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Crop Production Technology-I (Kharif Crops)

M. Mohamed Amanullah, K. Rajendran, S. Marimuthu
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The present book Crop Production Technology - (kharif crops) is an earnest attempt in this direction. This publication is prepared in a simple language so that all the students can be benefited. This publication is also prepared as per the syllabus of ICAR and followed by most of the state Agricultural Universities as full and with little modification in some other Universities. Hope this book will cater the needs of the students and teachers of various disciplines.

0 Start Pages

Agriculture is the most important sector for food security and economy of any country. Crop production is one of the most important components of agriculture. The development of high yielding varieties of crops and the improved management practices in the last 4 decades resulted in higher production through improving the productivity of crops.

1 Importance, Area, Production and Productivity of Major Cereals and Millets of India and Tamil Nadu

The word cereal was derived from Ceres, the name of the Roman goddess of harvest and agriculture. Cereals are grasses (members of the monocot family Poaceae, also known as Gramineae) cultivated for the edible components of their grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis), composed of the endosperm, germ and bran. Cereal grains are grown in greater quantities and provide more food energy worldwide than any other type of crop and therefore they are called staple crops.

1 - 8 (8 Pages)
2 Importance, Area, Production and Productivity of Pulses and Oilseeds Crops of India and Tamil Nadu

Pulses may be defined as the dried edible seeds of cultivated legumes. They belong to the family of peas, beans and lentils (Family: Fabaceae). English word pulse is taken from the Latin word ‘Puls’, meaning pouage or thick pap. Pulses are a large family and various species are capable of surviving in very different climates and soils. Pulses are cultivated in all parts of the world and they occupy an important place in human diet.

9 - 14 (6 Pages)
3 Rice-Origin-Geographic Distribution- Economic Importance-Varieties-Soil and Climatic Requirement

Cereal grain contains 60 to 70% of starch and is excellent energy rich foods for humans. In almost every country and region, cereals provide the staple food. In the world as a whole, only 5% of starchy staple food comes from root crops (mainly cassava, potato, and yams, depending on climate), whereas the rest is from cereal. Cereals are an excellent source of fat-soluble vitamin E, which is an essential antioxidant. Whole cereal grains contain 20 to 30% of the daily requirements of the minerals such as selenium, calcium, zinc and copper.

15 - 20 (6 Pages)
4 Rice - Cultural Practices - Yield Economic Benefits

The field is ploughed once and harrowed twice or thrice until the soil becomes well puddle. Beds are made slightly raised of 1 – 1.5 m in width and conveniently large in size and drainage channels in between the beds. The total area of nursery required to plant one hectare of land is 20 cents (800 m2 ). This method is suited where assured irrigation facilities are available. The beds should not be allowed to dry because they develop cracks and the seedlings will get spoiled. This method keeps down the weeds in the nursery. Seedlings are transplanted at 21-25 and 25-30 days age for SDV and MDV, respectively. Sparse sowing is recommended in case of hybrid rice. One kg of hybrid seed is sown in one cent area of nursery. This helps in good tillering and robust seedlings and makes it possible to transplant single seedling per hill. Seedlings are planted at 20-25 days.

21 - 34 (14 Pages)
5 Special Type of Rice Cultivation SRI and Hybrid Rice Cultivation

System of Rice Intensification (SRI) was first developed in Madagascar during the 1980s SRI uses less inputs. It uses less seed, water, chemical fertilizers and pesticides but uses more organic manures. Rice grown with SRI technology has large root volume, profuse and strong tillers with big panicles, more and wellfilled spikelets with higher grain weight

35 - 42 (8 Pages)
6 Maize - Origin, Geographic Distribution, Economic Importance Soil and Climatic Requirement Varieties, Cultural Practices and Yield

Maize is one of the world’s leading crops cultivated over an area of about 194 million hectares with a production of about 1147 million tonnes of grain (2020). Among the maize growing countries, USA has the largest area followed by China, Brazil, Argentina, Ukraine and India. In respect of production also USA stands first followed by China. Regarding average yield per hectare USA ranks first followed by China. The average maize yield in India is only 3065 kg per hectare which is much lower than most of the maize growing countries of the world.

43 - 50 (8 Pages)
7 Sorghum and Pearl Millet-Origin, Geographic Distribution, Economic Importance, Soil and Climatic Requirement, Varieties, Cultural Practices and Yield

Sorghum is probably originated in Africa. Because of the great diversity of types grown in East Central Africa, in and around Ethiopia and Sudan, it seems probable that it originated in that area (De Condole, 1884).

51 - 64 (14 Pages)
8 Finger Millet and Minor Millets - Origin, Geographic Distribution, Economic Importance, Soil and Climatic Requirement, Varieties, Cultural Practices and Yield

Finger millet (Ragi/ Mandua) is the principal small millet grown in South Asia. It is believed to be native of India (De condole, 1886) but according to Vavilov (1926) it originated in Abyssinia.

