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K. Vanangamudi, M. Kokila, N. Chezhiyan
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K. Vanangamudi
K. Vanangamudi: Former Dean (Agriculture),Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003

M. Kokila
M. Kokila: Junior Research Fellow, Trinity Cultural Academy, Coimbatore - 641 041

N. Chezhiyan
N. Chezhiyan: Former Professor and Head (Spices and Plantation Crops), Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore - 641 003

A Handbook of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 1 compiled based on the syllabus of different competitive exams in Agriculture and Allied subjects. This book encompasses 6 units and they are Importance of Agriculture, Fundamentals of Crop Production, Agricultural Meteorology, Natural Resources Management (Soil Science, Dryland Agriculture, Watershed and Wasteland Management, Water Management), Crop Management and Allied Agricultural Activities (Crop Management, Agricultural Microbiology, Mushroom, Bee keeping, Silkworm Rearing, Agricultural Engineering and Animal Husbandry), Crop Improvement (Plant Breeding, Plant Biotechnology), Seed Science and Technology.

                One liner version of book is extremely valuable for preparation of competitive exams like Union and State Public Service Commissions, Agricultural Research Services – National Eligibility Test (ARS – NET), Institute of Banking Personnel Services (IBPS), PG entrance exams of State Agricultural Universities (SAU’s),   All India Entrance Examinations for UG and PG admissions to agriculture, National Seeds Corporations (NSC), Food Corporation of India (FCI), Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC), Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative Limited (IFFCO), Tamil Nadu Public Service Examinations (Agricultural Officer, Assistant Agricultural Officer), JRF, SRF, RA of Central and State Government schemes and externally funded schemes and other competitive examinations.

0 Start Pages

Preface Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of natural, economic and social sciences that are used in practice and understanding of Agriculture. The country has made significant advances in many of farm sectors such as service sector, industrial production etc, but agriculture continues to be the lifeline of the nation, especially for the Indians living in rural areas. Food is the most basic human need. During the past 60 years, agricultural education has expanded rapidly in India to meet nation’s demand for human resources and Agricultural technology. By means of Research and Development, the farmer has been enabled to increase yield per acre, reduce losses from diseases, pests, and spoilage and augment net production by improved processing methods. Students have variety of options to pursue courses in Agriculture. In India, need of Agricultural graduates is more to serve our nation for reducing the constraints in Agriculture. This compendium provides an ample information for competitive exams point of view for aspiring students and will benefit maximum number of ambitious graduates to get into services of public and private sectors.

1 Agriculture

1.1. Agriculture Derived from Latin word; Ager-soil and culture-Cultivation. An art: Governs the knowledge to perform the operations of the farm in a skillful ways. A science: Uses technologies including breeding, production technologies, crop protection, economics etc., to maximize the yield and profitability of the farmer. A business: Way of life for a rural population. Involves management of labour, water and capital, and employing technologies for production of food, fibre, feed and fuel through mechanization to achieve maximum returns. As per Agricultural act 1947, agriculture includes horticulture, fruit growing, seed growing, dairy farming, livestock breeding, grazing land, meadow land, market gardens and nursery gardens.

1 - 6 (6 Pages)
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2 Agricultural Development Through Five Year Plan

7 - 12 (6 Pages)
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3 Growth Pattern of Crops in Terms of Area, Production and Productivity

13 - 16 (4 Pages)
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4 Government Agricultural Policies

17 - 24 (8 Pages)
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5 Export and Import

25 - 26 (2 Pages)
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6 Role of National Organizations

27 - 30 (4 Pages)
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7 Factors Affecting Crop Production

31 - 36 (6 Pages)
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8 Agricultural Seasons in India and Tamil Nadu

37 - 38 (2 Pages)
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9 Cropping Pattern in India and Tamil Nadu

39 - 42 (4 Pages)
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10 Production Technology of Cereals and Millets

43 - 48 (6 Pages)
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11 Production Technology of Pulses

49 - 52 (4 Pages)
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12 Production Technology of Oilseeds

53 - 56 (4 Pages)
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13 Production Technology of Cash and Forage Crops

