New Releases

Browse Subject

Buy Now and Pay in EMI's


Amar Bahadur, Pranab Dutta, D.P. Awasthi
  • Country of Origin:

  • Imprint:


  • eISBN:


  • Binding:


  • Number Of Pages:


  • Language:


Individual Price: ₹ 4,995.00 ₹ 4,495.50 + Tax

Add to cart Contact for Institutional Price

The book covers different topics of nationally economic importance of diseases of fruits and their management. There is a record of huge losses of fruits in terms of yield and quality, which is caused by different plant pathogens.

This edited book will be helpful for the students pursuing their degree in agricultural sciences, growers, teachers, extension personnel's and fellow researchers in their respective fields. This book will also helpful as a ready reckoner on the diseases of fruits.

0 Start Pages

Preface The edited book on “Diseases of Fruit Crops and Their Integrated Management” made as covered different topics of nationally economic importance of diseases. An effort has been made to compile information on different aspects of diseases of fruits and their management. There is a record of huge losses of fruits in terms of yield and quality, which is caused by different plant pathogens. It has been felt necessary to compile the information related to the problem of important fruit crop of India and the management approaches. This edited book will be helpful for the students pursuing their degree in agricultural sciences, growers, teachers, extension personnel’s and fellow researchers in their respective fields. This book will also helpful as a ready reckoner on the diseases of fruits. Contribution and co-operation received from the contributing authors of the respective chapter is duly acknowledged. The editors express their sincere gratitude to all those who helped directly or indirectly in preparing of the book.

1 Diseases of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) and Their Integrated Management
Pranab Dutta, Gaurav Phookan

Pomegranate (Punicagranatum L.) an extraordinary fruit crop that is cultivated worldwide with dominancy in Mediterranean countries like Morocco, Spain, Egypt, Iran, Afghanistan and Baluchistan since primordial times. Tropical and sub-tropical regions of the Indian sub-continent are the prominent areas under cultivation of this fruit crop. India plays a leading role in pomegranate production with contribution of nearly 50% of global production. The total area under pomegranate is 132 thousand hectare with annual production of 1357 thousand MT in 2014-2015. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) a deciduous shrub in the family Lythraceae, subfamily Punicoideaeis one of the most adaptive sub-tropical fruit crop. It was introduced in the Indian subcontinent during 15th century from the Mediterranean region of the globe. India holds the first rank as producer and exporter of pomegranate since last decade. Among the states, Maharashtra is the largest producer of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) in India. Pomegranate have an impressive nutrition profile it contains 7 grams fiber, 3 grams protein, 30% Vitamin C, 36% Vitamin K, 16% Folate and 12% Potassium. It also contains 24 grams of sugar and 144 calories. It contains two important compounds namely Punicalagins and Puninic acid. Along with the above nutritional advantages, it also has immense health benefits right from curing a fatal disease like cancer to remedying arthritis and joint pain. India stands first in the list of Pomegranate producer countries with respect to cultivation area. The states leading in pomegranate production in India are Maharashtra (70.2%), Karnataka (10%), Gujarat (7.4%), Andhra Pradesh (6.7%), Telangana (1.9%), Madhya Pradesh (1.9%), Tamil Nadu (1.0%) and Rajasthan (0.4%) (Source: Horticultural Statistics at Glance, 2015).

1 - 12 (12 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
2 Diseases of Citrus (Citrus spp.) and Their Integrated Management
Lipa Deb Pranab Dutta, Manashi Debbarma

