Glanders is a contagious, acute or chronic, usually fatal anthropo zoonotic disease of Equidae caused by Burkholderia mallei and characterized by serial development of ulcerating nodules that are most commonly found in the upper respiratory tract, lungs, and skin. The first recorded description of glanders is from the third century from Aristotle. In 1664, glanders was recognized as a contagious disease and in 1830, it's zoonotic potential was suspected. In the late 1800's, the Mallein test (1891) was developed for diagnosis of glanders. By 1910, the U.S., Canada and Great Britain all implemented glanders controlprograms. B. mallei was eradicated from the United States in 1929.
Etiology: It is caused by Burkholderia mallei. It is a straight or slightly bent Gm - non-spore forming, non-motile rod. The organisms in old culture appear as pleomorphic. The organisms can grow in ordinary media but addition of defribinated horse blood or glycerol accelerate the growth. Colonies have hop like odour and slime consistency. The organisms are readily destroyed by direct sunlight and most of the disinfectants. They can survive for 20 days in water and 6 weeks in contaminated stable. This organism is closely related to the agent of melioidosis, Burkholderia pseudomallei.
Susceptible hosts: The most susceptible hosts are horses, mules and donkeys. Infections can also occur in dogs, cats, goats and camels; cats may be particularly susceptible. Hamsters and guinea pigs can be infected in the laboratory. It is an occupational /professional hazard to human being. Laboratory samples are highly infectious to humans. Infection have been observed in sheep and goats. Guinea pigs, rabbits and field mice may be infected fatally. Cattle and pigs are absolutely resistant.
Geographic Distribution: Glanders is seen in some Middle Eastern countries, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, parts of China and Mongolia, and Africa. Sporadic cases are also seen in South America. Sporadic cases of glanders were identified between 1985-86 to 1990-91 from the states of Haryana, Himachal Pradesh and Punjab. Since reemergence of glanders in July - August 2006 in and around Pune and Panchgani area of Maharastra, several cases have been reported among equines of different states viz., Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Punjab. During the year 2006-07, National Research Centre on Equines, Hissar tested 4395 samples and 97 were detected positive and B. mallei was isolated from 8 of these cases.
Landscape design and gardening is the technique of design application to beautify our surroundings, our homes, office buildings and everywhere in open space with plants and garden features to give the soothing effect on the body, mind and soul. Rapid urbanization, industrialization with population explosion has been constantly depleting our natural resources through deforestation, ripping of hills and exposing them to erosion, pollution of rivers, streams and lakes with little understanding of the natural environment which supports human life. It is the application of the art and techniques of Landscape Gardening that can spell magic to our surroundings enhancing aesthetic beauty besides, improving and conserving environment. Besides, landscape beautification and ecological balance provision, other beneficial influence of gardens in human life have been researched and studied. Psychologists have found that access to plants and green spaces provides a sense of rest and allows workers to be more productive. Flowers convey our inner feelings sympathy, romance or celebration (pride and joy) or contrition in the most beautiful and delicate manner. Flowers are also used to express religious feelings. Interaction with gardens and natural spaces offers a variety of mental, physical and social beneficial influence for humans, ranging from stress reduction, quicker healing and mitigation of Attention Deficit Disorder in children to decreasing crime and air pollution. Studies throughout the world have proven the power of green spaces to improve human health. Recent studies in the Netherlands and Japan show that people with easy access to green space showed better health and lower mortality rates.
β-Glucosidase assay (Eivazi and Tabatabai, 1988)
eISBN: 9789390512355 eBook Name:SOIL HEALTH ANALYSIS by Narendra Kumar Lenka, Jyoti Kumar Thakur, Sangeeta Lenka
β-Glucosidase (BG) plays a major role in the degradation of soil organic matter and plant residues. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of β-d-glucopyranosides, the final, rate-limiting step in the degradation of cellulose, the most abundant polysaccharide providing simple sugars for the soil microbial population. BG has been shown to be sensitive to changes in soil and residue management as well as an early indicator of changes in SOC before these changes are reflected in total or organic C analyses. The method is based on colorimetric determination of the p-nirtrophenol released by β-glucosidase when soil is incubated with buffered PNG solution and toluene.
