"Master’s degree in Agriculture/ Entomology/ Zoology/ Sericulture/ Apiculture/ Plant Protection with specialization in Agricultural Entomology. "
Two separate competitive written examinations (Computer Based Test + Written) followed by Viva-voce shall be conducted as per the following plan of examinations:-
Examination Max. Marks Duration
Preliminary-ARS 150 2 hours (Objective Type)
ARS – Main 240 3 hours (Descriptive Type)
Viva-voce 60 1/3 marks will be deducted for each wrong answer in ARS-2021 (Preliminary)
Examination (Objective Type). There will be no rounding off of fractions of marks. This is a qualifying examination and marks scored will not be counted for final selection. ARS-2021 (Mains) Examination Paper will have only one paper of 240 marks in therespective disciplines, to be attempted in 3 hours duration. The paper shall be divided in three parts A, B and C. Part ‘A’ will consist of 40 (forty) questions of 2 (two) marks each. In this 30 part, answers required will be of very short, not exceeding 10 (Ten) words at the most. Part ‘B’ will have 20 (twenty) questions of 5 (five) marks each requiring one or two paragraphs and/or graphic explanation. Part ‘C’ will have 6 (six) essay type or descriptive type questions. Each question will carry 10 (ten) marks and may have two or more parts. Answers are required to be written in the space provided below the question. In no case extra sheets will be provided. All questions in parts ‘A’ ‘B’ and ‘C’ will be compulsory.
Unit 1: Systematics
History and development of Entomology, Evolution of insects, posiiion of insects in the animal world, characteristics of phylum Arthropoda, structural features of important arthropod groups such as Trilobita, Chelicerata and Mandibulata structural features of important classes of phylum Arthropoda viz. Arachnida, Crustacea, Chilopoda, Diplopoda and Hexapoda. Classification of insects up to order level, habits, habitats and distinguishing features of different Order and important Families.
Unit 2: Morphology
Body wall, its structure, outgrowths, endoskeleton, Body regions, segmentation, sclerites and sutures. Head and head appendages, types of mouth parts, antennae, their structure and types. Thorax structure, thoracic appendages and their modification. Wings, their modification and venation, Abdomen; structure, abdominal appendages both in Pterygota and Apterygota. External genitalia, general structure and modification in important insect orders.
Unit 3: Embryology, Internal Anatomy and Physiology
Embryonic and post embryonic development, types of metamorphosis, physiology of ecdysis. General features and types of larvae and pupae. Structure, function and physiology of Digestive, Circulatory, Respiratory, Reproductive, Nervous and Excretory systems, Sense Organs; structure and types. Insect food and nutrition; minerals, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, lipids, vitamins and their role in growth and development, artificial diets.
Unit 4: Ecology
Concept of ecology, Environment and its components-biotic and abiotic factors and their effects on growth, development, population dynamics, distribution and dispersal. Principle of biogeography and insects biodiversity. Biotic potentia and environmental resistance. Ecosystems, agroecosystems analysis, their characteristics and functioning. Intra and inter specific relationship; competition, predator-prey and host¬parasite interactions, ecological niche. Life table studies, popu ation models. Food chain and food web. Arthropod population monitoring, pest forecasting. Diapause and causes of pest out breaks.
Unit 5: Biological Control
Importance and scope of biological control, history of biologica control: Biocontrol agents-parasites, predators and insect pathogens. Important entomophagous insect Orders and Families. Ecological, biological, taxonomic, legal and economic aspects of biological control, phenomena of multiple parasitism, hyperparasitism, superparasitism and their applied importance. Principles and procedures of using exotic biocontrol agents. Utilization of natural biocontrol agents: conservation, habitat management and augmentation. Mass multiplication techniques and economics. Effective evaluation techniques, Biocontrol organizations in world and India. Successful cases of biological control of pests.
Unit 6: Chemical Control and Toxicology
History, scope and principles of chemical control. Insecticides and their classification. Formulations of insecticides. Susceptibility of insects to the entry of insecticides. Physical, chemical and toxicological properties of different groups of insecticides: chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, synthetic pyrethroids, chlordimeform, chitin synthesis inhibitors, avermectins, nitroguandines, phenylpyrrozzoles, botanicals (natural pyrethroids, rotenone, neem products, nicotine, pongamia spp. etc). Combination insecticides. Problems of pesticide hazards and 3 environmental pollution. Safe use of pesticides, precautions and first aid treatments. Insecticides Act 1968, registration and quality control of insecticides. Evaluation of toxicity, methods of toxicity testing, determination of LD 50, LT 50, RL 50 etc. Pesticides residues in the environment and their dynamics of movements, methods of residue. Pharmacology of insect poisons. Mode of action of different groups of insecticides; neuroactive (axonal and synaptic) poisons, respiratory poisons, chitin synthesis inhibitors. Metabolism of insecticides; activative and degradative metabolism, detoxification enzymes and their role in metabolism. Selectivity of insecticidal actions; insecticide resistance; mechanism, genetics and management of insecticide resistance.
