% urine, 2% Ghee), floor cleaners (Gaunyle: 11% cow urine), hair oil, incense shaving cream, face wash, talcum powders and dark circle removers are available in the market. The term cowpathy has been coined for diverse uses of cow dung and urine and is now focal area of research and innovative products development. Further, the dry cattle farming offers solution to problems of stray animals and helps in empowering the women farming community to exploit dry farming for more profit, product development and economic strengthening.

219 - 228 (10 Pages)
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17 Entrepreneurship in Mushroom Cultivation for Rural Women Empowerment
Vikas Gupta, Vishal Gupta, Sachin Gupta, VK Razdan

Abstract Mushroom cultivation is a women friendly entreprise. High benefit cost ratio, easy and cheap availability of agro-wastes and congenial weather conditions make adoption of mushroom cultivation a lucrative source of rural women empowerment. The rural and tribal farm women can adopt agriculture based agribusiness on individual or group level and raise their income and employment opportunities which make them economically and socially empowered. Mushroom production, Bee-keeping, Dairy, Goatery, Seed production, cultivation of fruits, flower and vegetables can increase the income of rural and tribal farmers up to 70-80%. Mushroom production can be adopted even by landless rural women. Further value-added mushroom products provide good potential for entrepreneurs in view of the growing demand. The focus of Indian mushroom industry is predominantly on trade of the fresh produce rather than the real value-addition. Almost entire domestic trade is in the fresh form while most of the export is in the preserved form (canned or steeped). Current era is characterized by greater awareness about quality and, above all, with the demand for the readymade or ready-to-make food products. Technologies for production of some other products like mushroom based biscuits, nuggets, noodles, papad, candies, pickle and readymade mushroom curry have been developed and trainings need to be imparted to the stakeholders. Attractive packaging of the value-added products is yet another area called the secondary value-addition which can add to profit of the entrepreneurs.

229 - 238 (10 Pages)
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18 Women Empowerment Through Livestock Based Enterprises
Pragya Bhadauria, Rajbir Singh

Abstract Livestock sector has gained momentum world over with consistently increasing market demand for live stock products. India with annual 171 million tons of liquid milk production, 74 billion egg production, 3.8 million tons of poultry meat and 11.50 million ton of fish production offers enormous opportunities for women agri-preneurs to venture into this area. Micro-enterprise development related to livestock rearing activities like dairy farming, sheep husbandry, goatry, poultry, livestock feed production, vermin-composting and value added product development and production are the important enterprises in which women can utilize their technical skills. Finance for infrastructure and small scale agro-processing units are requisites to success of rural women entrepreneurs as these will help them to enhance their competency to use raw materials from the farm and livestock to earn substantial income. Rural women entrepreneurs are facing tough competition from the large scale organizations and urban entrepreneurs where governmental interventions are essential. The women producers are not collective in their approach for marketing their products because they are scattered and mostly uneducated. The women entrepreneurs are heavily dependent on middlemen for marketing of their products who pocket large amount of profit. Hence, government should take steps to provide market information of different products and finance to the rural entrepreneurs at concessional rates.

239 - 254 (16 Pages)
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19 Women Empowerment Through Hi-Tech Kitchen Garden: Kerala a Case Study
P. Suseela

Abstract Most of the vegetables available in the market contain large quantity of pesticide residue. This has created serious health problems among the people. Self-sufficiency in safe to eat vegetable production can be achieved either by commercial production or better farming by family in kitchen garden. As quality control mechanism is not strong and well established, the produce from commercial farming can’t be assured as safe to eat product. The continuous effort taken by our centre and other existing systems in the state for the last six years have made the people aware about the quality of vegetables. In Kerala, most of the families, especially in town and nearby areas are having only 3 to 10 percent of land. The space they can spare for vegetable production either on the ground or on roof top is hardly 10 to 40m2. Pest and disease attack is another issue in Kerala. Hence our centre gave importance for the design and development of 10m2 /20m2 /30m2 poly-kitchen garden which could accommodate 160 to 350 plants (almost all pest susceptible crops required for a family can be accommodated inside these structures.) suitable for a family by utilizing multi-tier grow bags (one multi-tier grow bag can accommodate 35 to 50 plants), grow bags and troughs. In these structures, cultivation practices can be done even during night without the fear of snake and mosquitoes by fitting a fluorescent lamp. This technology was approved by Government of Kerala and declared 75% subsidy for establishing this full facility for a family. In order to popularize this technology among the public, we had conducted many training programmes and empowered the women (house wife/employed woman) in vegetable production and to make their mindset to ensure a kitchen garden (either a conventional type grow bag kitchen garden or poly-kitchen garden) in their house plot. When we started working with this goal (in 2013, when project was started), < 20% of required vegetables for the state was produced in the state. On account of our continuous effort, by the year 2016, state managed to pick up its vegetable production by 64.5%