26, DECEMBER 2004 GREAT TSUNAMI: IT’S CHARACTERSTICS AND COASTAL RESPONSES IN CAR NICOBAR ISLAND, INDIA
eISBN: 9789389992601 eBook Name:GEOMATICS IN TSUNAMI by Arun Kumar, R. K. Chingkhei, Bhoop Singh
The Car Nicobar Island is one of the several islands in Indian Ocean which was severally damaged by the Great tsunami on 26 December 2004. The great tsunami event caused massive devastation, in the form of loss of life and property in south and south East Asia. The objectives of the study are to assess the changes in the coastal features of the Car Nicobar Island using various indicators such as the tsunami height, run- up elevation, water flow direction, erosion, sand deposition and coastal subsidence. Andaman &Nicobar Islands are the summit of the submarine mountain range lying along the great tectonic suture zone extending from Eastern Himalaya to Sumatra and Lesser Sunda via Myanmar border and Arakan hills. The IRS P-6 satellite data has been found to be very useful in the present tsunami assessment studies. The digital analysis of the satellite data was done using the image processing software (ERDAS IMAGINE 8.4) and DTM to quantify the tsunami height (15 m), run up elevation (2-19 m), inundation (295-1203 m) and coastal responses. The settlements and coconut plantations have been severely damaged in the island, which were assessed using GIS analysis of the pre and post-tsunami satellite data.
The pesticides-one amongst the most important inputs in the crop production contributed a lot to minimize the losses to crop yield. In India, on an average, 33 % of crop loss occurs due to pests and disease and runs to an estimated Rs 1.40000 crore. Pesticide is an essential in the farmers struggle to protect their crops. Pesticides consumption in India reported to 288g/ha is very low compared to global average of 900g/ha. Excessive, irrational and indiscriminate use of these pesticides causes many negative consequences, mainly the famous 3 R viz; Resistance, Resurgence and Residue aspects.
Quality seed plays seminal role in augmenting agricultural production as well as productivity. Only by using good quality seeds, productivity can be enhanced up to the tune of 15-20 per cent alone, but under optimum management, the increment may touch upon up to 45 per cent depending upon the crops since the efficiency and efficacy of all other inputs in the production technology gamut are contingent upon the quality of seeds being used. Since antiquity the importance of quality seed to enhance agricultural productivity is well evident as mentioned in old testimonials, literatures, scriptures, treatises, epics, and many other ancient documents.
Seed quality is the major decisive factor governing stand establishment of any crop and thus having immense importance and bears utmost priority in case of high value, low volume crops like vegetables in particular and for high volume low value crops in general for enhanced productivity and production as well (Mandal et al., 2015). A number of diverse materials/ treatments at varying doses have been used to increase the rate and uniformity of seedling emergence in wheat and rice, which are generally categorized for seed enhancement, which is a kind of value addition.
Seed enhancement may be defined as post-harvest treatments that improve germination and seedling growth or facilitate the delivery of seeds and other inputs/materials required at the time of sowing smoothly. Seed enhancement technology predominantly possess a central objective to further improve seed performance by treating with specific additives/ chemical/ organics/ botanicals, etc. under very specific regimes and with the aid of certain planting equipments to grow uniform crop obviously to harness higher productivity and production (Halmer, 2006). Various techniques have been employed to assure superior performance of additives in different crops and most have been found to have immense commercial application (TeKrony, 2006). This includes three general areas of enhancement: pre sowing hydration treatment (priming), coating, pelleting technologies and seed conditioning.
This chapter presents the principle of fluidisation and its use in drying of food materials. Being a convective drying process, capacity and kinetics are limited by process conditions and material properties. The influences are discussed as well as presenting the main equations that describe drying in fluidised beds. The main focus lies on hot gas drying, additionally superheated steam drying as well as atmospheric fluidised bed freeze drying and microwave-assisted fluidised bed drying are presented and discussed.