57 - 60 (4 Pages)
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14 Agro Climatic Zones of India and Tamil Nadu

61 - 66 (6 Pages)
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15 Minimal Tillage Practices

67 - 68 (2 Pages)
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16 Stress Mitigating Technologies Including Microorganisms

69 - 74 (6 Pages)
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17 Nano Particles and Their Applications

75 - 76 (2 Pages)
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18 Meteorology and Agro Meteorology

77 - 82 (6 Pages)
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19 Weather and Climate

83 - 86 (4 Pages)
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20 Monsoon and Rainfall

87 - 88 (2 Pages)
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21 Influence of Weather on Crops

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22 Weather Forecasting and Meteorological Instruments

91 - 92 (2 Pages)
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23 Organizations Involved in Weather Forecast

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24 Climate Change and Its Impact

95 - 100 (6 Pages)
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25 Clouds

101 - 104 (4 Pages)
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26 Soils, Components and Classification

1.1. Definition Soil: Thin layer of earth’s crust made up of disintegrated and decomposed rocks, complex mineral compound, organic matter, water/air and living organism like bacteria, fungi, insects and worms and serves as the natural medium of growth of plants. Provides nutrients, moisture, anchorage (support) and air to plants. Parent materials are igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks. Soil Science: Science dealing with soil (Natural resource) on the surface of the earth, including pedology (Soil genesis, classification and mapping), physical, chemical, biological and fertility properties and their relation to management for crop production.

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27 Physical Properties of Soil

2.1. Soil structure Important physical properties of soils Soil texture Soil structure Surface area Soil density

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28 Soil Chemical Properties

3.1. Soil colloids Clay fraction of the soil contains particles less than 0.002 mm in size. Particles less than 0.001 mm size possess colloidal properties and are known as soil colloids.

129 - 138 (10 Pages)
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29 Soil Microorganisms

4.1. Role of soil microorganisms Soil N utilization by plants. Dead organic matters decomposed. Nutrient transformation. Physical and chemical properties of soil. CO2 content. Soil formation.

139 - 144 (6 Pages)
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30 Organic Matter and Its Decomposition

5.1. Organic matter In sandy soil, the sticky and slimy organic materials cement the sand particles together to form aggregates. In clayey soil, it modifies the properties of clay by reducing its cohesiveness and making clay more crumby.

145 - 150 (6 Pages)
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31 Humus

6.1. Humus Fraction of organic matter. Complex and resistant mixture of brown or dark brown amorphous and colloidal organic substance. 6.2. Humus formation 1. Decomposition: Chemicals in the plant residues are broken down by soil microbes. Simpler chemicals are metabolized into new compounds in the body tissue of soil microbes. New compounds are subjected to further modification and synthesis as the microbial tissue is subsequently attacked by other soil microbes.

151 - 152 (2 Pages)
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32 Plant Nutrients

Involved in plant metabolic functions and the plant cannot complete its life cycle without the element. 7.1. Plant nutrient concentration and plant growth 1. Deficient Lowest concentration of an essential element that limit yield severely and cause distinct deficiency symptoms.

153 - 154 (2 Pages)
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33 Essential Elements/Nutrients: Functions and Deficiencies

8.1. Classification of essential nutrients 8.1.1. Based on the amount required by the plant Major nutrients-Required in large quantities eg. N, P, K. Secondary nutrients-Required in lesser quantities compared to major nutrients eg. Ca, Mg, S. Micronutrients-Required in trace quantities eg. Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, B, Mo.

155 - 160 (6 Pages)
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34 Nutrient Deficiency Management

9.1. Nutrient deficiency of corrective measures 9.1.1. Major and secondary nutrients

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35 Fertilizers

Any material of natural or synthetic origin added to the soil to supply one or more plant nutrients. 10.1. Classification of fertilizers 10.1.1. Straight fertilizers Supply only one primary plant nutrient, namely nitrogen or phosphorus or potassium. Eg. Urea, ammonium sulphate, potassium chloride and potassium sulphate.