Introduction Citrus (Citrus spp, Fam: Rutaceace, sub-family Aurantioidae) is considered as one of the most remunerative fruit crops in India occupying 953.4 thousand ha with an annual productivity of 11655 thousand tonnes fruit , thereby ranking 4th at global level (Meena et al., 2018). Citrus is the third most important fruit crop in the world after apple and banana accounting for the production of about 135.76 million tonnes with massive area of cultivation spreading over 9.68 million hectares worldwide (Meena et al., 2018). It is believed that most species under the genus Citrus are originated from tropical and sub-tropical regions of Southeast Asia particularly India, South China, Indonesia and Peninsular Malaysia. The North-eastern states of India is recognized as one of the primary gene centre or natural home and reservoir of 17 Citrus species of which 8 species are indigenous to the region (Bhattacharya and Dutta, 1949). The crop is commercially cultivated in all the four geographical zones viz. northwest, central, south and northeast, producing different kinds of mandarins (Citrus reticulata), sweet orange (C. sinensis), acid lime (C. aurantifolia), sweet lemon (C. limettoides) and lemon (C. lemon) (Biswas, 2010). They are universally propagated by budding onto seedling rootstocks, seed and propagating materials influencing the chances of pathogen infection, thereby, affecting citrus production nationally and internationally. Citrus production is subjected to variety of diseases caused by various microorganisms’ viz. fungi, bacteria, virus, viroids and nematodes. The present review gives a brief highlight about most important citrus diseases viz. canker, greening, quick decline, gummosis, exocortis, slow decline etc along with their characteristic symptoms, causal organisms, disease cycle, epidemiology as well as integrated management approaches. Citrus Canker- Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

13 - 42 (30 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
3 Diseases of Banana (Musa paradisiaca Lin.) and Their Integrated Management
Ajit Kumar Savani, Karnati Dinesh, Ashok Bhattacharyya

Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the most important fruit crops grown in tropical and subtropical regions in the world. The word ‘banana’ is a general term embracing a number of species or hybrids between Musa acuminata and M. balbisiana in the genus Musa and family Musaceae (Perrier et al., 2011). India is known to be one of the origins for bananas and it was grown even before the Vedic period (c.1500 - c.500 BCE). It is referred as “Kalpatharu” (Plant of virtues) due to its multifaceted uses (Mishra et al., 2012). It has been estimated that one medium-sized banana contains about 105 calories (Bjarnadottir, 2017). Raw bananas contain 75% water, 23% carbohydrates, 1% protein, and negligible amount of fat (USDA, 2018). However, carbohydrate, protein and moisture content of banana depend upon the variety, genotype and climatic conditions (Mohapatra et al., 2010). Banana fruits are rich source of antioxidants and vitamins such as vitamin A, B, C, E and P-carotene (Paul and Southgate, 1978; Kanazawa and Sakakibara, 2000; Waller,2005), minerals like potassium and calcium (Mohapatra et al., 2010) and contains a fair amount of fibre (Bjarnadottir, 2017). Banana is the major staple food crop for millions of people in Central, East and West Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean. In 2016, world production of bananas and plantains was 148 million tonnes, led by India and China with a combined total (only for bananas) of 28% of global production with the adoption of advanced technologies like drip irrigation, use of quality tissue culture plants, fertigation and integrated plant protection technologies lead the country to be number one in area and production. Other major producers were the Philippines, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Brazil, together accounting for 20 per cent of the world total of bananas and plantains. In India, banana ranks first in production followed by mango and third in area among fruit crops after mango and citrus. Banana production accounts about 30.4 M tonnes from an area of 0.86 M ha with an average productivity of 35.4 tonnes/ha (Anon, 2017). Banana crop is a year round food security crop and source of income to a large group of farmers and has tremendous potential as cash and export commodity for most banana growing countries. However diseases and pests constitute major limiting factor for increasing its production and productivity. Banana cultivation is almost evenly spread out across the world and there is a remarkable low genetic variation among plantations, owing to the popularity of a select few cultivars. This exposes monocultures to increasing damage caused by pests and diseases (Ghag et al., 2015).