Seed as an input is the precursor for agricultural development as it alone can guarantee 20-30 per cent share of crop productivity (Koudinya and Kumar, 2014). Rigveda, the world’s most ancient scripture available, prescribes the importance of seeds as “Subeejam Sukshetre Jayate Sampadyate” which literally means, “A good seed in a good field can lead to the prosperity and posterity of the entire human race”. Seed production is indeed important to take care of a country’s food and nutritional security needs. At the same time, seed export across countries is vital for ensuring competitiveness in the domestic seed industry besides generating employment and valuable foreign exchange which in turn can be used for scaling up the seed sector’s efficiency itself (Poonia, 2013). As a matter of fact, seed trade is one of the reasons for huge advances made in the Indian seed industry through development and exchange of genetic transformation, marker-assisted breeding and nanotechnology (Nandi et al., 2013). As of 2014-15, global seed industry has reached USD 45 billion in which international seed export alone was worth USD 10 billion. Further, with the estimated growth rate of 9.2 per cent during 2015-2020, the world seed business is expected to be over USD 92 billion. Presently, USA, China, France, Netherlands and Brazil are the top markets comprising more than 66 per cent of the global share in seed trade. Corn, soybean and vegetables account for more than 75 per cent of the total global seed market volume. As of 2014-15, the value of the Asian vegetable seed market was USD 6.75 billion in which China had a major share (41 per cent) and the Indian share was around 7 per cent. Moreover, the world vegetable seed market alone is expected to grow at the rate of 7 -8 per cent per annum and reach USD 8.8 billion by the year 2020 (Parashar and Kumar, 2016).
Seed is a critical and vital input that draws an explicit line between the success and failure of any agricultural production programme. In fact progressive history of agriculture has been a history of seed development and production. The mankind has been attempting to select better seed and employ better seed production techniques volitionally or in-volitionally ever since it divested nomadic life for the settled one. Initial attempts were confined to selection of useful crops followed by selection of better sorts and land races among the available native genetic resources. The introductions, hybridization followed by selection of better types and modern breeding tools inclusive biotechnological interventions have been extensively employed to breed better seed. Considering that research in crop improvement can turn little stone unless the quality seed with desired attributes is made available to the farmers. Government of India set up enforcement of provisions of Seed Act, 1966 for certification of seed as per prescribed minimum standards. Central Seed Certification Board was established in 1972 to exhort the central and state governments for producing genetically and physically pure and physiologically viable seed. The seed production programmes and rules were progressively honed to meet the ground situations. Initially the seed was considered as the exclusive bastion of public sector but the private sector got actively involved in seed production. WTO the seed still became a very open subject and the Seed Act was modified in 1988 and 2001 to permit import and export of quality seed, respectively. Despite of all these positive developments in seed sector, the availability of seed is still far from satisfactory. As on today private sector dabbles in low volume high cost seed due to economics and storage factors but the high volume less cost is still a virgin for private sector and is predominantly done by the public sector. Crop improvement is no more an art and science of improving hereditary of crop plants but has become a starker and competitive business under which the stronger would survive and the weaker get eliminated.
Business was abysmally shattered at the terminal end of the Second World War. This forced some nations to sign some tariff related global
Organic agriculture or farming is very much native to India. Whosoever tries to write a history of organic farming will have to refer India and China. The farmers of these two countries are farmers of 40 centuries and it is organic farming that sustained them. This concept of organic farming is based on following principles:
Nature is the best role model for farming, since it does not use any inputs nor demand unreasonable quantities of water.
The entire system is based on intimate understanding of nature’s ways. The system does not believe in mining of the soil of its nutrients and do not degrade it in any way for today’s needs.
The soil in this system is a living entity.
The soil’s living population of microbes and other organisms are significant contributors to its fertility on a sustained basis and must be protected and nurtured at all cost.
The total environment of the soil, from soil structure to soil cover is more important.