167 - 174 (8 Pages)
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36 Organic Manures

Word manure derived from French ‘Manoeuvrer, means to manipulate, to work, to produce crop. 11.1. Sources of organic wastes Cattle shed wastes, dung, urine and slurry from biogas plants. Human habitation wastes-night soil, human urine, town refuse, sewage, sludge and sullage. Poultry jitter, droppings of sheep and goat. Slaughterhouse wastes-bone meal, meat meal, blood meal, horn and hoof meal, fish wastes. Byproducts of agro industries-oil cakes, bagasse and press mud, fruit and vegetable processing wastes etc.

175 - 178 (4 Pages)
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37 Problem Soils and Their Management

12.1. Problem soils Chemical constraints: Salinity, sodicity, acidity and nutrient toxicities Physical constraints : High or low permeability, sub soil hard pan, surface crusting, fluffy paddy soils, sandy soils etc.

179 - 182 (4 Pages)
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38 Soil Survey

13.1. Soil survey and soil mapping Refers to study and mapping of soils in the fields. Process of classifying soil types and other soil properties in a given area and geo-encoding such information. Draws information on geomorphology, theories of soil formation, physical geography, analysis of vegetation and land use patterns. Primary data for the soil survey are acquired by field sampling and by remote sensing. Remote sensing principally uses aerial photography (Illuminating the object/ target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with sensor), but LiDAR ( Light Detection and Ranging) and other digital techniques.

183 - 186 (4 Pages)
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39 Soil Fertility Survey and Evaluation

14.1. Soil fertility Ability of the soil to supply essential plant nutrients during growth period of the plants Crop producing capacity of the soil

187 - 192 (6 Pages)
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40 Dry Farming and Rainfed Agriculture

1.1. Dry farming (Dryland farming) Cultivation of crops in a region where the annual rainfall is more than 750 mm. Semi arid crops with growing period of 75-120 days. Crop failure is less frequent. Moisture conservation practices are necessary.

193 - 200 (8 Pages)
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41 Erosion and Its Conservation

Major 2 types of erosion (i) soil erosion and (ii) wind erosion 2.1. Soil erosion Detachment of soil particles from the surface • Transportation by water, wind, ice or gravity.

201 - 204 (4 Pages)
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42 Coventional Farming and Alternate Land Use in Dryland Farming

3.1. Conventional farming Refers to the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and other continual inputs, genetically modified organisms, heavy irrigation, intensive tillage and concentrated monoculture production. Highly resource and energy intensive, but also highly productive. Conventional farming typically involves monocropping, but very expensive.

205 - 206 (2 Pages)
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43 Watershed Development

1.1. Watershed development Refers to the conservation, regeneration and judicious utilization of all the resources viz., land, water, vegetation, animal and human within a particular watershed in integrated manner. Water drainage area on earth’s surface from which runoff, due to precipitation, flows into a single to a larger stream, a river, a lake or the ocean. 1.2. Concept of watershed management Planning and design of soil and water conservation structures such as bunds, waterways, overflow structures, water harvesting structure.

207 - 210 (4 Pages)
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44 Wasteland Development

2.1. Definition Land which is presently lying unused or which is not being used to its optimum potential due to some constraints

211 - 216 (6 Pages)
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45 Land Use, Suitability and Irrigability Classification

3.1. Land use classification 3.1.1. Classes Capability class is the broadest category in the land capability classification system. Class codes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 are used to represent both irrigated and non-irrigated land capability classes. Class 1: Soils have slight limitations that restrict their use. Class 2: Soils have moderate limitations that reduce the choice of plants or require moderate conservation practices. Class 3: Soils have severe limitations that reduce the choice of plants or require special conservation practices or both.