43 - 72 (30 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
4 Diseases of Mango (Mengifera indica Lin.) and Their Integrated Management
Durga Prasad Awasthi, Amar Bahadur

Introduction The mango (Mangifera indica L.) is regarded as king of fruits. It is a key fruit crop in the subtropical regions of world including India. Prakash and Srivastava, 1987 reported that mango is attacked by more than 140 fungi (70 diseases), about 12 nematodes and a dozen of phanerogamic parasites and epiphytes. Among these diseases some major diseases of mango having economic important in India are briefly described in this chapter. Anthracnose Anthracnose is a severe disease of mango. High disease severity results to heavy loss including post-harvest losses during transit and marketing of produce. Mango anthracnose has been reported to spoil about 29 per cent of Alphanso fruits at Bangalore. Young plantations of Bombay green variety are completely wiped out in Tarai region of Uttar Pradesh as a result of severe wither tip Bose et al., 1973. At Lucknow, 24 per cent loss of fruits of Dashehari variety has been reported by Raoof and Prakash, 1984.

73 - 82 (10 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
5 Diseases of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam) and Their Integrated Management
N. Mazumder

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) is the largest edible fruit in the world (Naik, 1949; Sturrock, 1977), known as “poor man’s food” belongs to the family Moraceae (Bose, 1985; Haque, 2010). It is an important tree crop in tropical and sub-tropical regions, usually grown in home gardens and commercially in orchards (Elevitch and Manner, 2006; Sangchote et al., 2003). The primary economic product is the fruit, but the tree is also used for timber, fodder, dyes and traditional medicines (Haque, 2006). Jackfruit originally native to Indian subcontinent, is now widely cultivated in the tropics of both hemispheres (Ochas et al., 1981). Incidence of different kinds of diseases of biotic and abiotic origin at different growth stages of Jackfruit have been reported (Haque, 2006; Sangchote et al., 2003). Some of the commonly occurring diseases of jackfruit with symptomatology, causal organism, perpetuation and management approaches have been elucidated below. LeafSpot Incidence of leaf spot at different growth stages of jackfruit caused by Chaetopyrena hesperidum (Srivastava, 1974), Cercospora mehra (Rao and Subhendar, 1979) Botryodiplodia theobromae (Rao and Deshmuk, 1986), Corynespora cassiicola (Sangchote et al., 2003), Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Sirayoi, 1993; Srivastava and Mehra, 2004), Phyllosticta- artocarpi (Annon, 2003) has been reported by various workers from different parts of the world. Some of the common leaf spot diseases have been discussed below.

83 - 90 (8 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
6 Diseases of Apple (Malus domestica) and Their Integrated Management
R.C. Shakywar, N. Surmina Devi, Brij Mohan Singh, M. Pathak

Economic Importance Apple (Malus domestica, M. communis, M. pumila and M. sylvestris), the generic name Malus is derived from the Latin word belong to the rose family and include literally hundreds of cultivated varieties. In the apple, the original ancestral species is obscured by so many cultivated variations throughout the centuries that some authors lump them all into one species, Malus domestica. They all originated in western Asia (or Eurasia) and are characterized by fleshy fruits called pomes. In the pome a thick, fleshy hypanthium layer (also called the floral cup or calyx tube) surrounds (and is fused with) the seed bearing ovary or core. The edible part of most fruits is the actual ovary, but in apples and pears only the outer hypanthium layer is eaten (unless you enjoy eating the core). Apple is commercially the most important temperate fruit and is fourth among the most widely produced fruits in the world after banana, orange and grape. China is the largest apple producing country in the world. It is premier table fruit of the world and excels other fruits in having prolonged keeping quality and wide variety of flavour and taste (Sharma, 2000). Apple is a highly remunerative crop and is grown in all temperate regions of the world. In India apple is grown in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and some parts of Arunachal Pradesh. Jammu and Kashmir account for sixty per cent apple in total apple produced in India and is the most important fruit among all the cultivated fruits in the state. The state annually produces 1.31 lakh metric tons apple fruit from an area of 1.28 lakh hectares (Anonymous, 2008). It forms the backbone of the state’s economy and is main cash crop for the small and marginal farmers. However, the production and quality of apple is poor as compared to that of the developed countries because of several factors including diseases and insect-pests (Thakur, 2000). Although a large number of insect pests attacks to apple crops but some of them are very serious and need attention for their control. Besides the insect pests, mites are also associated with apple production and cause significance economic losses to commercial fruit growers (Kerik, 2012).