Mushrooms are the fruiting bodies of fungi, a group of organism that is different from fruits and vegetables. They are a rich source of good quality protein having more essential amino acids and vitamins with low calories. There are about six commonly known edible mushrooms throughout the world with button mushroom (Agaricus bisporous) being the most familiar and commercially important variety. Mushroom is a highly perishable product with a shelf life limiting to a few days. Soon after harvest, it starts to undergo physiological disorders like shriveling, wilting, liquefaction, browning, textural as well as weight losses and flavour changes. The main responsible factors for the quality deterioration after harvest are respiration rate, browning, bacterial spoilage of mushrooms, temperature and relative humidity. Because of its limited shelf life under ambient conditions of temperature and humidity, the preservation of mushrooms is a matter of concern. Various techniques have been involved in the extension of shelf life of mushrooms including chemical treatments, cooling, modified and controlled atmospheric storage, radiation, drying etc. Drying is one of the most accepted and effective methods for the long term storage of mushrooms. Mushrooms preserved by drying have a pleasant flavour and are used as an important ingredient in several food formulations including salads, instant soups, meats and rice dishes. Various drying processes like sun drying, hot air drying, freeze drying, vacuum drying etc. can be used for the long term storage of mushrooms. As mushrooms are sensitive to temperature, determining the right drying method is the key for the successful and effective operation of the system. The different operating conditions involved in various methods of drying affect product quality considerably. The effect of drying methods on the process and the quality of the dried mushroom is explained in detail in this chapter.
Protected Cultivation Techniques of Horticulture Crops
eISBN: 9789390083695 eBook Name:PROTECTED CULTIVATION OF FLOWERS by K. Shoba Thingalmaniyan, N.A. Tamil Selvi
India is blessed with wide range of diverse agro climatic conditions, making it an appropriate place for vegetable cultivation, resulting in increasing vegetable production from has increased from 63.8 MT in 1993 to 168.5 million tonnes in 2015-16 and productivity from 12.6 MT/ha to 17.8 MT/ha (www.indiastat.com). Although the production has increased but still the technology used and practices followed is predominantly traditional resulting in low productivity and inconsistent quality and quantity of produce supplies to various markets in the country. The per capita consumption of vegetables in India is very low against WHO standards and FAO recommendation (135 g/day <180 g/day (WHO standards) < 300 g/ day capita (FAO recommendation).
Seed pathology has been recognized as its own specialization for a relatively brief time, and the term “Seed Pathology” was first coined by Mary Noble in the 1940 (Agarwal and Sinclair, 1997). Seed pathology is an essential part of seed technology as well as a sub discipline of plant pathology. According toAgarwal and Sinclair (1997), it may be defined as the study of seed borne disease and pathogens carried with seed. It also includes studies on the mechanisms of seed infection, seed transmission, the role of seed borne inoculum in disease development, methods for the detection of seed borne pathogens and non-pathogens, seed certification standards, mycotoxins and mycotoxicoses, and various methods for control of seed borne disease. Seed pathology includes the study of diseases and deterioration caused by bacteria, fungi, nematodes, viroids, viruses, physiological and mechanical disorders.
Neergaard Paul is considered the father of seed pathology. He was one of the founding father and later served as Director of the Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries, Copenhagen, Denmark, from 1956 to 1974. He served as the Chairman of the Plant Disease Committee of the International Seed testing Association (ISTA). During his tenure as Chair of ISTA, he helped standardize methods for the detection of seed borne fungi.Neergaard (1977) authored a two-volume text entitled “A Seed Pathology”. This text has served as a reference and teaching standard for the science of seed pathology throughout the world (Agarwal and Sinclair, 1997). This text focused on a wide variety of seed pathology issues, ranging from the economic significance of seed borne diseases to the assessment of seed borne inoculum.
Vitamin C is one of the most important phytochemicals and can be found in almost all fruits and vegetables. Since it covers almost all eventualities, being water solute and prone to leaching from cells, thermally labile (one of the most labile vitamins), pH-, metal ion-, light-sensitive, as well as readily oxidizable by ascorbic acid oxidase, vitamin C is selected as the most frequently measured nutrient to evaluate the nutrients loss during thermal processing. It is generally accepted that if vitamin C is well preserved, the other nutrients are also well retained. Higher retention of vitamin C in processed products is highly desired. Herein this chapter reviews the degradation mechanism and kinetics of vitamin C of fruits and vegetables during thermal processing, such as blanching, drying, cooking and frying. It starts with an overview of the functions of vitamin C in human’s health. Then the current status for understanding of the degradation kinetics of vitamin C during thermal processing was outlined, followed by the discussion of its degradation mechanism. At last, potential strategies or alternatives to keep vitamin C are identified and discussed.
