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Gopal Kumar Sharma, Anil Dutt Semwal, Janifer Raj Xavier
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Gopal Kumar Sharma
Gopal Kumar Sharma: Former Additional Director & Head, Grain Science and Technology Division, DRDO-DFRL

Anil Dutt Semwal
Anil Dutt Semwal: Director, DRDO-DFRL, Mysuru, Karnataka, India

Janifer Raj Xavier
Janifer Raj Xavier: Scientist, Fruits and Vegetables Technology Division, DRDO-DFRL, Mysuru, Karnataka, India

The prime focus of this book is to present systematically the importance as well as critical research carried out across the globe to benefit humankind by use of fermentation technology which brought revolutionary changes in improving the health of consumer and thrown light on the changes brought down in the form of nutrition, flavor, their beneficial effect on gut micro biota and enhancement of shelf life to reasonable times.

This book is unique and provides an up-to-date comprehensive reference of fermented foods and beverages. The handbook of fermented foods provides in-depth information on seven categories of fermented foods prepared using cereals, pulses, millets, fruits and vegetables, fish, meat and dairy produce. Chapters are devoted specifically for fermentation of major foods and their health benefits. Recent trends in genetic manipulation of lactic acid bacteria, safety aspects of complex microorganisms used in production of fermented foods and their impact on human micro biome has been elucidated. Effect of fermentation process on shelf stability, rheology and sensory attributes, bioactive and anti-nutritional components and flavor and aroma profile are also outlined in detail. Recent trends in fortification, interventions of nanotechnology in packaging of fermented foods and challenges faced by industry in scale up and automation of production of fermented foods has been discussed. Moreover, importance of submerged and solid state fermentation, enzyme production, wine making, role of prebiotics and probiotics in modulation of health are also outlined.

The 23 chapters in this book have been authored by reputed contributors having in-depth knowledge of their specialization from government, industry and academia making this book an essential reference for researchers, academicians, students as well as functional food experts and it will certainly drive future research in unexplored areas of traditional fermented foods and reveal importance of modern technological interventions in the field of fermentation technology of foods.

0 Start Pages

Food fermentation, an ancient food preservation method, involves action of microorganisms and their metabolites produced during fermentation to stabilize and transform food to make it more nutritious. Fermented foods are consumed since antiquity and form identity of cultural tradition as well a delightful treat for gastrointestinal system. Preservative effect of fermentation processes is attributed to environment created by metabolites such as organic acids, alcohol and carbon dioxide. Microbial catalysis and chemical degradation brings major changes and impart characteristic aroma and flavor into foods subjected to fermentation. The renewed interest on fermented food products in recent times is mainly driven by purported health benefits of using food as medicine. The awareness among consumers to prefer food over nutraceuticals, along with changing perception on the role of natural ingredients in promoting health and well being, plays a major role in tremendous rise in demand for functional foods. Greater emphasis on natural products over synthesized ones in the current scenario paves the way to revisit fermentation process, not only as a preservation technique but also as a method to prepare functional food to maintain overall health and well being. Health benefits associated with fermented foods may be attributed to beneficial microorganisms and their health promoting metabolites. Complex interactions of micro biota in digestive tract are found to influence proper digestion and immunity. The prime focus of this book is to present systematically the importance as well as critical research carried out across the globe to benefit humankind by use of fermentation technology which brought revolutionary changes in improving the health of consumer and thrown light on the changes brought down in the form of nutrition, f lavor, their beneficial effect on gut micro biota and enhancement of shelf life to reasonable times. This book is unique and provides an up-to-date comprehensive reference of fermented foods and beverages. The handbook of fermented foods provides in-depth information on seven categories of fermented foods prepared using cereals, pulses, millets, fruits and vegetables, fish, meat and dairy produce. Chapters are devoted specifically for fermentation of above mentioned foods and their health benefits. Recent trends in genetic manipulation of lactic acid bacteria, safety aspects of complex microorganisms used in production of fermented foods and their impact on human micro biome has been elucidated. Effect of fermentation process on shelf stability, rheology and sensory attributes, bioactive and anti-nutritional components and f lavor and aroma profile are also outlined in detail. Recent trends in fortification, interventions of nanotechnology in packaging of fermented foods and challenges faced by industry in scale up and automation of production of fermented foods has been discussed. Moreover, importance of submerged and solid state fermentation, enzyme production, wine making, role of prebiotics and probiotics in modulation of health are also outlined.