91 - 118 (28 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
7 Diseases of Bael (Aegle mormelos L.) and Their Integrated Management
Pranab Dutta, Sunita Dutta

Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. is one of the sacred trees of Hindus and is highly popular for its medicinal properties. This tree is commonly known as “Bael” in India and the leaves are used for worshipping Lord Shiva. It has the potential for curing a number of ailments and has been in use since time immemorial. At present bael has become an important source of medicine for curing various human diseases such asdiabetes, liver toxicity, fungal infection, microbial infection, inflammation, pyrexia and to relieve pain. The raw fruits are used to prepare sugar impregnated sweets called murraba and jelly where as juices and shakes are prepared after ripening. Bael is native to India and found throughout Southeast Asia. In India this fruit is grown in Indo-Gangetic plains and Sub-Himalayan tracts up to a height of 500 m, in North-East India and dry and deciduous forest of central and southern India. Aegle marmelos is a subtropical plant and grows up to an altitude of 1,200 m altitude from sea level. It grows well in the dry forests on hilly and plain areas. Aegle marmelos is a widely distributed plant and found in India, Ceylon, China, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Tibet, Sri Lanka, Java, Philippines and Fiji. In India it found in Sub-Himalayan tracts from Jhelum eastwards to West Bengal, in central & south India. It found almost in all the states of India. Bael is a hardy crop and is quite resistant to diseases. However, there are certain fungal and bacterial diseases that have been reported to cause yield reduction in bael. In this chapter, important diseases of beal with causal organism, disease cycle, epidemiology and management practices are described.

119 - 126 (8 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
8 Diseases of Papaya (Carica papaya) and Their Integrated Management
Manashi Debbarma, N. Olivia Devi, R. K. Tombisana Devi

Plant diseases comprise a major factor in the culture of papaya. Adequate control measures are necessary to intensify the production of papaya. There are over 17 diseases caused by fungi, viruses, mycoplasma and nematodes, which affect papaya plant all over the world. Of these about 5-6 diseases like collar rot, damping off, anthracnose, mosaic and leaf curl are serious problems in many papaya growing areas of the world. They can reduce yield greatly and impair marketability of fruits. They must be checked and losses due to them must be minimized in order to increase the economics of papaya production. Anthracnose Economic Importance Anthracnose is considered as one of the principle postharvest disease of papaya occurring worldwide and has been noted to cause huge losses in countries like Brazil, Hawaii (USA) and Mexico. It is one ofthe most ubiquitous and destructive disease of papaya, mainly during storage. The fungus infects various parts of the plant but mainly occurs in fruits, which later becomes unfit for commercialization. It is a major limitation to papaya production of about 90% along with the exportation of the fruit to bigger overseas market. The disease can have serious effect on refrigerated fruit for export. The use of inappropriate postharvest methods can result in production of up to 100% diseased fruits from some orchards.

127 - 144 (18 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
9 Diseases of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) and Their Integrated Management
Monika Hajong, Lipa Deb, R.K. Tombisana Devi

Guava, Psidium guajava L. (Family: Myrtaceae), is native to South America and the West Indies but it is also grown other parts of the tropics and subtropics including India. It is considered to be important hardy crop grown in neglected soil. It is commonly known as ‘Amrood’ or Safed Safari’ in Hindi, which is an important fruit plant of India. It is grown all over the country for its fruits which are nutritive, rich in vitamin C, highly flavoured and delicious. Leading producers are Brazil, India and Mexico. The cultivated varieties of guava are attacked by several pathogens which cause considerable loss in yield and reduce market value. Wilt Wilt is one of the most destructive disease of guava in India and there is a significant yield loss. In India, guava wilt was first reported in 1935 from Babakkarpur (Allahabad). Das Gupta and Rai (1947) reported the disease in a severe form in orchards of Lucknow, while Dey (1948) reported it from Allahabad, Kanpur and Lucknow. The work so far done on wilt disease has been reviewed by Prakash and Misra (1993), Misra (1995), Misra and Pandey (1996), Misra (2001) and Negi et al. (2001). Chattopadhyay and Bhattachaijya (1968a) reported up to 80% yield losses due to serious wilt in the commercially grown guava orchards in West Bengal. About 150 and 300 acres of guava orchards in the Punjab and Haryana was forced uprooting during 1979-81 (Jhooty et al., 1984). Wilt infection of 15 to 30% trees in Allahabad, Farrukhabad and Unnao, 5-15% in Kanpur and Jaunpur and less than 5% in Gorakhpur, Balia, Hardoi and Varanasi districts (Mathur, 1956).