217 - 220 (4 Pages)
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46 Size and Distribution of Land Holding

4.1. Highlights of the report on number and area of operational holdings (2015-16) Total number of operational holdings in the country has increased from 138 million ha in 2010-11 to 146 million ha 2015-16 i.e. an increase of 5.33%. Number of operational holders in different states Uttar Pradesh (23.82 million ha) Bihar (16.41 million ha) Maharashtra (14.71 million ha) Madhya Pradesh (10.00 million ha) Karnataka (8.68 million ha)

221 - 222 (2 Pages)
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47 Types and Systems of Farming

5.1. Types of farming Arable: Crops. Pastoral: Animals. Mixed: Crops and animals. Subsistence: Grown just for the farmer and his family Commercial: Grown to sell. Intensive: High inputs of labour or capital usually small. Extensive: Low inputs of labour or capital. Sedentary: Permanently in one place. Nomadic: The farmers move around to find new areas to farm.

223 - 224 (2 Pages)
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48 Water Resource Development and Management

1.1. Status of irrigation in Tamil Nadu Geographical area of 13 million hectares is ranked eleventh in size among the Indian states. Net area sown is about 6 million hectares. 3 million hectares or 50% get irrigation facilities.

225 - 228 (4 Pages)
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49 Command Area Development

To achieve maximum possible irrigation efficiencies, there are two approaches. Modernization of conveyance system down below the reservoirs upto government controlled outlet. Involves mainly the construction and maintenance of head sluices, main canals, branch canals, and distributaries (Modernization of supplier’s side or system level development works) Modernization below the government controlled outlets upto the drains (Modernization of user’s side or farm level development works). Also known as On-Farm Development Works (OFD).

229 - 230 (2 Pages)
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50 Ground Water Development and Conjunctive Use

3.1. Ground water development 3.1.1. Rain water harvesting Collecting and using precipitation water from a catchments surface. Extensive rain water harvesting apparatus existed 4000 years ago in the Palestine and Greece. In ancient Rome, residences were built with individual cisterns and paved courtyards to capture rain water to augment water from city’s aqueducts. As early as the third millennium BC, farming communities in Baluchistan and Kutch impounded rain water and used it for irrigation dams.

231 - 234 (4 Pages)
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51 Water Use Efficiency (WUE)

4.1. Water Use Efficiency (WUE) An efficient irrigation system implies effective transfer of water from the source to the field with minimum possible loss. To identify the nature of water loss and to decide the type of improvements in the system. Evaluation of performance in terms of efficiency is prerequisite for proper use of irrigation water.

235 - 238 (4 Pages)
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52 Moisture Stress and Rain Gun

Term moisture stress is generally applied to the stomata opening and transpiration increases with time until they close due to high temperature. 5.1. Causes of moisture stress in plants Main reason is extent of transpiration which is affected by leaf size and composition, size and distribution of stomata on leaf, atmospheric humidity, temperature, wind velocity and day length. High atmospheric temperature due to intense sun and increased transpiration causes closure of stomata and wilting of leaves even, if soil moisture content is not limiting. This deficit is made up during night due to decreased transpiration. In plants, moisture content decreases either due to increased transpiration or reduction in absorption or both.

239 - 242 (4 Pages)
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53 Irrigation Water Quality Testing and Advisory

6.1. Quality of irrigation water Asia per capita water availability has fallen by around 80 per cent during last five decades. Suitability of waters for a specific purpose depends on the types and amounts of dissolved salts. Some of the dissolved ions such as NO3 are useful for crops.

243 - 246 (4 Pages)
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54 Cropping System and Integrated Farming System

1.1. Cropping pattern Yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of crops or crops and fallow on a given area. 1.2. Cropping seasons in India 1.2.1. Kharif season: Southwest monsoon Crops - Rice, cotton, jute, jowar (sorghum), bajra (pearl millet) and redgram (Pigeon pea).

247 - 252 (6 Pages)
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55 Organic Manures and Green Manures

Word manure derived from French word ‘Manoeuvrer, means to manipulate, to work, to produce crop. 2.1. Sources of organic wastes Cattle shed wastes-dung, urine and slurry from biogas plants. Human habitation wastes-night soil, human urine, town refuse, sewage, sludge and sullage. Poultry litter, droppings of sheep and goat. Slaughter house wastes-bone meal, meat meal, blood meal, horn and hoof meal, fish wastes. Byproducts of agroindustries-oil cakes, bagasse and press mud, fruit and vegetable processing wastes.