1 Fermentation as Preservation: Principles and Current Trends
Priyanka Kajla, Bhupendar Singh Khatkar

Introduction Fermentation is one of the oldest food preservation techniques that can be traced back thousands of years. Fermentation is referred as one of method of biopreservation as it leads to extending the shelf life of foods that involve the use of microorganisms and their metabolites. (Ross et al., 2002) For millennia, the fermentation of food by using micro organisms has been used as a technique for ensuring shelf life extension and improving the quality characteristics, texture and flavour of food products as well as to develop new innovative products. The major bacteria used in food fermentation worldwide are lactic acid bacteria (LAB). LAB is a multitude of genera including Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, and Enterococcus. Lactic acid bacteria constitutes a diverse group of bacteria that enjoys the status of “generally regarded as safe” (GRAS) and “qualified presumption of safety” (QPS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), respectively. In this respect, starter microorganisms are known to produce a wide array of antimicrobial and protein-acoustic compounds to inhibit the growth of undesirable flora in foodstuffs resulting in shelf life extension. (Hill et al., 2017).

1 - 18 (18 Pages)
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2 Transformation of Food Constituents and Generation of Flavours and Aroma by Fermentation
Prapulla S. G.

Introduction Commonly available food materials especially dairy products, cereals and fruits are perishable and require processing for long term storage. The methods of food storage has been known from the pre historic times and was mostly based on processing the food into a more stable form with a longer shelf life. Such processes increases the time range of food availability and in many cases improves the taste thereby, cumulatively improving the food value. One of documented method of food preservation is by fermentation and is age old. Other commonly used methods include drying, refrigeration, salting and fermentation (Luck 1985, Paulus, 1985, Christensen et al., 2003, Martindale and Schiebel, 2017). Flavour and appeal of food has been considered as one of the important factors contributing to the demand of the food. Originally the flavours were largely plant derived, current industrial practices largely utilise synthesis by chemical reactions and subsequent extraction to achieve a uniform quality (Weckerle et al., 2006, Davidovich-Rikanati et al., 2008, Sethupathy et al., 2018). These chemicals referred to as “flavourings” are defined as compounds that enhance the taste, appeal and palatability of food. They are naturally derived or artificially synthesised compounds. Considering that many artificially synthesised chemical flavours might affect the health adversely. Industrial food research has now shifted their focus on flavourings that are naturally available (Cohen et al., 2018). Such naturally occurring flavourings are referred to as bio-flavours (de Billerbeck 2015). The ease of producing bio active compounds from microbial culture extracts has played significant role in industrial food biotechnology (Verachtert et al., 2005).

19 - 34 (16 Pages)
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3 Complexity and Safety of Microorganisms in Fermented Foods
B. Renuka, R. Shylaja, M. M. Parida

Introduction Fermentation is the process in which edible microorganisms invade food substrates and convert them into fermented foods including beverages, using their enzymatic and metabolic processes. These end products will have nontoxic flavors, aroma and texture which enhance the palatability. The word “fermentation” is originated from a Latin word fermentare, defined as “to leaven” (Frias et al., 2016). It is one of the oldest food processing technologies used by humans to preserve perishable food materials for long time, dated back to ancient human civilization (Hutkins, 2008). Globally, more than 5000 varieties of fermented foods are currently in use which includes traditionally fermented dairy products such as Dahi in India to industrial production of wines from fruits (Tamang, 2010) (Table 1 and Figure 1). Biochemically, fermentation is a metabolic process in which energy is derived from organic compounds without the involvement of an exogenous oxidizing agent. Fermentation may result in the production of many by-products such as carbon dioxide, alcohol, organic acids (lactic acid, acetic acid), vitamins, enzymes etc. which are now having more importance in food industries (Caplice and Fitzgerald 1999).