Thar Desert is unique both from floristic and climatic parameters. Biodiversity in this region survives on a very/ fragile ecosysytem under a highly hostile environment. Major area consists of dry undulating mass of loose sand, thus, leading to shifting sand dunes. The sandy plain is full of sand-hills with serve as low depressions where salt and soda are deposited after drying. The whole area is inhospitable and sterile. Trees are rather a few and far between (Bhandari, 2005).
The Thar Desert of western India is known for its rich and ancient culture system and traditions. The communities have long been part of the Thar Desert ecosystem and have evolved specific strategies to live in harmony with its hostile environment. Orans have remained mainstay in balancing this arid ecosystem. Man of this region has never been greedy as he is today. Orans were repositories of ancient system of gene pool conservation. But, there are unregulated encroachment on the marginal lands and over-exploitation of groundwater resources. Orans has been part and parcel of the lifestyle of the Thar Desert inhabitants. Orans are used to provide vital grazing land for livestock, water, minor forest produce, medicinal plants and green cover for the villages. They were worshipped as devbhumi. Orans preserve the endemic, endangered or threatened species, medicinal plants and wild variety of cultivars found.
Common name : English- Red hot cat’s tail
Odia- Bilei lanja Family : Euphorbiaceae
Habit & Distribution
The plant usually seen along the road sides and often grown in gardens (fig 4 a).
It is a bushy shrub grows up to 1.8 to 3.7 meters in height. The leaves are ever green, oval, 10-23 cm long and 7.5-10 cm in width with pointed ends. Flowers are borne in attractive shades, ranging in colour from deep purple to bright red and clustered in velvety catkins, which are about 30-50 cm long. The plant flowers throughout the year.
Botanical description: The plant is a small erect herb, growing up to 60 cm or more. The ascending branches are angled and velvet-hairy. Leaves are broadly ovate, nearly triangular, rather coarsely toothed. Leaf stalks are as long as or longer than the 3-5 cm long blades. Flowers are stalkless, borne on erect axillary spikes longer than the leaves. Male flowers are minute, crowded distally. Female flowers are scattered along the inflorescence axis, each subtended by a conspicuous semicupular leaf-like toothed green bract nearly 7 mm long. Capsule is bristly and1 mm broad.
Ecology: It is mostly found in hot, low to medium altitude, sandy margins of rivers, seasonal water courses and pans, usually in shade of thickets, on rocky hillsides and often in disturbed ground and as a weed of cultivation.
The plant is an erect, straggling or subscandant herb. The leaves are ovate, elliptic, obtuse, acute and finely attached to the stem on both sides. The flowers are greenish white in colour, bracteolate having membranous blade and seeds are reddish brown in colour, sub-cylindric at apex and rounded at the base.
Lignieres and Spitz first isolated Actinobacillus from the cattle with actinomycosis like condition in Argentina in 1902. The findings were also confirmed by Nocard in 1902. Later the isolated bacterium from the cattle was named as Actinobacillus lignieresii in memory of Lignieres.
Pfeiffer (1892) first isolated Haemophilus influenzae as a cause of human influenza and it is also known as ‘Pfeiffer’s bacillus’. Other workers isolated and described different species of the genus Haemophilus from animals and birds. In 1903, Friedberger, a research assistant of Pfeiffer, isolated similar kind of bacteria from prepuce of dogs which was described later as Haemophilus canis. In 1925, Mitchell isolated Haemophilus ovis from the respiratory tract of sheep. Lewis and Shope (1931) isolated and illustrated Haemophilus suis from the infected pigs. Glasser found the association between fibrinous serositis, polyarthritis in pigs (Glasser’s disease) and a small gram-negative rod as early as 1910, later became known as Haemophilus parasuis. The bacteria was first isolated by Hjarre and Wramby in 1943. De Blieck (1931) isolated a hemophilic bacterium from the birds suffering with ‘infectious coryza’ and named the bacteria as Bacillus haemoglobinophilus coryzae gallinarum. Later it became known as Haemophilus paragallinarum (Avibacterium paragallinarum).