253 - 256 (4 Pages)
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56 Integrated Nutrient Management

3.1. Integrated nutrient management Maintenance of soil fertility and plant nutrient supply at an optimum level for sustaining the desired productivity through optimization of all possible sources of organic, inorganic and biological components in an integrated manner. 3.2. Concepts Regulated nutrient supply for optimum crop growth and higher productivity. Improvement and maintenance of soil fertility. Zero adverse impact on agro – ecosystem quality by balanced fertilization of organic manures, inorganic fertilizers and bioinoculants in an integrated manner.

257 - 258 (2 Pages)
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57 Physiological Disorders in Plants and Their Management

4.1. Physiological disorders in field crops Identification of physiological disorders in agricultural crops

259 - 262 (4 Pages)
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58 Irrigation Management of Different Crops

5.1. Irrigation requirement of field crops

263 - 268 (6 Pages)
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59 Recycling of Agricultural Wastes

1.1. FYM compost Decomposed mixture of dung and urine of farm animals along with litter and left over materials from roughages or fodder fed to the cattle. Farmyard manure contains 0.5% N, 0.2% P2O5 and 0.5% K2O. Urine contains one per cent nitrogen and 1.35% potassium. 10 to 20 t/ha is applied, but more than 20 t/ha is applied to fodder grasses and vegetables like potato, tomato, sweet potato, carrot, radish, onion etc., respond well to the farmyard manure. Crops like sugarcane, rice, oranges, banana, mango and coconut respond good to FYM.

269 - 280 (12 Pages)
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60 Vermicomposting

Vermicomposting is the process of turning organic debris into worm castings by earthworms. Earthworms feed on decaying material, pass through alimentary canals and excreted as castings. pH of the castings is 7 (neutral) and the castings are odourless. Contain high amounts of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium. Contains 5 times the available nitrogen, 7 times the available potash, and 1 ½ times more calcium and rich in humus. Improves aeration, porosity, structure, drainage, and moisture holding capacity.

281 - 288 (8 Pages)
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61 Biofertilizers

Preparations containing living cells or latent cells of efficient strains of microorganisms that help crop plants to uptake of nutrients by their interactions in the rhizosphere when applied through seed or soil. Accelerates microbial processes in the soil.

289 - 296 (8 Pages)
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62 Mushroom

1.1. Mushroom Fruiting body of fungus appears above ground and contains spores. Fungi are network of fine microscopic threads collectively known as mycelium. Fungi are the part of the plant kingdom and don’t contain chlorophyll and root system. Mushroom comes under sub division Basidiomycotina, order – Agaricales.

297 - 316 (20 Pages)
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63 Beekeeping

Rerd. L.L.Langstroth (Father of modern bee keeping) discovered movable frame hive in 1851. In 1882, beekeeping was introduced in India. In 1911, Rerd. Newton introduced beekeeping to South India.

317 - 326 (10 Pages)
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64 Silkworm Rearing

1.1. Sericulture Refer to rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk. Major activities are mulberry cultivation, silkworms spin silk cocoons and reeling the cocoons for unwinding the silk filament for value added benefits. Bombyx mori is the most widely used. Silk-fiber is a protein produced from the silk-glands (modified labial glands) of silkworms.

327 - 334 (8 Pages)
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65 Energy in Agricultural Production

1.1. Types of energy 1.1.1. Potential energy Stored energy and the energy of position (gravitational). 1.1.2. Kinetic energy Energy in motion - the motion of waves, electrons, atoms, molecules and substances. It exists in various forms.

335 - 338 (4 Pages)
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66 Energy Sources: Solar, Wind, Animal, Biomass and Biogas

2.1. Solar energy States like Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, and West Bengal have greater potential for tapping solar energy due to their location. 2.1.1. Advantages Inexhaustible source of energy. Environment friendly and inexpensive. Variety of purposes like heating, drying, cooking and electricity.

339 - 356 (18 Pages)
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67 Mechanization in Agriculture

3.1. Concept of farm mechanization To apply the principles of engineering and technology to do the agricultural operations in a better way to increase crop yield. Development, application and management of all mechanical aids for field operation, water control, material handling, storage and processing. Mechanical aids include hand tools, animal drawn implements, power tillers, tractors, engines, electric motors, grain processing and hauling equipments.