35 - 64 (30 Pages)
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4 Fermentation: Effects on Bioactives, Nutraceutical Benefits and Anti-nutritional Factors in Food
N. Raaman

Introduction Fermented foods are those foods which have been subjected to the action of microorganisms or enzymes that cause desirable biochemical changes and significant modification of the food (Campbell-Piatt, 1994). Fermented foods are usually produced using ingredients of plants or animals in combination with bacteria or fungi. The bacteria or fungi are either sourced from cultures maintained by humans or from the environment. The origins of fermented foods go back many thousands of years, with early evidence of the alcoholic fermentations of barley to beer and grapes to wine. Evidence suggests that fermented foods were consumed 7,000 years ago in Babylon (Battcock and Azam-Ali, 1998).Throughout the world, the fermented foods are used by the people. It plays a major role in the diet in many developing countries. Several traditional fermented foods are prepared in rural areas of many countries.

65 - 114 (50 Pages)
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5 Role of Fermentation on Rheological Properties and Sensory Attributes
Mamta Bhardwaj, Renuka Singh, Yogesh Kumar, Darmesh Chandra Saxena

Introduction Fermentation has been an integral part of food processing throughout the history of mankind. In beginning, it was mainly preservation method, then it became key process in substantial sensory characteristic development and now it is utilized to improve overall properties of outcome from major industries like bakery, dairy, beverages, etc. The human understanding of controlled fermentation process changes its fundamental objective by exploring its success in development of rheological and texture characteristics. The biochemical transformation of raw food due to fermentation affects the organoleptic as well as rheological properties of a product. The changes in rheological as well as sensory properties is related with the modification of major component by the action of microorganism. For example, transformation of polysaccharides in bread dough by action of yeast produce ethanol, CO2 and other simple compound which modify sensory as well as rheology of dough. The major micro-structural, bio-compositional and bio-chemical changes are due to microbial action are frequently described to understand the effect of fermentation on rheological as well as sensory properties of food products. The rate and quality of these associated major changes mainly depends upon concentration of saccharides for growth of microorganism as well as nature and existing microflorae. Hence, a proper monitoring of changes in rheological and sensory properties is necessary to optimize the controlled fermentation as well as design of process parameters from engineering and consumer point of view. The biochemical changes directly responsible for changes in basic rheological and sensory characteristic including flow behavior, consistency, viscoelastic properties, hardness, adhesiveness, color, aroma, flavor and mouthfeel. The food industry is so diverse and exploring new and possibilities to catch diverse consumer worldwide, a proper understanding of effect of fermentation on mentioned properties will be key to hold competitive market. Hence, the present chapter will cover the basics of rheology and its role in food industry, effect of fermentation on rheological and sensory attributes of major class of food.

115 - 136 (22 Pages)
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6 Fermented Foods: Impact on Human Micro Biome and Beyond
Janifer Raj Xavier, Pal Murugan Muthiah, Gopal Kumar Sharma

Introduction Fermentation of food dates back to ancient practice of wine making. Fermented foods reflect culture and tradition of folklore and emphasis their close association with nature. Various methods employed for fermenting foods aimed in food preservation to reduce wastage; however lactic acid fermentation enhanced nutrition content and improved organoleptic properties. Experimental evidences on benefits on health and wellness on consumption of fermented foods are being reported. Fermentation process used for preparation of indigenous or traditional foods often depend entirely on natural microflora on the surface of raw material and containers used; Practices of fermenting foods are passed on as traditional know how to generations as a legacy. The fermented food manufacturers rely on commercial starter cultures, and highly reliant on indigenous materials as microbial collections are unique and highly variable according to region and products. Therefore, isolation of novel organisms, development of newer products and interactions are being explored using variety of fermented foods obtained through traditional processes

137 - 160 (24 Pages)
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7 Cereal Based Fermented Foods and Beverages: Functional and Nutraceutical Properties
Deep N.Yadav, Antima Gupta, Swati Sethi, Monika Sharma

Introduction Cereals are grown over 73% of the total world harvested area and contribute over 60% to the world food production providing dietary fibre, proteins, energy, minerals and vitamins required for human health. Cereals like rice, maize, wheat, barley, sorghum, and oats are chiefly used in the preparation of traditional fermented foods and beverages. However, the nutritional quality of cereals and the sensory properties of their products are sometimes inferior in comparison with dairy products. The reasons behind this the lower protein content, deficiency of certain essential amino acids, the presence of determined anti-nutrients (phytic acid, tanins and polyphenols) and the coarse nature.