Cohn (1875) first observed and described a branching filamentous microorganism in the ‘concretions’ (coagulated mass) taken from a lacrimal canal, later identified as Actinomyces israelii. Bollinger first reported the yellow granules in jaw tissues of the cattle in 1877 and established the significance of the bacteria as the etiological agent. In 1878, Israel described the first human case. In 1879, Hartz observed the microscopic appearance of granules of Actinomyces and suggested the name Actinomyces bovis. Mosselman & Lihnaux (1890) and Wolf & Israel (1891) first isolated the bacteria in artificial laboratory media from lumpy jaw cases of cattle and human actinomycosis, respectively.
Common name : English- Red Lucky Seed
Hindi- Badi gumchi
Odia- Manda kaincha
Family : Mimosaceae
Habit & Distribution
The plant is a tree (Fig. 6a) often found in gardens and village sides and distributed in different states of India.
It is a large tree with grey bark. The leaves are compound bipinnate, green when young, turning yellow when old and having 5-6 pairs of leaflets. The flowers are yellowish, small and grow in dense drooping and about 5-15 cm long. Fruits are curved, hanging, green pods that turn brown, coil up and split open as they ripen to reveal small bright red seeds. The plant flowers during March-May.
Botanical Description: The plant is a medium sized tree with spines of 1-2 cm long. The leaf is composed of three leaflets. The leaflets are oval, elliptic with 2.5-6.5 cm petiole, terminal one is larger. Flowers of the tree are white or greenish-white. The fruits are ovoid, hard and about 5-7.5 cm in diameter. The flowers appear during March-April and the tree bears fruits towards October, ripening in April.
Botanical description: The plant is a perennial sub-erect, diffuse or prostrate herb, growing upto 0.3-2 meter high, branched from the base and often also from above. Stem and branches are densely woolly with whitish or yellowish, shaggy hairs. Leaves are alternately arranged, nearly circular to lanceo shaped-elliptic, wedge-shaped at the base, rounded to sharp at the tip. Flower spikes are stalkless, solitary or usually in clusters in leaf axils, silky white to creamy in colour, forming a long inflorescence leafy to the ultimate spikes.
Ecology: This plant is commonly found in open forests on mountain slopes, on waste and disturbed ground and coastal scrubs. The plant is widespread in drier parts of the tropics and subtropics.
Common name : English- Pith plant
Odia- Sola Family : Fabaceae
Habit & Distribution
It is a herb (Fig.7a), commonly found in ponds, swampy areas, lakes and other water bodies. It is distributed throughout India.
The plant is an erect, perennial herb. Its stem is about 2 cm in diameter. The leaves are sessile reaching up to 15 cm long, leaflets 25-50 pairs, alternate or opposite. The flowers are yellow in colour and about 8 cm long, broadly ovate and acute. The plant flowers between August and October.
4. Name in Indian languages: Khanor, Bankhor, Tatwakhar (Himachali), Bankhor, Kanor, (Hindi), Kakra, Hanudun (Kashmir), Kanur, Gun, Khanor (Punjabi). Pangar (Kumoani), Ghode Pangro(Nepali).
Aesculus indica or Himalayan horse chestnut, is a spectacular tree with pinkish white blossoms. It is found growing in the Himalayan forests between 2,000 and 3,000 metres msl. It is an attractive tree, bearing beautiful, multi coloured blossoms during May and June. The leaves are also ornamental and form a beautiful canopy. The tree, therefore, is becoming popular as an avenue tree. The tree yield s which are eaten by the people.
Normally genetically engineered bacteria are very useful for the large scale production of valuable eukaryotic proteins.
Bacteria grow rapidly, They grow on relatively simple media, they are easy to handle, they are easily transformed, they can grow on wide range of substrates, they multiply, fast, they contain simple and well characterized genome, they can be easily modified but even though, they have their own problems…
Bacteria do not have intrudes and so they do not have any system or machinery to remove introns.
Many eukaryotic proteins undergo different types of modifications after they are produced. These modifications are known as “post translation al modifications”.
Each bacterial cell usually contains many copies of the plasmid but there is no mechanism to ensure the equal distribution of plasmids in daughter cells.