145 - 174 (30 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
10 Diseases of Mulberry (Morus alba / morusnigra) and Their Integrated Management
Pranab Dutta, Bhuvanswari, Ananya Dutta

Introduction Mulberry (Morus spp.) is a most important crop which is used as food for silkworm (Bombyx mori L.) belonging to the genus Morus and family Moraceae. In tropical and temperate countries, mulberry is cultivated as shrubs and tree respectively. The total area under cultivation of mulberry in India is around 2,82,244 ha. The largest mulberry producing state is Karnataka (1,66,000 ha) followed by Andra Pradesh (38,084 ha). All over the world there are almost 68 species of Morus genus among 1000 varieties were commercially cultivated (Central silk board, Mysore). The nutritive values of mulberry leaves are affected by many diseases like leaf spot, powdery mildew, rust, root rot and bacterial blight which are causing severe yield loss up to 10-30%. In addition it also affects the growth, development of silkworm and cocoon yield due to feeding ofthose diseased leaves. (Sastry, 1984; Sundareswaran et al. 1998). Occurrence of these diseases based on some factors such as season, temperature, humidity and variety of mulberry (Sukumar, 1996). This chapter will be discussed about the disease causing organism, epidemiology and their management practices. Cercospora leaf spot Economic Importance Cercospora leaf spot is an economically important disease causing abundant damage by reducing the leaf quality of mulberry (Siddaramaiah and Krishnaprasad, 1978). During July-December it causes yield loss of 10-15% and the disease present till January-February.

175 - 192 (18 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
11 Diseases of Strawberry (Fragaria vesca): Etiology, Epidemiology and Management
Pranab Dutta, Arti Kumari, Ananya Dutta

Introduction Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) belonging to family Rosaceae is an important fruit crop in India and is commercially produced in temperate and sub- tropical areas of the country. In India, it is mainly cultivated in the states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Delhi, Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan. Nainital and Dehradun districts of Uttarakhand, Mahabaleshwar (Maharashtra), Kashmir valley, Kalimpong (West Bengal) are the core centers of strawberry cultivation in India. Sub-tropical areas in Jammu also possess tremendous potential to grow the crop in irrigated condition. Strawberry cultivation can boost the income potential of small scale and marginal farmers because its high value creates potential for significant profit. It yields quickest return in shortest time than any other profit. The leaves of strawberry are rich in essential oil. India exports strawberries to countries like Austria, Bangladesh, Germany and Jordan. Strawberry also possess many health benefits such as flavonoids content lowers the risk of heart diseases. Potassium, Vitamin K and magnesium content of fruit are important for healthy and strong bone. Strawberries are rich in antioxidant ellagic acid, which protects the elastic fibres of skin to prevent sagging. Strawberries lowers blood levels of C- reactive proteins, a signal of inflammation in the body. The optimum day and night temperature for better growth, development and fruiting of the plant is 22-25°C and 7-13°C respectively. Also, it thrives best on a well drained medium loam and slightly acidic soil with high organic matter content. Although the strawberry crop is highly remunerative however, its management is intensive and encounters a number of setbacks in form of diseases and pests. A large number of fungal, bacterial and viral diseases are known to infect different parts of plant such as foliage, fruit and root. Some major diseases of strawberry includes leaf spot, powdery mildew, anthracnose, grey mould, fusarium wilt, crown rot, rhizobus rot, red stele, nematode diseases etc. Few other diseases caused by abiotic factors includes sunburn, frogmouth, albinism.