357 - 358 (2 Pages)
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68 Tractors and Power Tillers

4.1. Tractor Self propelled power unit having wheels or tracks for operating agricultural implements and machines including trailers. Tractor engine is used as a prime mover for active tools and stationary farm machinery through power-take off (pto) or belt pulley.

359 - 362 (4 Pages)
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69 Agricultural Implements and Machineries and Their Usage

5.1. Farm machinery implements 5.1.1. Tillage

363 - 376 (14 Pages)
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70 Livestock Rearing

1.1. Livestock breeds Denotes and established group of animals / birds having the similar general body shape, colour, structure and characters which produced offspring with same characters. 1.1. Cattle 1. Indigenous breeds Milch: Sindhi, Sahiwal, Gir and Deoni Dual: Hariana, Ongole, Tharparkar, Kankrej Draught: Kangayam, Umblachery, Amritmahal, Hallikar

377 - 392 (16 Pages)
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71 Poultry Rearing

2.1. Breeds of poultry

393 - 400 (8 Pages)
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72 Principles of Plant Breeding

1.1. Plant breeding An art and science, deals with ways and means to change the genetic architecture of plants so as to attain a particular objective. For ensuring food security, it is important to breed and develop new varieties that are high-yielding, pests diseases and drought resistant or regionally adapted to different environments and growing conditions.

401 - 404 (4 Pages)
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73 Plant Domestication and Introduction

2. 1. Plant domestication Process of bringing wild species under human management. 2.1.1. Changes in plant species under domestication Elimination or reduction in shattering of pods, spikes, etc. Elimination of dormancy Decrease in toxins of other undesirable substances. Eg. Bitter principle of cucurbits. Cultivated plants show altered tillering, branching, leaf characters. Decrease in plant height. Eg. Cereals and millets.

405 - 406 (2 Pages)
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74 Breeding Methods for Self Pollinated Crops

3.1. Selection To isolate desirable plant types from a population. 3.1.1 Progeny test Evaluation of growth of plants on the basis of performance of their progenies Real value of plant could be known by studying the progeny.

407 - 420 (14 Pages)
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75 Breeding Methods for Cross Pollinated Crops

4.1. Synthetic varieties Produced by crossing in all combinations, a number of lines that combine well with each other.

421 - 424 (4 Pages)
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76 Breeding Methods for Asexually Propagated Crops

5.1. Characteristics of asexually propagated crops Majority of them are perennials Many of them show reduced flowering and seed set. Invariably cross pollinated. Mostly polyploids. Many species are inter specific hybrids.

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77 Resistance Breeding

Done for both biotic and abiotic stresses. Biotic stresses are disease and insect pests. Abiotic stresses are drought, salt, flood, heat, cold, etc.

427 - 430 (4 Pages)
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78 Mutation Breeding

Refers to entire operation of the induction and isolation of mutants. Term mutation was introduced by Hugo de vries in 1900 in connection with sudden heritable changes observed by him in Oenothera.

431 - 432 (2 Pages)
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79 Polyploidy Breeding

Refers to induced chromosome manipulation Aneuploidy-One or few chromosomes extra or missing from 2n. Autoploidy-Genomes identical with each other.

433 - 434 (2 Pages)
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80 Modern Tools in Crop Improvement

9.1. Molecular breeding and marker assisted selection Using conventional breeding, developing new varieties takes atleast 15-20 years. Molecular breeding shortened the time to 7-10 years. One of the tools for faster variety development is Marker Assisted Selection (MAS). MAS-refers to use of DNA markers to assist phenotypic screening. Plants that possess particular genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL) may be identified based on their genotype rather than their phenotype.

435 - 442 (8 Pages)
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81 Heterosis Breeding and Hybrid Seed Production Technologies

10.1. Heterosis Occurrence of a genetically superior offspring from mixing the genes of its parents. Superiority of F1 hybrids over its both parents in terms of yield and vigour.