161 - 190 (30 Pages)
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8 Fermented Foods Based on Millets: Recent Trends and Opportunities
Ashwani Kumar, Vidisha Tomer, Amarjeet Kaur, Kartik Sharma, Dimple

Introduction Eradication of malnutrition and hunger (Sustainable Development Goal, SDG-2) are the major challenges to humanity. Availability of sufficient nutritionally balanced food is the prerequisite for ensuring global food security. Food security is also critical for achievement of SDG 1 (poverty eradication) and SDG 3 (health and well-being) (UNDP, 2019). Changing climatic conditions accompanied by global warming not only acts a major threat for achievement of SDGs but could actually lead to the reversal of the progress already made. The escalating global temperature has jeopardized the food security throughout the world. A great decrease in the global crop yield has been suspected even with a 2°C rise in temperature. On field, it is often associated with crop nutrient loss, less accumulation of micronutrients and low availability of micro-minerals like iron and zinc. Additionally, the effect of the rainfall and temperature has also been observed. The global food prices are projected to increase by 3–84% by 2050 due to the fluctuations in rainfall and temperature (Hoegh-Guldberg et al., 2018). Millets are the small seeded grains which belong to family Grassacae/Poaceae. Traditionally, millets are used for the food and feed purpose and are among the oldest cultivated crops. The millet species of commercial importance are proso (Panicum miliaceum), foxtail (Setaria italica), barnyard (Echinochloa esculenta), finger (Eleusine coracana), little (Panicum sumatrense) and pearl (Pennisetum glaucum) in different regions of the world. In India, foxtail millet (priyangava), barnyard millet (aanava) and black finger millet (shyaamaka) have been mentioned even in the Yajurveda texts of 4500 BC (Morya et al., 2017). The records of consumption of foxtail and proso millet are as old as 2000 to 1000 BC in China. Cultivation of foxtail millet in Korean peninsula is documented around 3,500–2,000 BC. Foxtail millet is the oldest of all the cultivated millets and is believed to be originated in Southern Asia. From there, it was spread to Europian nations. In the west, cultivation of millets majorly started after 1850 (ICRISAT, 2019)

191 - 228 (38 Pages)
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9 Pulses/ Legume Based Fermented Foods Functional and Nutraceutical Properties
Pal Murugan Muthiah, Sakshi Sharma, Santosh Pal, Janifer Raj Xavier, Anil Dutt Semwal, Gopal Kumar Sharma

Introduction Foods prepared by fermenting raw ingredients of plant or animal sources naturally or mixing it with the starter culture (s) containing functional micro flora is called fermented foods. The functional micro flora used in starter culture is responsible for biochemical and organoleptic alteration of the substrates into edible yields which are socially and culturally appropriate to consumers (Tamang et al., 2010a, Tamang et al., 2010b). Fermented food has its own characteristic microflora and this group of micro flora increases the nutritional value by increasing the levels of essential amino acids, vitamins, proteins, etc. Fermented foods play a major role in meeting nutritional requirement and socio economic development of developing countries. They are important components of the diet as staples, adjuncts to staples, condiments and beverages. A wide variety of fermenting substrates are available such as cereals, pulses, soya beans, flowers, milk, fish, meat, etc. A wide majority of plants and their parts are often utilized in the preparation of starter culture (Deori et al., 2007, Deka and Sarma, 2010).

