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Master's degree For IVRI / SAUs / CAUs, etc. Veterinary Sciences with specialization in Animal Biotechnology.

For NDRI only - MVSc./ M.Sc./ M.Tech in Biotechnology or Animal / Veterinary Biotechnology or Animal / Veterinary Biochemistry or Animal / Veterinary Physiology or Animal Genetics and Breeding or Molecular Biology / Genetic Engineering / Bioinformatics/ Genetics.

Exam Pattern

The examination consisting of 120 questions to be attempted in a duration of 2 hrs (120 minutes) will have three parts:
Part A-20 items pertaining to general knowledge in agriculture and allied sciences / reasoning ability + Part B-50 items from core group containing the specialized subject for Ph.D. + Part C-50 items from the specialized subject for Ph.D.



Unit 1: Biomolecules and their Interaction Relevant to Biology

Structure and function of biomolecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and vitamins). Stabilizing interactions (Van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interaction, etc.). Basics of biophysical chemistry (pH, buffer, reaction kinetics, thermodynamics, colligative properties). Principles of catalysis, enzymes and enzyme kinetics, enzyme regulation, mechanism of enzyme catalysis, isozymes. Conformation of proteins (Ramachandran plot, secondary structure, domains, motif and folds). Types of nucleic acids (helix A, B, Z DNA), (types of coding and noncoding RNA). Stability of proteins and nucleic acids. Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleotides.

Unit 2: Cell Biology

Membrane structure and function (Structure of model membrane, lipid bilayer and membrane protein diffusion, osmosis, ion channels, active transport, membrane pumps, mechanism of sorting and regulation of intracellular transport, electrical properties of membranes). Structural organization and function of intracellular organelles (Cell wall, nucleus, mitochondria, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisomes, plastids, vacuoles, chloroplast, structure & function of cytoskeleton and its role in motility). Organization of genes and chromosomes in Bacteria and eukaryotes (Operon concept in bacteria, unique and repetitive DNA, interrupted genes, gene families, structure of chromatin and chromosomes, heterochromatin, euchromatin, mobile genetic elements). Cell division and cell cycle (Mitosis and meiosis, their regulation, steps in cell cycle, regulation and control of cell cycle). Specialised cell and tissue culture in animal science: Sperm cell Oocyte. In-vitro fertilization. Transgenesis. Stem cell: Embryonic and somatic stem cell. Microbial Physiology (Growth yield and characteristics, strategies of cell division, stress response).

Unit 3: Fundamental Cellular Processes

DNA replication, repair and recombination (Unit of replication, enzymes involved, replication origin and replication fork, fidelity of replication, extrachromosomal replicons, DNA damage and repair mechanisms, homologous and site-specific and cre lox recombination). RNA synthesis and processing (transcription factors and machinery, formation of initiation complex, transcription activator and repressor, RNA polymerases, capping, elongation, and termination, RNA processing, RNA editing, splicing, and polyadenylation, structure and function of different types of RNA, RNA transport). Protein synthesis and processing (Ribosome, formation of initiation complex, initiation factors and their regulation, elongation and elongation factors, termination, genetic code, aminoacylation of tRNA, tRNA-identity, aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, and translational proof-reading, translational inhibitors, Post- translational modification of proteins). Control of gene expression at transcription and translation level (regulating the expression of phages, viruses, prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes, role of chromatin in gene expression and gene silencing). Epigenetic regulation of gene expression.

Unit 4: Cell Communication and Cell Signalling

Cell signaling Hormones and their receptors, cell surface receptor, signaling through G-protein coupled receptors, signal transduction pathways, second messengers, regulation of signaling pathways, bacterial and plant twocomponent systems, light signaling in plants, bacterial chemotaxis and quorum sensing. Cellular communication Regulation of hematopoiesis, general principles of cell communication, cell adhesion and roles of different adhesion molecules, gap junctions, extracellular matrix, integrins, neurotransmission and its regulation. Cancer Genetic rearrangements in progenitor cells, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, cancer and the cell cycle, virus-induced cancer, metastasis, interaction of cancer cells with normal cells, apoptosis, therapeutic interventions of uncontrolled cell growth. Cellular and viral oncogenes. Innate and adaptive immune system Cells and molecules involved in innate and adaptive immunity, antigens, antigenicity and immunogenicity. B and T cell epitopes, structure and function of antibody molecules. generation of antibody diversity, monoclonal antibodies, antibody engineering, antigen-antibody interactions, MHC molecules, antigen processing and presentation, activation and differentiation of B and T cells, B and T cell receptors, humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, primary and secondary immune modulation, the complement system, Toll-like receptors, cell-mediated effector functions, inflammation.

Unit 5: Molecular Biology and Recombinant DNA methods

Basics of DNA, RNA and Proteins: Isolation and purification of RNA , DNA (genomic and plasmid) and proteins, different separation methods. Analysis of RNA, DNA and proteins by one and two dimensional gel electrophoresis, Isoelectric focusing gels. Gene manipulation: Molecular cloning of DNA or RNA fragments in bacterial and eukaryotic systems. Expression of recombinant proteins using bacterial, animal and plant vectors. Isolation of specific nucleic acid sequences. Generation of genomic and cDNA libraries in plasmid, phage, cosmid, BAC and YAC vectors. In vitro mutagenesis and deletion techniques, gene knock out in bacterial and eukaryotic organisms. Sequencing: Protein sequencing methods, detection of post translation modification of proteins. DNA sequencing methods, strategies for genome sequencing and Next Generation DNA sequencing principles. Gene expression: Methods for analysis of gene expression at RNA and protein level, large scale expression, such as micro array based techniques. DNA fingerprinting, RFLP, RAPD and AFLP techniques. Recombinant vaccine and vaccine based on pathogen genome.

Unit 6: Animal Tissue Culture and Hybridoma Technology

Development of cell (tissue) and organ culture techniques. Nutrient requirements of mammalian cells. Media for culturing cells. Growth supplements. Primary cultures. Established cell lines. Stationary, Roller and Suspension culture techniques. Large-scale production of cells using bioreactors, microcarriers and perfusion techniques. Characterisation and maintenance of cells, karyotyping, cryopreservation and revival. Detection of contaminants in cell cultures. Isolation and culture of lymphocytes. Application of cell and organ cultures. Micromanipulation of cells. Cell cloning. Cell fusion and Somatic cell hybrids. Principles and methods of hybridoma technology. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies.

Unit 7: Embryo Transfer and Related Techniques

Induction of superovulation. Embryo collection and evaluation. Embryo splitting. Embryo sexing. Embryo transfer. Advantages of embryo transfer in farm animals. In vitro fertilization. Embryo cloning. Nuclear transplantation. Production of transgenic animals and gene farming. Identification and transfer of gene influencing production and disease resistance.

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