Master's degree in Floriculture & Landscaping / Floriculture & Landscape Architecture / Agriculture or Horticulture with specialization in Floriculture and Landscape Architecture.
The examination consisting of 120 questions to be attempted in a duration of 2 hrs (120 minutes) will have three parts:
Part A-20 items pertaining to general knowledge in agriculture and allied sciences / reasoning ability + Part B-50 items from core group containing the specialized subject for Ph.D. + Part C-50 items from the specialized subject for Ph.D.
14 FLORICULTURE & LANDSCAPING / FLORICULTURE & LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE
Unit 1: Breeding
Principles - Evolution of varieties, origin, distribution, genetic resources, genetic divergence. Patents and Plant Variety Protection in India; Genetic inheritance of flower colour, doubleness, flower size, fragrance, post-harvest life; Breeding methods suitable for sexually and asexually propagated flower crops and ornamental plants - introduction, selection, domestication, polyploidy and mutation breeding for varietal development, Role of heterosis, Production of hybrids, Male sterility, incompatibility problems, seed production of flower crops; Breeding constrains and achievements made in commercial flowers - rose, jasmine, chrysanthemum, marigold, tuberose, crossandra, carnation, dahlia, gerbera, gladioli, orchids, anthurium, aster, heliconia, liliums, Breeding constrains and achievements made in ornamental plants - petunia, hibiscus, bougainvillea, Flowering annuals (zinnia, cosmos, dianthus, snap dragon, pansy) and ornamental foliages - Introduction and selection of plants for waterscaping and xeriscaping.
Unit 2: Production Technology of Cut Flowers
Scope of cut flowers in global trade, Global Scenario of cut flower production, Varietal wealth and diversity, area under cut flowers and production problems in India - Patent rights, nursery management, media for nursery, special nursery practices; Growing environment, open cultivation, protected cultivation, soil requirements, artificial growing media, soil decontamination techniques, planting methods, influence of environmental parameters, light, temperature, moisture, humidity and CO2 on growth and flowering; Flower production - water and nutrient management, rationing, fertigation, weed management, training and pruning, disbudding, special horticultural practices, use of growth regulators, physiological disorders and remedies, IPM and IDM, production for exhibition purposes; Flower forcing and year round flowering through physiological interventions, chemical regulation, environmental manipulation; Cut flower standards and grades, harvest indices, harvesting techniques, post-harvest handling, Pre-cooling, pulsing, packing, Storage and transportation, marketing, export potential, institutional support, Agrl. Export Zones; Crops: Cut rose, cut chrysanthemum, carnation, gerbera, gladioli, tuberose, orchids, anthurium, aster, lilies, bird of paradise, heliconia, alstroemeria, alpinia, ornamental ginger, bromeliads, dahlia, gypsophilla, limonium, statice, stock, cut foliage.
Unit 3: Production Technology for Loose Flowers
Scope of loose flower trade, Significance in the domestic /export markets, Varietal wealth and diversity, propagation, sexual and asexual propagation methods, propagation in mist chambers, nursery management, pro-tray nursery under shadenets, transplanting techniques; Soil and climate requirements, field preparation, systems of planting, precision farming techniques; Water and nutrient management, weed management, training and pruning, pinching and disbudding, special horticultural practices, use of growth regulators, physiological disorders and remedies, IPM and IDM; Flower forcing and year round flowering production for special occasions through physiological interventions, chemical regulation; Harvest indices, harvesting techniques, post-harvest handling and grading, packing and storage, value addition, concrete and essential oil extraction, transportation and marketing, export potential, institutional support, Agrl. Export Zones; Crops - Jasmine, scented rose, chrysanthemum, marigold, tuberose, crossandra, nerium, hibiscus, celosia, gomphrena, non-traditional flowers (barleria, Nyctanthes, Tabernaemontana, ixora, lotus, pandanus, etc.
Unit 4: Landscaping
Landscape designs, Styles of garden, formal, informal and free style gardens, types of gardens, English, Mughal, Japanese, Persian, Spanish, Italian, Vanas, Buddha garden; Urban landscaping, Landscaping for specific situations, institutions, industries, residents, hospitals, roadsides, traffic islands, damsites, IT parks, corporates; Garden plant components, arboretum, shrubbery, fernery, palmatum, arches and pergolas, edges and hedges, climbers and creepers, cacti and succulents, herbs, annuals, flower borders and beds, ground covers, carpet beds, bamboo groves; Production technology for selected ornamental plants; Lawns, Establishment and maintenance, special types of gardens, vertical garden, roof garden, bog garden, sunken garden, rock garden, clock garden, colour wheels, temple garden, sacred groves; Bio-aesthetic planning, eco-tourism, theme parks, indoor gardening, therapeutic gardening, non-plant components, water scaping, xeriscaping, hardscaping.
