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Solid and Hazardous Waste Management

Sunil Kumar
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Solid Waste Management has been a major challenge for the Urban local bodies in developing countries like India. It is one of the major concerns for the environmental managers, industry personnel and policymakers. It has been one of the areas on which the research community focused the greatest energy in the last couple of decades. This book offers readers methodical and technological aspects of solid and hazardous waste management, Challenges associated with waste management in developing countries, Techno-economic assessment of waste management systems in the Indian context. Special emphasis is given on applying advanced technologies coupled with novel tactics used for sustainable solid waste management, and various environmental impacts caused due to improper waste management practices are also discussed in detail. Environmental education and communication as a foundation in sustainable development, an essential aspect for strict enforcement of various environmental policies, is also explicated in the present book.

0 Start Pages

Developing countries like India face various environmental issues associated with sustainable management of solid wastes. The current waste management system in Indian scenario seems inept considering different aspects including rate of waste generation, inadequate waste collection and transportation facility, processing, and disposal mechanisms. In the recent past, the Indian Prime Minister received the prestigious Global Goalkeeper Awards from the Bill and Melinda Gates foundation for launching the benevolent campaign ‘Swachh Bharat Mission’. One cannot deny efforts taken by the Indian government for directing India towards Open defaecation free nation; however, the poor waste management infrastructure is the country’s major shortcoming.

1 Global Waste Stream Scenario 
Suraj Negi1 and Allen H Hu1 , Aishwarya Rani2, Chang-Tang Chang2

1.1. Background Introduction We live in a world with “throw-away” societies that are involved in a pattern of consuming packaged products that don’t even last past a single use or even a year and discarding the waste. This lifestyle generating waste is negatively impacting public health, environment and imposing socio-economic problems on us. The waste is continuously consuming our land, resources, and energy for storage, management, treatment, and disposal. Solid waste was an urban issue initially but has reached every corner nowadays. 

1 - 22 (22 Pages)
2 Greenhouse Gases Emissions from Agriculture: Management and Mitigation Strategies 
Jaipal, Hardeep Rai Sharma, Asha Gupta

1.1 Introduction Increased emission of greenhouse gases results in climate change which becomes one of the most prominent environmental issues to the world today. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the major greenhouse gas whereas nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) are other substantial contributors to climate change (IPCC, 2014, Tongwane et al., 2016). However, these gases are emitted in minimal quantities in comparison to carbon dioxide but impart more global warming effect by absorbing more infrared radiations (Oertel et al., 2016). The warming potential of one kg of CH4 is 23 times more than one kg of CO2 while  in the case of N2O, it was nearly 300 times more than CO2 (Ramaswamy et al., 2001, Bharti et al., 2019; Biswas et al., 2010). Around one-third of methane and two –thirds of nitrous oxide come from soil (Prather et al., 1995, Tubiello et al., 2015, Smith, 2016).

23 - 58 (36 Pages)
3 Waste Recycling 
Mehak Puri, Sonam Paliya

3.1 Introduction A Massive increase in population, urbanization and industrialization have led to an increase in the quantity and composition of waste. The waste is increasing day by day and is estimated to reach up to 2.2 billion tonnes by 2025, according to the reports by World Bank. It becomes a necessity for every nation to fore look upon the waste management system for their respective countries. From the collection, segregation, transportation, disposal all have become an important criterion to deal with. Among the available disposal options; the easiest and environment friendly is “Recycling”. 

59 - 106 (48 Pages)
4 Legislations and Management Practices of Municipal Solid Waste in Developing Countries 
Ashootosh Mandpea, Lakshay Tyagi

4.1. Introduction Presently, in the world, there are 195 countries according to the United Nations, and the number would even go up to 247 if we consider the disputed territories like Isle of Man, Hong Kong, etc. (United Nations, 2016) (Kershner, 2020). But the majority of the countries are still struggling to provide basic life-supporting amenities like nutrition, shelter, and employment. Conjointly, termed as emerging and developing countries such as India, Vietnam, Venezuela, Utopia, etc. (Ahmed and Shimada, 2019). Most of the developing countries are situated mainly in the continent of Africa, Asia and South America. They have got independence for the European countries like England, France, Portugal and Spain in the mid and late 20th century. 

107 - 144 (38 Pages)
5 Challenges Associated with Waste Management in Developing Countries 
Hardeep Rai Sharma, Nisha Rani

Definitions: Before starting the chapter, it is better to understand the basic definitions of the terms commonly used in this chapter. Waste: Waste is any material or object which is discarded after its primary use by its holder. A holder means the person who produces and keeps the waste. 

145 - 174 (30 Pages)
6 Economic Assessment of Waste Management in India 
Alpana Gupta, Athar Hussain

6.1 Introduction Urbanization is now a global phenomenon, but in developing countries the implications are more pronounced. Natural growth of population, reclassifications of habitation and migration trends are important in urban population in India. The population of India, which accounts for 27 per cent of the total population, was 285 million according to 2001 census. International experience shows that the pace of urban development accelerates when a country’s urban population crosses close to 25 percent of the total population (like in India).(Kumar and Chakrabarti, 2010). 

175 - 198 (24 Pages)
7 Novel Tactics for  Sustainable Waste Management 
Vivek Manyapu, Ashootosh Mandpe

7.1. Developing Sector in Scientific and Technological Approach of Waste Management From the very past, many traditional practices have been put into use for waste management like landfilling, composting, and recycling, which are practiced even today. However, the boundless upsurging waste compels the modern world to modify the traditional methods or to introduce innovative techniques with the grace of technology

199 - 222 (24 Pages)
8 An Innovative Approach Towards Sustainable Development 
Rucha Vikas Moharir, Sunil Kumar

8. Introduction The idea of sustainable development stands on the concept of maintaining the best possible environment within the availability of minimal resources and for the convenience of the society. Now-a-day the term “sustainability” gained a lot of attention due to challenges and problems faced in tackling the current situation of global pollution. One of the vital areas of research needs to be addressed in concern with sustainable development is the new innovations to enhance sustainability (Silvestre and Silva, 2014). 

223 - 240 (18 Pages)
9 Environmental Impacts  of Waste Management 
Anoop Jaiswal, Sneha Singh, Ashootosh Mandpe, Sunil Kumar

Introduction With ever-increasing population growth, waste management has become a major challenge threatening environmental sustainability. The total solid waste generation was recorded to be 1.3 billion tonnes per year by the world’s cities in 2012, with an ecological footprint of 1.2 kilograms per person/day. With the intensity with which the population growth is happening coupled with urbanization, predictions are made that by the end of the year 2025, 2.2 billion tonnes of municipal waste will be generated (The World Bank, 2018). 

241 - 268 (28 Pages)
10 Environmental Education and Communication as a Foundation in Sustainable Development 
Prachi Goyal, Sonam Paliya

10.1 Introduction The consistent process of rapid urbanization and expeditious developmental activities have severely impacted the environmental components and thereby the quality of life. With limited natural resources, individuals and societies have to learn to bring in attitudinal changes in order to accomplish environment sustainability (UNESCO). From the Book “Our Common Future” (Brundtland Report), the concept of Sustainable Development can be understood as the “development that meets the needs of the present, but does not threaten the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. 

269 - 292 (24 Pages)

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