229 - 272 (44 Pages)
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10 Functional Properties of Plant Based Fermented Foods Produced by Alkaline Fermentation
A. Jagannath

Introduction One of the main properties of fermented foods whether alkaline or acidic is the presence and activity of beneficial organisms which themselves make these foods functional. These functional micro organisms have varied roles like conversion of the native constituents of raw materials to forms in which they are more bioavailable, formation of taste, colour and flavouring compounds thereby imparting pleasantness to foods, removal of anti-nutritive factors in food by converting them into much less harmful compounds or degrade certain native toxic elements present in food, formation of biopreservatives which will extend the shelf life of foods and provide microbial security, as pathogens and spoilage microorganisms fail to readily grow in such hostile conditions. These functional microorganisms also produce in foods certain health-promoting bioactive compounds like enzymes, vitamins, minerals or increase the digestibility which may not have been in the original food or raw material before fermentation. In other words they improve the nutrition profile of the foods or naturally fortify foods. Some of these beneficial effects may also lead to the formation of certain compounds which show antioxidant properties in foods. These very roles played by these functional micro-organisms form criteria in their selection for use in food fermentations when they are intentionally added to foods both to initiate and accomplish desired fermentations.

273 - 290 (18 Pages)
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11 Beverages as Probiotic Carriers Technological Aspects and Benefits
Madhu Kumari, Shriya Bhatt, Mahesh Gupta

Introduction Over the past few decades, probiotics have become the most promising and emerging field in human nutrition and health across the world including India and other developing countries. The global profit generated from the probiotic market is expected to reach approximately 12,753.4 million US$ by the end of 2026 (Probiotic market report, 2018). The factor fueling the demand for probiotics is the growing awareness among consumers about their health benefits. The association of probiotics with health benefits stretches back to a time before microbes were discovered. However, the scientific evidence of the health benefits of probiotic microorganisms on the wellbeing of the host was firstly proposed by Russian Nobel laureate Ellie Metchnikoff in 1905. He reported that consumption of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus spp. is responsible for the healthy and long life of Bulgarian people (Anukam & Reid, 2007). Afterward, several of scientific progressions were made to reach the current status where probiotics are not only the subject of food and medical research but also the source of a multi-billion dollar global industry. The term probiotic is derived from the Greek words, which means ‘for life’. According to the Food and Agriculture Association of the United Nations (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO), probiotics are defined as “live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount promote the health of the host” (Joint, FAO, 2002). In 2014, International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (IPPA) did minor correction in the definition given by FAO-WHO and defined them as “Live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host”

291 - 308 (18 Pages)
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12 Probiotic Dairy Products and Their Health Benefits
Radhika, M., Renuka, B., Parida, M.M.

Introduction Food is the most vital prerequisite for sustenance of human life and provides adequate nutrients for the metabolism. Recently several hypothesis supports that, beyond meeting nutritional needs, they play beneficial roles in improving health, and minimize the risk of illnesses (Roberfroid, 2000a). In this way, a novel term “functional food” was introduced and plays an outstanding role in improving the overall conditions of the human body (e.g. pre- and probiotics), lessening the threat of some ailments (e.g. cholesterol-lowering products), and also as therapeutics for several diseases (Roberfroid, 2000a, Roberfroid, 2000b, Mollet and Rowland, 2002). Recently throughout the world, an extensive array of functional foods were developed which includes prebiotics, probiotics, synbiotics, foods supplemented with anthocyanins, phytosterols, isoflavones, antioxidants, and fat, sugar and salt-reduced foods. Amongst them, probiotic functional food has exerted beneficial effects on the health and is comprised of both probiotic dairy foods and probiotic non-dairy foods. The demand for dairy probiotic foods are increasing as it attributes to the beneficial health effects on the host by improving the survival of gastrointestinal microflora, production of bioactive compounds and prevention of lactose intolerance. Consequently, production of these foods is a significant research importance for both food manufacturing units and research institutes. Probiotics are the important ingredients for foods with a “healthy” image. It could be combined with other beneficial ingredients or simply used to supplement the natural functional qualities of whole foods. The amalgamation of probiotic bacteria with nutrient rich foods, like dairy products, will have the additional value of improving consumer nutrition.