1. Botanical Name :Alangium salviifolium(L.F.) Wangerin
2. Family : Cornaceae
3. Common Name : Sage-leaved alangium
4. Name in Indian languages: Akola or Ankol (Hindi), Gandhapushpa (Sanskrit), Ankol (Marathi), Ankol (Gujarati), Ankod (Bengali), Ankolam (Malayalam), Ankola (Kannada), Alanji (Tamil).
Sage-leaved alangium (Alangium salvifolium) is a small, bushy tree with a medium dense canopy. It has several medicinal properties. The roots, bark, fruit seeds and oils are used for treatments. The useful in stomach related disorders. The plants are short to medium in height. The trunks are short with sparse thorns.
Common name : English- Sage Leaved Alangium
Odia- Ankula/Dhalanga Family : Cornaceae Habit & Distribution
The plant is a tree (Fig. 69 a), commonly found in dry regions in plains and low hills and also found on roadsides. The plant is widely distributed throughout India. General Characters
The plant is a tall thorny tree native to India. It grows to a height of about 3 to 10 meters. The bark is ash colored, rough and faintly fissured. The leaves are elliptic oblong or elliptic lanceolate. The flowers are greenish white, fascicled, and axillary. The berries are ovoid, ellipsoid, glabrous, smooth and violet to purple in colour. The plant flowers and bears fruits during February -June.
Common name : English- Onion
Family : Amaryllidaceae
Habit & Distribution
It is a herb (Fig. 10 a). The plant is commonly cultivated along the river banks during winter season.
The leaves of the plants are cylindric, fistular and look like tubes. Flower of the plant is white or greenish white with a short pedicel. The plant flowers during January- February.
Botanical description: The plant is a herb. The leaves of the plants are flat, linear with sheaths, about half of their length. Flower of the plant is white or greenish white with a short pedicel. The plant is having bulbs with membranous outer scales in the axils of which do exist 10-12 lesser bulbs.
Botanical description: The plant is an annual herb. It is erect and rising, 10-50 cm tall. Stem is branched from or near the base. The Leaves are obovate, oblong, or linear with 1.5-6.5 mm long and 0.3-2.5 cm wide. Flowers of the plant are greenish or orange-red in colour with 3-7-flowered cymes. Seeds are single, black and shining with 1.5-2 mm in diam.
Ecology: The plant is a common weed widely distributed in forests and cultivated lands.
1. Botanical Name :Allophylus serratus (Roxb.)Kurz
2. Family : Sapindaceae
3. Common Name : Tippani
4. Name in Indian languages: Lavate pan (Kodwa), Tippani (Hindi), Sidisale (Kannada), Mukkanamperu (Malayalam), Memdri (Marathi), Amalai (Tamil), Eravalu (telugu), Trputah (Sanskrit).
It is an evergreen, low branching small tree or a large shrub about 3-6m tall. Trunk is straight with open canopy. The outer pulp and some time seeds are consumed in fresh state. It is frequently notice in degraded forest areas in Western Ghats. It is known to possess various therapeutic properties.
Botanical description: The plant is an evergreen creeper, herbaceous and perennial, growing up to 15 – 30 cm in height and spreading to form a growth mat about 45cm wide or more. Stems are prostrate or erect and moderately branched, hairless below, generally hairy above and in leaf-axils. The leaves are inverted-lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, acute at apex, narrowed at the base into a poorly defined petiole, mostly 2-6 cm long and 0.6-2.0 cm wide. Round or short-cylindrical flower heads lie stalkless in leaf axils, 5-10 mm long and 5-7 mm wide.
Use: Young leaves and shoots are collected, fried and eaten as green vegetables
Botanical description: The plant is a perennial herb. The plant is a much branched prostrate herb, branches often purplish, frequently rooting at the lower nodes. The leaves are simple, opposite, somewhat fleshy, lanceolate, obtuse or subacute, glabrous and shortly petiolate. The flowers of the plant are small, white and in axillary clusters. Fruits are compressed obcordate utricles, with suborbicular seeds.
Botanical description: The plant is a herb, reaches heights of over 1 meter tall with fleshy oval shaped leaves that are sometimes pointed at the tips. It is having a deep maroon colour in the center of the leaf with streaks of red, purple and green. The plant produces feathery purple, magenta or red flowers from the central stalk which is packed with edible seeds. The flower buds are edible, once they mature and become bushy.