255 - 270 (16 Pages)
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20 Women Empowerment Through Entrepreneurship in Commercial Production of Biocontrol Agents
Vishal Gupta, VK Razdan, Kausar Fatmia, Aarushi Singh, PK Rai, Vikas Gupta

Abstract Indiscriminate and intuitive applications of the synthetic pesticides have adversely affected the ecological balance, resulting in pest resurgence, development of resistance in the pest species and environmental pollution. Biocontrol agents are now available to contain effectively diverse diseases and pests of various major field, fruit and vegetable crops with the result their demand in market has enhanced several folds but low production and scarce availability is a major constraint in their large scale adoption by farmers. While as now protocols for mass production of a number of biocontrol agents have been standardised and simplified, these can now be adopted by the unemployed educated youths to start entrepreneurship for self employment. In order to empower and improve the women farmers’ productivity, they need to have proper farm training and capacity building programs to compete various challenges in their rural livelihood and mass production of bio-control agents is an emerging enterprise with commercial potential. The Indian bio-pesticide market stands at over US$127 million (7-8% of the global market) and is expected to triple by FY20. The research efforts at the ICAR institutes and SAUs have been targeted to relieve women of the drudgery by providing technologies, time and labour saving tools with good market linkage. Women self help group with proper training can start their own bio-pesticides units for which finance with subsidy is available.

271 - 280 (10 Pages)
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21 Livestock Entrepreneurship An Emerging Self-Employment Option for Youths
Pranav Kumar, Amandeep Singh, HR Bhardwaj, Arvind Kumar, Dhirendra Kumar

Abstract Livestock sector plays an important role in rural livelihood, employment and income generation and is a preferred entrepreneurial area for women and unemployed youths. There are enormous enterprises to venture in livestock sector such dairy, poultry, sheep rearing, goatry, piggery, fisheries, hatcheries, processing, organic dairy, organic poultry, value added products, feed and fodder products, pet-vet consultancy and clinic etc. Women constitute about 69% of workforce engaged in livestock sector right from rearing of animals to production and product development activities. Market oriented milk & milk product production as well as poultry production will be key livestock activities to generate income on a steady daily basis for resource poor households. Livestock-based enterprises are pathways out of poverty for many people in developing countries like India, for whom animals are source of nourishing foods and regular incomes. With demands for milk, meat and eggs rising fast in many developing countries, the raising marketing of animals and animal products also allows many people to take advantage of the new growth opportunities in this sector. The projection of human population in India shows an increasing trend with alarming rate which in turn increases the demand for food especially of animal origin.

281 - 292 (12 Pages)
₹139.00 ₹126.00 + Tax
 
22 Generation of Employment for Rural Women Through Value Addition of Fruits and Vegetables
Meenu Rani, Julie D. Bandral, Monika Sood, Isha Gupta

Abstract Rural women play a vital role in farming system operations and contribute substantially in the physical aspect of farming, livestock management, postharvest and allied activities. Around 43% of the agricultural labour force of developing countries is composed of women dependency. India has achieved self sufficiency in agricultural production, but a considerable amount of production gets spoiled in every year due to inadequate post-harvest management, processing, infrastructure and skill. To uplift the livelihood and economic conditions of the rural women there is an urgent need to impart trainings for skill development regarding the value addition of horticultural crops. This offers tremendous opportunities for women occupation but also inculcate entrepreneurial characteristics in them. Trainings and skill development are useful for rural women as they can add more value to the seasonal fruits and vegetables and generate varieties of products namely Pickle, Murabbaa, Chutney, Jam, Sharbat etc. These efforts enhance their family income by around 30-40 thousands per annum as they fetch more prices of raw produce after processing. Moreover during peak production times glut only promote produce and profit loss. Instead of direct marketing of their produce they can do value addition of their produce and then sell them in market, it not only increases the value of their products but the prices also enhance by many folds. After giving training to rural women, they are motivated to go for self marketing of their produce at domestic and village level. Similar way these trainings can transform the life style and income level of farming families comprehensively.

293 - 302 (10 Pages)
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23 Livestock, Livelihood and Gender Participation of Rural Women in Livestock Management Activities
Preetpal Kour, NK Tripathi, Poonam

Abstract India is an agriculture based country and livestock production is an integral component of farming system and it is generally considered a key asset for rural livelihoods. It offers advantages over other agricultural sectors and it plays a crucial role in the rural economies of developing countries like India. Livestock provide high quality food, cash income and employment. Livestock production is largely in the hands of women. Most of the animal farming activities such as fodder collection, feeding, watering, and health care, management, milking and household-level processing, value addition and marketing are performed by women. Besides, considerable involvement and contribution of women, gender inequalities also exist in Indian villages. Therefore, there is a need to correct gender bias in livestock sector. Efforts are needed to increase the capacity of women to negotiate with confidence and meet their strategic needs.