193 - 206 (14 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
12 Diseases of Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Mer.) and Their Integrated Management
N. Surmina Devi, Pranab Dutta, P. Raja, R.C. Shakywar, Salma Begum

Introduction Pineapple is one of the most important commercial fruit crop in India. It occupied an importance in the horticultural wealth and economy of the country. India ranked seventh among the pineapple producing country in the world during 2013-14 (GoI, 2014). It grows well in practically all type of soils with slightly acidic in nature, both in plain and hills. It is affected by several different pathogens wherever it grown and result in substantial crop losses. Some important diseases cause complete loss of the fruit marketableimportance. The major problems faced by pineapple growers in India are discussed below.

207 - 220 (14 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
13 Diseases of Pear (Pyrus communis) and Their Integrated Management
Gitashree Das, Pranab Dutta

Introduction Pear (Pyrus communis L.) is a temperate fruit that mainly grows in hilly areas at a elevation ranging from 1,500 to 2,500 metres. This temperate fruit is commonly eaten fresh or is canned. It is used to produce an alcoholic beverages and perry. The production of pear is 17 million tons per year in worldwide and the cultivation is expanding throughout the worldwide. Pear cultivation is affected by many bacterial, fungal and viral diseases due to which it reduces the plant strength and decreases the quality of yield. Besides,pear can be also affected by many disorders and nematodes. Bacterial Diseases Fire blight Fire blight disease is a serious concern to pear producers. It can destroy an entire orchard under optimal conditions in a single growing season.

221 - 228 (8 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
14 Diseases of Ber (Ziziphus mauritiana) and Their Integrated Management
Ratul Moni Ram, Munmi Borah

Introduction Ber (Zizyphus mauritiana L.) is one of the important fruit crops of arid and semi arid zones of the world. It is known by various other names such as ber, bor, bogori, boroior, kool and ruguin Hindi, Punjabi, Marathi, Assamese, Bengali and Telegu respectively. In America, it is called jujube or Chinese date. Ber is popularly called “poor man’s fruit crop” but now its status in tropical fruit culture has improved considerably. The fruit is palatable and delicious and is known for its high nutritive value. The crop is considered as minor fruit in this country on the basis of its production in restricted area; popularity and awareness but recently itbecame an important cash crop in some areas and its acreage and production have increased. The plant is usually a piny, evergreen shrub or small tree up to 15 m high, with trunk diameter around 40 cm or even more; spreading crown; stipular spines and many drooping branches. The ripe fruits are mostly consumed raw (Bal and Uppal, 1992). In India it is extensively grown in Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Gujrat and Maharashtra. The fruits are quite nutritious, rich in vitamin C, second only to aonla and guava and much higher than citrus and apple. The ripe fruits have high nutritive value, having 13-24 per cent total soluble solids and up to 160 mg/100g vitamin C. The dehydrated fruits are kept for a long time and are consumed in the off season. Due to rapid spread of commercial cultivation, the crop has become a target of different biotic and abiotic factors causing serious losses. So far, little attention to the diseases of ber has been given as the importance of the crop generally continues in a locality or a particular state. So, it overlooked the national importance particularly crop protection measures, leading to limited knowledge for management of different diseases both in pre-harvest as well as post-harvest stage. Ber is affected by many serious diseases like powdery mildew, leaf spots (Alternaria, Cercospora, Septoria, Cladosporium, Pestalotiopsis etc.), sooty mold, anthracnose, fruit rot etc.

