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Master’s degree in Dairy Technology or Dairy Science/Animal Products Technology / Food Technology with specialization in Dairy Technology.

Exam Pattern

"Two separate competitive written  examinations (Computer Based Test + Written) followed by Viva-voce shall be conducted as per the following plan of examinations:-
Examination               Max. Marks  Duration
Preliminary-ARS         150              2 hours (Objective Type)
ARS – Main                   240             3 hours  (Descriptive Type)
Viva-voce                        60              1/3 marks will be deducted for each wrong answer in ARS-2021 (Preliminary)
Examination (Objective Type). There will be no rounding off of fractions of marks. This is a qualifying examination and marks scored will not be counted for final selection.         ARS-2021 (Mains) Examination Paper will have only one paper of 240 marks in the respective disciplines, to be attempted in 3 hours duration. The paper shall be divided in three parts A, B and C. Part ‘A’ will consist of 40 (forty) questions of 2 (two) marks each. In this 30 part, answers required will be of very short, not exceeding 10 (Ten) words at the most. Part ‘B’ will have 20 (twenty) questions of 5 (five) marks each requiring one or two paragraphs and/or graphic explanation. Part ‘C’ will have 6 (six) essay type or descriptive type questions. Each question will carry 10 (ten) marks and may have two or more parts. Answers are required to be written in the space provided below the question. In no case extra sheets will be provided. All questions in parts ‘A’ ‘B’ and ‘C’ will be compulsory.


Unit 1 : Market Milk

Status of dairy industry in India. Recent policy changes related to dairy sector (MMPO & WTO). Principles and practices for production of high quality mi k. Methods of milk procurement, payment, quality assessment, detection of adulterants, handling and transportation of milk. Methods of raw milk preservation. Physical properties and chemical composition of milk of cow, buffalo and other species of milch animals; their importance in milk processing. Centrifugal separation, clarification and bactofugation and factors affecting their efficiency. Homogenization process and its implications in dairy processing; efficiency of homogenization and factors affecting it. Thermal processing of milk. Principles and methods of pasteurization and sterilization. UHT processing and aseptic packaging. Special milks. Principles of production, processing and marketing of toned, double toned, reconstituted, recombined, flavoured and filled milks.

Unit 2 : Fat Rich Dairy Products

Basic principles and recent concepts in production and processing of different types of cream, butter, margarine, fat spreads, butter oil and ghee. Fractionation of fat and its application. Health aspects of milk fat. Cholesterol reduced and cnolesterol-free dairy products.

Unit 3 : Frozen Milk Products

Trends in the frozen milk products industry in India. Definition, classification and composition of ice-cream and other frozen desserts. Role of milk constituents and other ingredients, processing steps, packaging and storage methods on quality of ice¬cream. Technological aspects of manufacture of plain, fruit, soft-serve, low fat and dietic ice-creams and novelties. Indigenous frozen desserts, kulfi, malai-ka-baraf etc.; their production techniques and quality. Distribution of frozen desserts. Newer ingredients for use in the ice-cream industry.

Unit 4 : Cheese and Fermented Milk Products

Status and scope of cheese industry. Fermented milk products - their nutritional and therapeutic value. Definition and classification of cheese and fermented milks. Milk in relation to cheese making. Manufacture of Cheddar, Gouda, Mozzarella and Swiss cheeses. Role of starter cultures in cheese quality. Types of rennet for cheese manufacture. Physical and chemical changes during cheese ripening. Manufacture of processed cheese, cheese spread and cheese foods. Mechanization of cheese-making process. Modern concepts in accelerated cheese ripening. Storage and defects. Production and storage of dahi, yoghurt, shrikhand, lassi and misti dohi. Probiotic dairy products.

Unit 5 : Concentrated and Dried Milk Products

Milk in relation to processing and manufacture of concentrated and dry milks. Principles and methods of manufacture, storage and defects in sweetened condensed milk. Evaporated milk. UHT sterilized concentrated milk. Whole milk powder. Skim milk powder, high-fat powders, and ice-cream powder. Instantization of milk powder. Newer technologies and formulations for infant foods and weaning foods, malted milk and malted milk foods.

Unit 6 : Indigenous Milk Products

Status and role of traditional dairy products in Indian dairy industry and economy. Characteristics of various traditional products, their prospects and constraints. Methods of production; physico-chemical changes during manufacture; quality attributes, shelf-life, preservation and packaging. Process innovations relating to khoa, chhana, paneer, rabri, kheer, khoa and chhcma-based sweets.

Unit 7 : Utilization of Milk Byproducts

Status, availability and utilization of dairy byproducts. Associated economic and pollution problems. Manufacture of casein, sodium and calcium-caseinates, edible casein, hydrolysates, coprecipitates, whey protein concentrates, whey beverages, whey syrups and lactose. Use of buttermilk. Development / formulation of new products based on dairy byproducts.

Unit 8 : Packaging of Milk and Milk Products

Present status and scope. Role of packaging and package design considerations. Evaluation of packaging materials and package performance. Packaging materials and systems for liquid, concentrated, dried, frozen and fat-rich dairy products. Special packaging methods such as vacuum, shrink and aseptic packaging. Modified atmosphere packaging. Package standards, regulations and quality control.

Unit 9 : Cleaning and Sanitation

Properties of important dairy detergents and sanitizers. Choice of detergents and sanitizers guiding principles and limiting factors. Basic principles in formulating the cleaning and sanitizing procedures for dairy equipments. Automation in cleaning and sanitization processes including CIP. Quality of water in detergency.

Unit 10 : Advances in Dairy Technology

Radiation preservation of milk and milk products. Theory and application of microwave heating, ohmic heating and high pressure processing. Immobilization of enzymes and their use in dairy and food industry. Theory of ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, nanofiltration and microfiltration techniques. Selection and types of membranes. Application of membrane technology in dairy and food industry. Fouling, cleaning and sanitization of membranes. Emulsions, foams and gels. Electrodialysis and ion exchange in dairy applications. Processing of cereals and legumes for incorporation in milk and milk products. Use of milk solids in bakery and confectionery products. Application of biotechnology in dairy industry.

Unit 11 : Legal and Quality Aspects for Milk and Milk Products

Safety aspects of milk with reference to mycotoxins, antibiotics, pesticides, weedicides and heavy metals. PFA, BIS and Agmark standards for milk and milk products. Quality systems such as HACCP, ISO certification, etc.

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