Ecology: The plant is commonly used as leafy vegetables and cultivated throughout the country. The plant loves to grow in the sandy soil in winter season. It is also cultivated in left over potato fields.
Use: Leaves and young shoots are cut into small pieces, cooked with salt and chilly and then eaten. Sometimes the leaves and shoots are mixed with vegetables in cooking.
Botanical description: The plant is an annual erect herb that grows upto 1 meter in height. The stem is grooved and often redish. The leaves are long-petioled, ovate or elliptic, acute or subacute with base shortly cuneate to attenuate. The flowers are in axillary and terminal red or green panicled spikes with up to 20 cm long. Seeds are black in colour, shining and compressed or subspherical with thick margin.
Ecology: The plant being commonly used as leafy vegetables, is cultivated throughout the country. The plant loves to grow in soil rich with organic materials. The plant is commonly cultivated in summer and it grows luxuriantly in rainy season.
Botanical description: The plant is an annual herb with sometimes red tinged erect stems, sometimes ascending, 30-150 cm long, usually branched. The leaves are ovate to rhombic- ovate, elliptic, lanceolate-oblong, or lanceolate, blades 1-12 cm long, 0.89-6 cm wide and smooth. The stem and its branches carry spines. Flowers of the plant are green, and are in axillary clusters in the lower part of the plant and in unbranched or branched spikes in the upper part. The lower clusters are entirely without stamens as the lower flowers of the spikes, the upper flowers in the spikes are staminate. Seeds are dark brown or black in colour.
Botanical descripion: The plant is an erect tropical annual herb with long-stalked leaves, growing up to 5 ft tall. The leaves grow up to 5 inch long, are notched or rounded at the tips. The flowers are whitish-green or red white, the seeds are very small, shining, black or red- brown in colour.
Botanical description: The plant is an annual herb with erect stems growing upto 10-80 cm in height. The leaves are triangular-ovate to narrowly rhombic, 2-7 cm long, 1.5-5.5 cm wide, hairless, with a narrow and small narrow notch. The flowers of the plant are green, in slender, paniculate spikes, in leaf axils or at the end of branches. Fruit is nearly round, about 1.3-1.5 mm in size.
Ecology: The plant is a fairly common weed on waste ground and roadsides and distributed throughout India. The plant is also cultivated during summer season.
Use: Leaves and young shoots are collected, roasted and eaten
This chapter presents the impact evaluation (summative) of the vegetable IPM programme that was conducted by the Central Integrated Pest Management Centre (CIPMC) Jammu in the sub-tropical areas of Jammu, Samba and Kathua districts. These districts were selected purposively as the maximum numbers of IPM-FFS were conducted by CIPMC in these three districts. Ex-post facto research design (with/without) was employed for conducting the impact evaluation of vegetable IPM-FFS programmes conducted between 2003-04 and 2007-08. This design uses a pre-existing situation as the treatment instead of actual manipulation of the variables. An ex post facto study uses a comparable site as the control to find the programme effects.
An Ex-post facto research is a systematic empirical inquiry in which the scientist does not have direct control of independent variables because their manifestations have already occurred or because they are inherently not manipulated. Inferences about relations among variables are made, without direct intervention, from co commitment variation of independent and dependent variables. This kind of research is based on a scientific and analytical examination of dependent and independent variables. Independent variables are studied in retrospect for seeking possible and plausible relations and the likely effects that the changes in independent variables produce on a single or a set of dependent variables. The ex-post facto design was also used by Peshin and Kalra (1998); Reddy (2006); Maraddi et al., (2007) while evaluating the IPM programmes. The indicators for evaluation of the IPM-FFS programme were selected based on the requirements of the research design.
Botanical description: The plant is an erect annual herb extremely bitter in taste (all parts of the plant). It grows erect to a height of 1-4 ft. with dark stem. The leaves are glabrous, lanceolate, pinnate, with 8.0 cm long and 2.5 cm broad. Flowers of the plant are small, white-purple or spotted purple in colour, spreading axillary and terminal racemes or panicles and acute at both ends. Seeds numerous, sub quadrate and yellowish brown in colour.