Unit 5: Protected Floriculture
Prospects of protected floriculture in India; Types of protected structures - Greenhouses, polyhouses, shade houses, rain shelters etc., Designing and erection of protected structures; Low cost/Medium cost/High cost structures - economics of cultivation; Location specific designs; Structural components; Suitable flower crops for protected cultivation; Environment control - management and manipulation of temperature, light, humidity, air and CO2; Heating and cooling systems, ventilation, naturally ventilated greenhouses, fan and pad cooled greenhouses, light regulation; Containers and substrates, soil decontamination, layout of drip and fertigation system, water and nutrient management, weed management, physiological disorders, IPM and IDM; Crop regulation by chemical methods and special horticultural practices (pinching, disbudding, deshooting, deblossoming, etc.), Staking and netting, Photoperiod regulation; Harvest indices, harvesting techniques, post-harvest handling techniques, Pre-cooling, sorting, grading, packing, storage, quality standards.
Unit 6: Value Addition
Prospects of value addition, National and global scenario, production and exports, Women empowerment through value added products making, supply chain management; Types of value added products, value addition in loose flowers, garlands, veni, floats, floral decorations, value addition in cut flowers, flower arrangement styles, ikebana, moribana, free style, bouquets, button-holes, flower baskets, corsages, floral wreaths, garlands, etc.; Selection of containers and accessories for floral products and decorations; Dry flowers - Identification and selection of flowers and plant parts; Raw material procurement, preservation and storage; Techniques in dry flower making - Drying, bleaching, dyeing, embedding, pressing; Accessories; Designing and arrangement - dry flower baskets, bouquets, pot-pourri, wall hangings, button holes, greeting cards, wreaths; Packing and storage; Concrete and essential oils; Selection of species and varieties (including non-conventional species), extraction methods, Plant pigments: Significance of natural pigments, Applications; Selection of species and varieties, Types of pigments - carotenoids, anthocyanin, chlorophyll, betalains; Extraction methods; Packing and storage.
Unit 7: Turfing and Turf Management
Prospects of landscape industry, History of landscape gardening, site selection, basic requirements, site evaluation, concepts of physical, chemical and biological properties of soil pertaining to turf grass establishment; Turf grasses - Types, species, varieties, hybrids; Selection of grasses for different locations; Grouping according to climatic requirement - Adaptation; Turfing for roof gardens; Preparatory operations; Growing media used for turf grasses - Turf establishment methods, seeding, sprigging/dibbling, plugging, sodding/turfing, turf plastering, hydro-seeding, astro-turfing; Turf management - Irrigation, nutrition, special practices, aerating, rolling, soil top dressing, use of turf growth regulators (TGRs) and micronutrients, Turf mowing - mowing equipments, techniques to minimize wear and compaction, weed control, biotic and abiotic stress management in turfs; Establishment and maintenance of turfs for playgrounds, viz. golf, football, hockey, cricket, tennis, rugby, etc.
Unit 8: Computer Aided Designing (CAD) for Outdoor and Indoorscaping
Exposure to CAD (Computer Aided Designing) - Applications of CAD in landscape garden designing, 2D drawing by AUTOCAD, 3D drawing by ARCHICAD, Creating legends for plant and non-plant components, Basics of Photoshop software in garden designing; 2D drawing methods, AUTOCAD Basics, Coordinate systems in AUTOCAD LOT 2007, Point picking methods, Toolbars and Icons, File handling functions, Modifying tools, Modifying comments,Isometric drawings, Drafting objects; Using patterns in AUTOCAD drawing, Dimension concepts, Hyperlinking, Script making, Using productivity tools,e-transmit file, making sample drawing for outdoor and indoor garden by AUTOCAD 2D Drawing techniques, Drawing web format design, Making layout; 3D drawing methods, ARCHICAD file system, Tools and Infobox, modification tools, structural elements, GDL objects (Grid Dimensional Linking), Creation of garden components through ARCHICAD; ARCHICAD organization tools, Dimensioning and detailing of designs, Attribute settings of components, Visualization tools for landscape preview, data management, plotting and accessories for designing, inserting picture using Photoshop, Making sample drawing for outdoor and indoor gardens.
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