309 - 340 (32 Pages)
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13 Fish and Meat: Fermentation Technology Microbial Content and Nutraceutical Properties
K. Jayathilakan, Khudsia Sultana

Introduction Fermented meat and fish products have been consumed all over the world since times immemorial and represent one of the most important groups of food. Meat offers its own natural microflora. Hence a wide variety of products have been prepared since ancient times by varying the mixture of meat and salt as well as by the addition of spices and seasonings. Thus, fermented meat products characterize a diversity of flavors and textures and are receiving increased interest from consumers all over the world. Most of these products still depend mainly on local, traditional manufacturing processes since little scientific information is available; but scientific knowledge is very important for consistent production of high quality and safe products. Meat is an essential part of non-vegetarian diet. It is liked for its unique taste and is a rich source of nutrients like good quality animal proteins, essential amino acids and fatty acids, minerals, trace elements and particularly B-complex vitamins (Singh et al., 2013). The growing concern of consumers regarding health and safety issues has led to the development of functional meat products that promote health and well-being, beyond their nutritional benefits (Grasso, et al., 2014; Tyopponen et al., 2003). This has driven researches in the meat processing sector to increase their efforts in producing such functional meat products, which have incorporated functional ingredients, reduced salt, nitrates/nitrites, cholesterol and fat and modified product fatty acid profiles (Zhang et al., 2010). Fermentation of meat produces a wide range of physical, biochemical and microbial changes in the muscle-based product

341 - 366 (26 Pages)
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14 Recent Trends in Fortification of Fermented Foods
K.R. Anilakumar

Introduction The improvement of the quality of foods can be made by fortification of foods nutrients quality and quantity in food. It can be a very cost effective public health intervention. As a result of the high consumption pattern of dairy products viz. yogurt, the fortification process will effectively diminish or prevent diseases associated with nutritional deficiencies (Gahruie et al., 2015). However, due to nutrients deficiencies in human population especially in certain stages of life, holding, importing, and consumption of fortified foods is increasing (Preedy et al., 2013). As a general rule, addition of one or more essential nutrients to a food and increasing their concentration in that particular food to levels higher than normal is known as fortification. This is intended at preventing and correcting shortages in one or more micronutrients in the society or specific population groups (Bonner et al., 1999). The major ways of food fortification are (1) commercial and industrial fortification for wheat flour, corn meal, cooking oils, (2) bio-fortification of crops to augment their nutritional value, which can include conventional as well as selective breeding, and genetic engineering and (3) house hold fortification like vitamin D drops. Fermentation has twofold outcome on glycemic index though there are conflicting results after consumption. The reduced glycemic index of fermented food has been featured to the production of short?chain organic acids during fermentation.

367 - 380 (14 Pages)
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15 Fungi and Fermented Foods: Current Trends in Microbiological, Technological and Nutritional Aspects
Nayanika Sarkar, Debosmita Chakraborty, Indrani Biswas, Samuel Jacob

Introduction Fermented foods and beverages comprise an indispensable part of the human diet. They can be generally defined as those foods and beverages produced via controlled microbial growth and conversion of various substrates using either enzymes or as whole cell itself, as shown in Figure 1.

381 - 404 (24 Pages)
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16 Fermentation Technology in Wine Making and Its Health Benefits
Ranjitha K

Introduction Wine is a very unique fermented beverage. It was an essential part of various religious and cultural ceremonies in ancient civilizations; and continues to be considered as a ‘drink for elite’. The reason is that wine was considered as ‘Gift of God and ‘God’s nectar’ in religious text books, and medicinal value of the beverage is well supported by modern science. Wine is a beverage well tagged with its geographical origin. This concept originally comes from French concept of terroir; which explains that a varietal wine from a defined region possess distinctive qualities. Wine makers of the past enjoyed this definition of quality for better marketing opportunities. Today, globalization and advancement in wine science created empowered consumers who could clearly discriminate quality of wines. In addition to a product with high sensory qualities, consumers expect a healthful beverage produced in an environmentally sustainable manner. Enology research projects focus on such aspects; and this chapter is a glance on enology advancements and proven health benefits of wine, such as cardiovascular health gut health, dental health etc.