Unit 7: Host Plant Resistance
Chemical ecology: mechano and chemo receptors. Host plant selection by phytophagous insects. Secondary plant substances and their defenses against phytophagous insect. Basis of resistance (Antixenosis, Antobiosis, Tolerance). Biotypes development and its remedial measures. Tritrophic interactions, induced resistance. Breeding for insect resistant plant varieties. Resistance development and evaluation techniques. Genetics of Resistance: vertical resistance, ho azontal resistance, oligogenic resistance, polygenic resistance. Biotechnological approaches and development of transgenic insect resistant plants, its advantages and limitations. Case histories. Insect resistance to transgenic plants and its management.
Unit 8: Innovative Approaches in Pest Control
Behavioral control: pheromones-types and uses, advantages and limitations. Hormonal control: types and function of insect hormones, insect hormone mimics, advantages and limitations, chemosterilants, antifeedants, attractants, repellents; their types, method of applications, advantages and limitations. Genetic control: concepts and methods, case histories, advantages and limitations. Potentialities of IPM.
Unit 9: Integrated Pest Management
History, concept and principles of IPM. Components of IPM: Host plant resistance, agronomic manipulations, mechanical and physical methods, chemical methods, biocontrol agents utilization, genetic and behavioral control strategy etc. IPM strategies for field and horticultural crops. IPM case histories. Concept of damage levels- Economic threshold levels (ETL), Economic injury levels (EIL) and their determination. System approach, Agro ecosystem and cropping system vs. IPM. Constraints and Strategies of IPM implementation.
Unit 10: Pesticide Application Equipments
Types of appliances: sprayers, dusters, fog generators, smoke generators, soil injecting guns, seed treating drums, flame throwers, etc. Power operated sprayers and dusters. Types of nozzles and their uses. Maintenance of appliances. Aerial application of pesticides, principles of aerial application, factors affecting the effectiveness of aerial application. Equipments for aerial applications. Advantages and disadvantages of aerial application.
Unit 11: Pests of Field Crops and their Management
Distribution, host range, biology and bionomics, nature of damage and management of arthropod pests of cereals, Oilseed, pulses and fibre crops, sugarcane and tobacco. Polyphagous pests: locusts, termites, hairy catepillars, cut worms and white grubs.
Unit 12: Pests of Horticultural Crops and their Management
Distribution, host range, biology and bionomics, nature of damage and management of arthropod pests of vegetables, fruits and plantation crops, spices, condiments and ornamentals.
Unit 13: Pests of Stored Products and their Management
Fundamentals of storage of grains and grain products. Storage losses, sources of infestation/infection, factors influencing losses, insect and non-insect pests, their nature of damage and control. Microflora in storage environment and their control. Storage structures, bulk storage and bag storage, their relative ef icacy and demerits. Grain drying methods and aeration. Non-insect pests (rodents, birds, mites) of stored products and their control. Integrated management of storage pests.
Unit 14: Arthrpod Vectors of Plant Diseases
Common arthropod vectors viz., aphids, leafhoppers, plant hoppers, whiteflies, thrips, psylids, beetles, weevils, flies, bees and mites and their relationship with the plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma. Mecharism of pathogen transmission : Active mechanical transmission, biological transmission. Toxicogenic insects, mites and phytotoxemia. Some important arthropod vector transmitted diseases and their epidemiology in India. Management of vector and its effect on control of diseases.
Unit 15: Honey Bees and Bee-keeping
Honey bees and their economic importance. Bee species, their behaviour, habit and habitats. Bee Keeping: bee pasturage, hives and equipments, seasonal management. Bee enemies including diseases and their control.
Unit 16: Silkworms and Sericulture
Silkworm species, their systematic position and salient features. Rearing techniques of mulberry-muga-eri and tassar silkworms. Nutritional requirements of silkworms. Sericulture: rearing house and appliances, silkworm breeds, principles of voltism and nioultism, seed production and its economics. Enemies and diseases of silkworms and their management. Sericulture organization in India.
Unit 17: Lac Insect
Lac insect, its biology, habit and habitats. Host Trees: pruning, inoculation, lac cropping techniques, and harvesting. Enemies of lac insect and their control.
Unit 18: Other Useful Insects Pollinators, biocontrol agents of weeds, soil fertility improving agents, scavengers. Use of insects and insect products in medicines. Usefulness of insects in scientific investigations, insects as food.
Unit 19: Statistics and Computer Application
Frequency distribution, mean, mode and median. Standard, noimal, bionomial and Poisson’s distribution, Sampling methods and standard errors. Correlation and regression: Partial and multiple, tests of significance; t, F, chi- square, Duncan’s multiple range tests. Design of experiments: Principles of Randomized block design, Completely randomized block design, Latin square design, Split-plot designs. Probit analysis. Use of soft ware packages like SPSS, SAS, etc. for the above tests and designs of experiments for analysis.
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