443 - 454 (12 Pages)
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82 Breeding for Climate Resilience Varieties

Crop production is challenged by abiotic and biotic stresses results in low yield and high production costs. Magnitude and intensity of stresses are increasing dramatically due to climate change causing recurrent droughts, increased temperature (heat) and emergence of new diseases and pests.

455 - 456 (2 Pages)
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83 Variety Release Procedure

12.1. Variety release Superior cultivars are to be purified by breeder and tested for genuiness in 7 generations. Then, they are forwarded to MLT after RYT, RRYT, PYT and CYT in respective research station. Based on results of the MLT, strain is forwarded to Adaptive Research Trials (ART).

457 - 460 (4 Pages)
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84 Plant Genetic Resoures

13.1. Germplasm Also known as genetic resources or gene pool or genetic stock. Sum total of hereditary material i.e. all the allele of various genes, present in a crop species and its wild relatives

461 - 468 (8 Pages)
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85 Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Act

14.1. PPVFR Act TRIPS (Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) agreement of WTO (World Trade Organization) was signed. Enacted PPVFR act in 2001. Regulation formulated in 2003.

469 - 474 (6 Pages)
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86 Applications of Biotechnology in Agriculture

Term Biotechnology was first coined in 1919 by Karl Ereky which means products are produced from raw materials with the aid of living organisms. Bio means life. Technology means application of knowledge for practical use.

475 - 480 (6 Pages)
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87 Tissue Culture and Its Significance

2.1. Biotechnology institutes Regional office of ICGEB (International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology) at New Delhi (Headquarters at Trieste, Italy established in 1983). Lal Bahadhur Shastri Centre for Advanced Research in Biotechnology at IARI, New Delhi National Institute of Animal Biotechnology, Hyderabad

481 - 494 (14 Pages)
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88 Transgenic Plants and Their Applications

3.1. GM or transgenic crop Plant that has a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology. GM crop contains a gene(s) that has been artificially inserted instead of plant acquiring through pollination. In 1994, Calgene’s delayed ripening tomato (Flavr-Savr) is first GM food crop.

495 - 498 (4 Pages)
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89 Flowers, Pollination and Fruits

1.1. Floral biology 1.1. 1. Types of inflorescence Group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches.

499 - 508 (10 Pages)
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90 Seed and Its Importance

2.1. Seed Defined as a mature ovule or a reproductive unit formed from fertilized ovule, consisting of an embryo, reserve food and a protective cover.

509 - 514 (6 Pages)
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91 Seed Generation System

3.1. Seed generation system Seed multiplication is nothing but production of a particular class of seed from specific class of seed up to certified seed stage.

515 - 518 (4 Pages)
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92 Seed Policy and Planning

4.1. Seed policy 4.1.1. Seed policies formulated for governing seed quality control system

519 - 524 (6 Pages)
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93 Seed Village Concept

5.1. Seed village Compact area approach in which the whole village is involved in seed production. Concept is a win-win model (Deepak Mullick)

525 - 528 (4 Pages)
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94 Principles of Seed Production

6.1. Genetic principles 6.1.1. Maintenance of genetic purity during seed production 1. Steps suggested by Home (1953)

529 - 534 (6 Pages)
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95 Varietal Seed Production Technology

535 - 542 (8 Pages)
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96 Hybrid Seed Production Technology

543 - 546 (4 Pages)
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97 Seed Processing

547 - 552 (6 Pages)
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98 Seed Act and Rules

10.1. Seed Act (1966) and Seed Rules To ensure the availability of quality seeds, GOI has enacted Seed Act in October 1966 and Seed Rules in September 1968. Seed Act passed by the Indian Parliament in 1966.

553 - 562 (10 Pages)
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99 Seed Certification Techniques

563 - 572 (10 Pages)
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100 Seed Testing

573 - 594 (22 Pages)
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101 Seed Health

595 - 604 (10 Pages)
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102 Seed Storage

605 - 610 (6 Pages)
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102 Seed Storage

605 - 610 (6 Pages)
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103 Seed Industry and PPV & FR Act

611 - 614 (4 Pages)
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