229 - 242 (14 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
15 Diseases of Grapes (Vitis vinifera) and Their Integrated Management
Shweta Singh, Chandramani Raj, Chandan Kapoor, Sangay Chuzem Lepcha

Grape is an important fruit crop grown mainly under tropical climatic conditions in India. It has spread on an area of 137 thousand ha with a production of 2951 thousand MTduring 2018-19. Famous Indian medicine scholars, Sasruta and Charaka in their medical treatises entitled ‘Sasruta Samhita’ and ’Charaka Samhita’, respectively, written during 1356-1220 BC, mentioned the medicinal properties of grapes. Native spp. resembling Vitis lanata and Vitis palmata grow wild in the northwestern Himalayan foothills. Indigenous varieties known as ‘Rangspay’, ‘Shonltu White’ and ‘Shonltu Red’ are grown in Himachal Pradesh even today. Cultivated grapes are believed to have been introduced into the north of India by the Persian invaders in 1300 AD, from where they were introduced into the south (Daulatabad in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra) during the historic event of changing the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad by King Mohammed-bin-Tughlak. Currently Mahrashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are the major grapes growing states of India. However, the higher production of grapes is constrained by the incidence of several diseases and pests. The important diseases of grapes causing economic losses have been listed below and discussed in detail in the chapter.

243 - 262 (20 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
16 Diseases of Avocado (Persia americana) and Theirlntegrated Management
Pranjal Kr Kaman, Amar Bahadur, Pranab Dutta, Punabati Heisnam

Avocado fruit has become one of the most sought after food sources worldwide. It is a nutritious source of food and is part of the staple diet of many people in third world countries where it is cultivated and where it is native. Production costs are very high owing to the cultural requirements of the avocado tree and the presence of diseases, which can be major limiting factors to production. Phytophthora root rot, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, is such a disease. During the developmental stages of hefruit in the orchard and at harvesting, the fruit is also exposed to diseases such as scab (Sphacelomapersea), anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) and Cercospora spot (Pseudocercospora purpurea) Marias (2006). Major Fungal Diseases of Avocado Phytophthora root rot Economic Importance The causal fungus Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands was first isolated from cinnamon trees in Sumatra in 1922 and has since been reported from over 70 countries. It has an extremely wide host range including 1000 varieties and species of plants. In California alone it has been estimated to affect between 60-75% of the orchards and causes a loss in excess of $40 million annually (Coffey 1992).

263 - 278 (16 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
17 Diseases of Cashew Nut (Anacardium occidentale) and Their Integrated Management
Amar Bahadur, Pranab Dutta

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is an important cash crop and India ranks second to Brazil in production (Shanthi and Vittal, 2012), the incidence of diseases considerable losses in cashew plantations. Cashew nut is a plantation crop that is grown extensively in area along with costal tract of peninsular India. It is the most important export crops and the main source of cash income. Cashews (Anacardium occidentale L.) are a perennial nut crop native to Brazil and belong to the Anacardiaceae family. (Zhongrun and Masawe, 2014). Plans produce numerous pinkish-white flowers and kidney shaped true fruit (nut) in gray-brown shell develops from a fleshy fruit, referred as ‘cashew apple’. The cashew apple is pear shaped and red to yellow in color. The cashew apple is also valued in alcohol fermentation and cashew shell oil for base of paints and water proofing agent. Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a perennial tree crop, originating from South America from Brazil now widely grown in the tropics. Cashew affected by many biotic and abiotic causes resulting in significant yield losses. Biotic diseases and pests are the most damaging cashew nut yield in terms of quality and quantity. (Freire and Rossetti, 1991; Freire, 1997; Freire and Cardoso, 1995). Many pathogens have now been recorded from seedlings, adult plants and from kernels (Freire, 1996; Freire et al., 1996, 1999). Major diseases of cashewnut plants are anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides), Pestalotia leaf spot (Pestalotia heterocornis), bacterial leaf and nut spot (Xanthomonas citri pv. anacardii), Powdery mildew (Oidium anacardii) Pink Disease or Dieback (Corticium salmonicolor) and gummosis (Lasiodiplodia theobromae) are reported in cashew tree worldwide often considered as the most important diseases causing severe economic damage cashew nut producing countries. According to Sijaona (2013) powdery mildew can cause yield losses ranging from 70 to 100%. In Brazil, anthracnose infection has drastically reduced cashew production by up to 40% in 2000 (Freire et al., 2002).

279 - 290 (12 Pages)
₹294.00 ₹265.00 + Tax
Payment Methods