405 - 420 (16 Pages)
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17 Interventions in Solid State Fermentation in Food Industry
Sukhvinder Singh Purewal, Raj Kumar Salar

Introduction Since long time fermentation process is in use for the production of functional food products for human welfare. SSF is a cost effective industrially important method that could be used by food industries to improve the nutritional profile of natural substrates (Salar and Purewal, 2016; Postemsky et al., 2017). The process is being carried out by trained microbiologists in the presence of aseptic conditions using suitable starter culture on steam sterilized substrates. Steam sterilized substrates possess minimal amount of moisture so as to support the microbial growth during the fermentation period. Growth of microbial strains on specific substrates during the fermentation time results in formation of koji (antioxidant rich fermented product). Selection of substrates and starter microbial strains is an important step in the fermentation process which will determine the nutritional properties of fermented product. One of the major advantages of SSF at industrial level is its potential to be utilized on cereal grains, fruits, vegetables and even agricultural wastes (Salar et al., 2012; Postemsky and Curvetto, 2015; Bhanja et al., 2009). Most common substrates that are being used as solid platform for the growth of microbial strains are cereal grains.

421 - 432 (12 Pages)
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18 Enzyme Production by Submerged Fermentation and Their Importance in Food Industry
Jagdish Singh, Parmjit S. Panesar, Harmanjot K. Sandhu, Gundeep Kaur

Introduction The entire living organism from the smaller creatures viruses to the advanced human beings are composed of a set up of biochemical reactions which form the metabolism. These set of metabolic reactions are responsible for the life of organism. The rate of these reactions is a major concern for effective working of organism which is governed by biocatalyst. These biocatalysts are known as enzymes, which accelerates rate of biochemical reaction. These are not utilized in reaction. In 1877, Wilhelm Friedrich Kuhne (Kuhne, 1877) proposed the term enzyme which means ‘in yeast’ and is derived from the Greek word; inzume “leavened” or “in yeast”. At the molecular level of study it is observed that enzymes are proteins which are functional as tertiary and quaratanary structures. Enzymes have active site for the binding to substrate. The active site has two positions; binding and catalytic site (Ogeston, 1948). The former help to bind the substrate with the enzyme followed by the catalysis of reaction by the catalytic site.

433 - 460 (28 Pages)
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19 Nanotechnology in Food Fermentation and Packaging
Farhath Khanum, Shabir Ahmed Wani, Eram Fathima, Shaik Parveenissa

Introduction Off late our understanding of the composition and functions of the human gut microbiota has increased exponentially and there is a great interest in producing healthy foods in particular that which have an impact in improving the gastrointestinal health such as probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics. Many of these functional foods are dairy based and have been accepted greatly worldwide. Nonertheless, there has been a need for the development of nondairy probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic products (Salmeron 2017). This has prompted food scientists and food industrialists to study the feasibility of applying other fermenting substrates such as cereals for the development of innovative nondairy fermented functional foods. The importance of including nanoscience and nanotechnology techniques for the creation of fermented cereal beverages that contain specific bioactive nanoparticles and their role in food packaging systems will be discussed.

461 - 490 (30 Pages)
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20 Recent Trends in Genetic Manipulation and Characterization of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Applications
Mandyam Chakravarthy Varadaraj

Preamble Historically, food has been an integral part of human civilization and diet with varied food components has sustained human life on this planet over the centuries. Similarly, culturing of food with natural fermentation as means of preserving foods with extended shelf life for future use. In the background of sustaining food security, advances made in biotechnology and molecular biology has provided ample scientific platform to use the advances in increasing and expanding food production on a global magnitude, so as to meet the needs of an ever-growing world population. The intestinal microbiota is a key component of both the metabolism and immunity of humans and animals. The desirable microbes do have a significant role to play in healthcare through control of digestive disorders and foodborne illnesses. The continued research in this area over the years has led to the identification of important molecules that regulate major functional attributes in the betterment of human health and wellness in the long run. The science and technique of genetic engineering through molecular biology approaches has enabled in enriching the beneficial molecules for the benefit of human life. The accuracy in targeting and designing of molecules will go a long way in developing genetically modified (GM) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and GM probiotics to significantly rewrite the medical care with food-based approach in the form of targeted specific diets – “Dietomics”.