65 - 78 (14 Pages)
9 Pigeonpea - Origin, Geographic Distribution, Economic Importance, Soil and Climate Requirement and Yield

Pulses are seeds of leguminous plants used as food. They produce dal rich in protein. The important pulse crops are greengram, blackgram, redgram, bengal gram, soybean, cowpea, peas, lentil and lathyrus. The total area under pulses in India is 29.81 m ha with a production of 25.42 m t and the productivity is 853 kg / ha. Pulses can grow both in rainfed and irrigated conditions.

79 - 88 (10 Pages)
10 Greengram, Blackgram & CowpeaOrigin,Geographic Distribution, Economic Importance, Soil and Climatic Requirement, Varieties, Cultural Practices and Yield - Agronomy of Rice Fallow Pulses

Mungbean is one of the most important pulse crops. It is grown in almost all parts of the country. Mungbean is primarily a crop of rainy season; however, with the development of early maturing varieties, it has proved to be an ideal crop for spring and summer seasons. Middle of March to last week of June is the most suitable growing period where there is a plenty of life-giving sunshine. During this period high temperature and low humidity keep insects and disease infestations at their lowest. Summer season offers an excellent opportunity for raising short duration pulses.

89 - 104 (16 Pages)
11 Groundnut-Origin, Geographic Distribution, Economic Importance, Soil and Climatic RequirementsVarieties, Cultural Practices and Yield

Oilseed crops are crops which are rich in fatty acid, cultivated for the production of vegetable oil. They are used either for edible or industrial or medicinal purposes. The important oilseeds are groundnut or peanut, sesame or gingelly, sunflower, rapeseed and mustard, soybean, castor, linseed or flax, niger and safflower.

105 - 118 (14 Pages)
12 Sesame, Soybean - Origin Geographical Distribution Economic Importance, Soil and Climatic Requirements, Varieties Cultural Practices and Yield

The earlier view was that the cultivated sesame originated from Ethiopia. But Bedigian and Harlen (1984) established evidence to indicate that sesame is native of India. In vedic period, liberal mention about Til (Gingelly seed) and Taila (Gingelly oil) are mentioned. The Charred seeds of Gingelly were extracted from Harappa (2500-1500 B.C).

119 - 132 (14 Pages)
13 Cotton - Origin, Geographic Distribution, Economic Importance Soil and Climatic Requirement, Varieties, Cultural Practices and Yield

Cotton is often called as “white gold”. True to its name cotton supports the largest agro based industries in India and cotton industry ranks first in the agro based industries and engages 4 to 5 million people in cotton growing. The industrial sector employs 1.0 million people. At present there are 3660 ginning and 1570 textile mills in India. India earns foreign exchange to a tune of Rs. 2500 million through exports of cotton textiles and products. Cotton is cultivated for ‘lint’ which is used for preparing threads, yarns and medical cotton mixed with synthetic fibre and for various other purposes.

133 - 150 (18 Pages)
14 Jute - Origin, Geographical Distribution, Economic Importance Soil and Climatic Requirements Varieties, Cultural Practices and Yield

History of jute in India: In Mahabharata times the mention has been made regarding Jute garments as pattagam (patta produced) for jute fibre products and kitajam (insect produced) for silk products. In Ain-e-Akbari, there is mention of sack cloth made from jute, in Rangapur district.

151 - 158 (8 Pages)
15 Fodder Sorghum - Origin, Geographic Distribution, Economic Importance Soil and Climatic Requirement Varieties, Cultural Practices and Yield and Fodder Preservation

Forages: The term forages denote plants that are used for feeding the animals that are cultivated in the farm, or it may be a wild used for stock feeding grown for the vegetative purpose. The vegetative phase is encouraged and the reproductive phase is suppressed.

159 - 166 (8 Pages)
16 Napier-Bajra Hybrids - Origin Geographic Distribution, Economic Importance, Soil and Climatic Requirement, Varieties, Cultural Practices and Yield

Cumbu Napier hybrid grass is a cross between Cumbu (Pennisetum glaucum) and Napier grass (P. purpureum Schumach.), widely cultivated across India, Africa, Sri Lanka and South East Asian countries. As the hybrid is a triploid, it displays complete sterility and high vegetative growth. In Tamil Nadu, land area utilized for growing fodder is negligible, accounting only 1.6 per cent of the total cultivated area.

167 - 172 (6 Pages)
17 Fodder Cowpea, Cluster Bean - Origin, Geographic Distribution Economic Importance, Soil and Climatic Requirement, Varieties Cultural Practices and Yield and Fodder Preservation

Cowpea is a quick growing leguminous forage crop. It is usually grown mixed with cereal fodders and grasses to improve the nutritive value of the herbage. It contains 20 – 24 % crude protein, 43 - 49 % neutral detergent fibre, 34 – 37 % acid detergent fibre, 23– 25 % cellulose and 5 – 6 % hemicelluloses on dry matter basis. The digestibility of cowpea fodder is above 70%. Cowpea can be grown under partial shaded conditions. It is an excellent cover crop, which suppresses weeds and enriches the soil. Cowpea requires warm climate with good atmospheric humidity. It can be grown in kharif as well as in zaid season.

173 - 182 (10 Pages)

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