303 - 312 (10 Pages)
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24 Thirteen Most Exemplary and Aspiring Women
Jag Paul Sharma, Sabhyata Sharma

1. Introduction This information is collected and complied by the authors from various websites for the motivation of readers particularly women. In no way it is exclusive and we do not claim accuracy of facts described here. Mere purpose is to disclose the fact that miracles do not happen but they are conditioned to manifest when determinations are reinforced by confidence. Live not to spend the time but to use it to spread your manifestations the world over.

313 - 330 (18 Pages)
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25 Yogic Science and Technology A Potential Tool for Women Empowerment and Socialization Against Violence
Kusam Lata, Jag Paul Sharma

Abstract February 14, 2019 marks the third anniversary of the One Billion Rising campaign, a new escalation in violence against women that calls for a radical shift to end the global epidemic of abuse that women face worldwide. Violence against women continues to be on rise. This ill-omened barrier to achieving equality, development, peace as well as to the fulfillment of women and girls’ human rights has gone viral. The National Coalition against Domestic Violence reports that 1.3 million women are victims of domestic abuse each year. Violence against women is a serious problem in India, too. Overall, one-third of women age 15-49 have experienced physical violence and about 1 in 10 has experienced sexual violence. It is very disturbing as well as discouraging to think that a country that praises womanhood through epics and their devotion to goddesses can be so demeaning and indifferent when it comes to the common women living in the country. Amid environment of bleak hope, yog with multiple benefits of physical, psychological and mental stresses offers a ray of hope for women. Yog means connectivity with oneself that ignites power to understand strength of one’s own innerself, builds confidence to think of innovative attainments, endure the atrocities of external world and stay moralized. Yog classes run throughout the world providing relief to billions. Yog therapies are in operation to cure social stress, mental fatigue and physiological disorders etc. More research on yog, yog therapy and yogic interventions aided by political and social will are needed to have its effective implications on the women empowerment and sustainability of human world.

331 - 358 (28 Pages)
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26 Women Technology Park : A Way to Women Empowerment & Socio-economic Transformation
Arvind Kumar, Shahid Ahamad, Jag Paul Sharma

Abstract Women Technology Park is a technology modulation and a training centre to show case livelihood technologies for women. The aim of Women Technology Park is to create awareness among rural farming community and give trainings of proven technology to reap maximum benefits from their existing resources. Its objective is to make them aware about “processing” that can enhance their income in multiple times. In this direction, the first ever Women Technology Park (WTP) of Jammu and Kashmir was sponsored by SEED division of Department of Science and Technology, Government of India and endorsed by Livestock Products Division FVSc, SKUAST-Jammu. It was inaugurated by Vice chancellor of SKUAST- Jammu at Deoli Village of Bishnah Block, Jammu and Kashmir. 12 groups of women were screened out and trainings were imparted to them for a week. More than 75 training cum awareness programs have been organized with more than 1500 beneficiaries. There are more than 50 beneficiaries who received start up grant in the form of goods essential for preparing livestock products and started up their own micro-enterprises and became self-reliant and set an example for other women to come up and take up processing of livestock products as profession to earn their livelihood.

359 - 376 (18 Pages)
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27 End Pages

Subject Index A AAS program 214 Adverse sex ratio 195 Affluent entrepreneurs 167 Agaricus bisporus 231 Agricultural development 160, 211, 216, 231 Agriculture 26, 43, 46, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 82, 87, 88, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 133, 134, 136, 140, 154, 155, 156, 158, 159, 160, 161, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 188, 189, 191, 194, 199, 200, 202, 203, 204, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 216, 221, 222, 226, 230, 231, 232, 233, 240, 241, 242, 246, 248, 250, 257, 259, 267, 273, 274, 275, 278, 279, 280, 294, 299, 304, 379, 380, 381, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394 Agri-horti-preneurships 387 Amrapalli 158 Apiary 63, 68, 70, 72, 73, 81, 83, 132 Apiary placement 72 Apis cerana 71, 73 Apis mellifera 71, 72, 73, 80, 83 APJ Abdul Kalam 165 Aquaculture 46, 188, 245, 287 Arabian countries 135 Article 15 of the constitution 198 Arundhati Bhattacharya 313, 315 Aspiring women 171, 313 Astanga yog 347

 
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