491 - 522 (32 Pages)
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21 Role of Prebiotics on Human Health An Overview
A.K. Samanta, A.P. Kolte, A. Dhali, J. Chikkerur, Sohini Roy

Introduction Since the last century, nutritional science has made a remarkable contribution to the biological sciences through identification of diverse nutrients and their sources, functions, requirement, deficiency symptoms and their remedial measures etc. The advent of high-throughput sequencing technologies together with bioinformatic tools identified the presence of 100 trillion of microorganism belonging to all forms of life in the gastrointestinal tract. In fact, the whole gut microbial consortia are considered as a virtual organ in human and animals and is responsible for the development and functioning of series of essential physiological activities including digestion, absorption, metabolism, immunity, homeostasis, brain and gut development, resistance against disease etc. According to the modern scientific dogma, the human being is in fact a “Superorganism”, carrying consortium of numerous symbiotic Eukarya, Bacteria, Archaea and Viruses. The gut microflora has been co-evolved with human and presumed to maintain an intricate balance among different microbial communities. Upon introspection about the functionality of the gut microflora, it is amply clear that a few of these microorganisms have the ability to make healthy state; while other members are responsible for health-related problems including food poisoning, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, indigestion, inflammatory bowel disease, predisposition to colon cancer, compromising immunity, allergy etc.

523 - 542 (20 Pages)
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22 Probiotics: The Journey from Alternative Medicine to Functional Foods with Health Benefits
Neerja Hajela

In 1907, the Russian Nobel laureate, Dr. Elie Metchnikoff, fascinated by the unusual longevity of Bulgarian farmers, consuming beneficial lactic acid bacteria by way of traditional fermented milk products, suggested that regular intake of friendly microbes could benefit human health. Although Dr. Metchnikoff ’s recommended bacteria for the purpose proved largely ineffective, the theory was carried forward with moderate success until the war on bacteria began because of the advent of sulfa drugs and antibiotics (Scott, 2012). However soon after their rampant use and the realization of the rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance, researchers turned yet again to ecological notions and the time was fertile for the advent of probiotics. By the 1980’s the term had stabilized both in medical and veterinary literature. The mid 1990’s witnessed a surge of exponential studies on probiotics, the definition of Probiotics emerged in 2001 and the years thereafter saw tremendous progress in the science of probiotics. Almost simultaneous was the study on the study of the intestinal microbiota when Alfred Nissile demonstrated that transferring members of the human gut microbiota to healthy typhoid carriers helped in Salmonella being cleansed from their system (Nissle, 1916). It was then, that the importance of the gut microbes in prevention of infection became evident. What followed was the advent of culture independent, modern biotechnological tools for whole genome sequencing and the successful launch of two most ambitious projects - Human Microbiome project (Turnbaugh et al., 2007) and the Met Hit project (Metahit, 2009; Qin et al., 2010). They provided fascinating insights into the highly complex microbial ecosystem harboured by the human body. The term Microbiome (refers to the collective genome of our microbial inhabitants) had entered literature in 2001 and the concept of gut microbiota in maintaining overall health gained wider attention.

543 - 548 (6 Pages)
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23 Challenges in Scale-up and Automation in Fermented Foods
Dadasaheb D. Wadikar

Fermentation process is known to humans since ancient times. It involves the transformation of raw materials into value added or nutritional products as a result of microbial action or their growth. The fermentation as a science involves aspects of the biological action of microbes, biochemical changes in the substrates and metabolites formed and their effect on food, health and nutritional applications. While fermentation as technology, involves chemical engineering, food engineering and instrumentation aspects and commercialization of the products prepared keeping in view the consumer acceptability. The term fermentation is derived from the Latin word ‘Fervere - to boil’ thus describing the actions of yeasts on extracts of fruits or malted grain. Fermented foods and beverages enhance the pleasure of eating and their nutritional roles include indirect contributions through subjective enhancement of appetite. The instant mixes for fermented or fermentable products such as idli, dosai, dhokla and bhatura mix can reduce the overnight fermenting of the raw materials required for preparation of these products. The instant mixes for idli & dhokla are quite common in the market. However, instant mix for Jalebi and Bhatura are still emerging. Such products add convenience to the consumers and products can be prepared instantly. Certain other fermented foods include dairy products, pickles, sauerkrauts, Kanji, beverages, food supplements and nutraceuticals from fermented biomass.

549 - 565 (17 Pages)
₹305.00 ₹275.00 + Tax
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